Labour Economics

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Reflections upon neoclassical labour economics

Reflections upon neoclassical labour economics

pressure to adopt methods similar to those of some natural sciences, especially physics. Indeed the classical reductionist programme advocated the reduction of all mathematics- based disciplines to the strictly deterministic approach of mechanics, with its emphasis on techniques of infinitesimal calculus. For various reasons, especially the emergence of relativity and quantum mechanics, this programme eventually withered and was replaced by a new orientation deriving from the work of Hilbert, and the Bourbaki School. Lawson goes on to claim that mathematics came to be conceived of as a discipline or practice, properly concerned with providing a pool of frameworks for possible realities; and concerned with formulating systems comprising sets of axioms and their deductive consequences, with these systems in effect taking on a life of their own. This influenced mathematical economists who: came to regard the task of finding applications as being of secondary importance at best, and not of immediate concern; postponed the day of interpreting their preferred axioms and assumptions; no longer regarded it as necessary, or even relevant, to consider the nature of social reality; and were potentially oblivious to any inconsistency between the ontological presuppositions of adopting a mathematical modelling emphasis and the nature of social reality. In sum, reality ceased to be a major concern for mathematics and, more importantly, mathematical (labour) economics.
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Mental health: the new frontier for labour economics

Mental health: the new frontier for labour economics

Therapy is also recommended because it costs so little: about £750 in 2006 money for a course of 10 sessions. And against that we must set the savings that result when successfully treated people return to work (or keep the job they otherwise would have lost). This is where the labour economics comes in. Unfortunately only a few proper experimental follow-ups have been done with proper control groups (all in the US). They show that among people treated with CBT some 4% of them work over the subse- quent 25 months (who would not otherwise have done so) 14 . So for every 100 people treated at least 4x25 extra months are worked – which makes an average of 1 month per person treated. And what does an extra month’s work save the British taxpayer? £750 in 2006 money. So, the net cost to the Exchequer is zero.
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Essays in labour economics

Essays in labour economics

Microsoft Word THESIS 3 submittedLSE docx 1 The London School of Economics and Political Science Essays in Labour Economics Nitika Bagaria A thesis submitted to the Department of Economics of the Lond[.]

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Essays in Labour Economics and Economics of Education

Essays in Labour Economics and Economics of Education

In summary, the regression results document several differences between the returns to formal education in Germany and Hungary. Namely, (a) whereas the (relative) returns to lower vocational training and high school education are similar in the two countries across the estimated quantiles, (b) the (relative) return to tertiary education is substantially higher in Hungary than in Germany, especially at the top quantiles and (c) the returns to all educational categories are increasing in Hungary across the estimated quantiles, for both genders, as opposed to Germany, where an increase across qunatiles is only observed for males with high school and tertiary degrees. It is important to note that the quantile regression estimates for Germany augment those of Pereira and Martins (2000) who find evidence (using the GSOEP for the period of 1984 – 1995 and years of schooling as a proxy for the formal component of human capital) for a negative relationship between the returns to education and the earnings distribution. The (substantially) higher returns to university education in Hungary can be in part attributed to the fact that, although the composition of the workforce has changed by qualification over the past decade, the demand for qualified labour was still larger than its supply for the year under analysis. Note also that such high relative returns to tertiary degrees, despite the increase in the number of individuals holding tertiary degrees, has also been observed for Portugal (see Machado and Mata (2000)), and is in line with the literature for Hungary (see, for example, Köllő (2002)) and for other Central and Eastern European countries (see, for example, Orazem and Vodopvec (1997)). It is also important to note that (a) the within-dispersion is substantially larger at the university level than at the lower vocational level for both genders in Hungary and for males in Germany and (b) the within- educational-levels earnings dispersion is larger in Hungary than in Germany at all educational levels and is especially high at the tertiary level. Concerning tertiary education, two similarities across the two countries are worth pointing out: (a) females experience lower returns to tertiary education than males at the top of the earnings distribution and (b) the within-educational-levels earnings differentials are smaller at the tertiary level for females than for males.
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Three essays in labour economics

Three essays in labour economics

These statistics and facts show that the unemployment levels in European countries have behaved differently over the years and this can lead to greater divergences in labour market across Europe as a whole. The role played by flows into and out of employment is one of the possible determinants behind the variations in European unemployment rate. Labour markets are in a constant state of flux, and the same stocks and structures at the aggregate level can be linked to diverse patterns of employment transitions. I analyse annual worker flows and the composition of these flows for different worker groups over Europe and across various European countries for over a period of 2006-2016. My analysis answers the following two questions. The first question is whether high unemployment in Europe is a result of high job separation or low job finding. The second question is how important are socio-demographics, immigration status and degree of urbanisation in shaping worker flow patterns in Europe? Using the yearly data from European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS), I compute European worker flows to better understand the differences in unemployment rates over time and most importantly to what extent does the change in aggregate unemployment rates are attributed to each of these flows. I then evaluate the correlation between various socio- demographic characteristics (SDCs), immigration status and degree of urbanisation on employment transitions to demonstrate that in addition to basic economic factors that affect the labour demand, changing demographic characteristics of workforce may also influence on European unemployment.
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Labour Economics 17 (2010) Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Labour Economics. journal homepage:

Labour Economics 17 (2010) Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Labour Economics. journal homepage:

For both parts of the analysis, the dependent variable is derived from the current employment status of an individual at a given point in time. For the estimation of the hazard rates of [r]

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Three essays on macro labour economics

Three essays on macro labour economics

Figure 2.8 shows the results for aggregate capital stock, aggregate labour units, and output. Despite not obvious on the graph, the aggregate capital stock, as in equation (2.22), is slightly higher under the One-Child policy case before 1990. This is due to that agents whose fertility choices are restricted spent less on children and save more. Later the natural transition path takes over because of the larger population. The second panel in 2.8 shows the paths for efficient labour units, calculated as in equation (2.21). After year 1995, the efficient labour units under One-child policy is lower than that under natural transition. In other words, even though the fertility policy increases human capital per child, the aggregate human capital in the economy is lower. Hence the output will eventually fall below the natural transition case, as shown in the third panel. The model’s prediction suggests the negative effect of fertility policy started to show in around year 2000.
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Essays on Applied Historical Labour Economics

Essays on Applied Historical Labour Economics

The three papers in this thesis reflect original microdata collection and linking that im- prove how research can be done with historical labour data. In the first paper Zach Ward and I estimate the e↵ect of age at arrival for immigrant outcomes with a new dataset of Ellis Island arrivals linked to the 1940 U.S. Census. Using within-family variation, we find that arriving at an older age, or having more childhood exposure to the European environment, led to a more negative wage gap relative to the native born. Infant arrivals had a positive wage gap relative to natives, in contrast to a negative gap for teenage arrivals. Therefore, a key determinant of immigrant outcomes during the Age of Mass Migration was the country of residence during critical periods of childhood development. In the second paper Tim Hatton and I examine the votes that led to six British colonies federating to become the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. We analyse support for Federation using a new dataset of district-level voting records that we associate with a new dataset of district-level census characteristics. We find little support for the view that sectoral interests were important. On the other hand, we find greater support for Federation in districts with a greater share of migrants from outside the colony, among those further from the seats of colonial government, and with a greater share of females. Therefore, support for Federation seems to have been associated more with migration, distance, and possibly female su↵rage, than with trade.
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Essays on Labour Economics in Developing Countries and the Role of the Public Sector

Essays on Labour Economics in Developing Countries and the Role of the Public Sector

servants have much easier access to information regarding the state of service delivery in the district and therefore know the conditions in and productivity of the district with greater[r]

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Essays on labour economics

Essays on labour economics

Lastly, it is worth noting that at the time of writing this paper, the Thai govern- ment have just implemented the largest two-step minimum wage hike in 2012 and 2013 which led to a single national minimum wage at 300 baht per day 25 . This movement corresponds to a two-step reduction in corporate income tax from 30% to 23% and from 23% to 20% on January, 1 st 2012 and 2013 respectively 26 . While the government claims that the main objective of corporate tax reduction is to increase businesses’ competitiveness in preparation for the opening of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 (Alexander et al., 2013), it is arguable that tax reduction not only offers businesses (particularly in the formal sector) some compensation for the wage hike but also weaken any resistance of employers in the national tripartite committee (Parker, 2013). Depending on data availability, such a parallel move should provide an oppor- tunity to assess the impacts of minimum wage on employment and wage distribution among different segments of Thai labour market, particularly, any disparities between large and small firms in the covered sectors.
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Three essays in labour economics and the economics of education

Three essays in labour economics and the economics of education

Proponents of school choice argue that the structure of the public educational system – where education is mainly provided by government with substantial monopoly power and largely no competition – leaves educational consumers with limited choice among schools. They further suggest that this may result in a disconnect between school quality and parents’ preferences. There is a growing literature in economics that suggests that expanding school choice could improve educational outcomes by increasing disadvantaged children’s access to high quality schools, and by causing underperforming schools to become more effective or to shrink as families “vote with their feet” (Friedman 1955; Becker 1995; Hoxby 2003; Belfield and Levin 2003). 1 These ideas have gained strong currency in education policy circles, leading to policy innovations such as open enrollment systems, magnet and charter schools, private school vouchers, and expanded public school choice for students in poorly performing schools.
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Essays in Economics of Education: Teacher Labour Markets and Earnings of University Graduates

Essays in Economics of Education: Teacher Labour Markets and Earnings of University Graduates

To answer this question, I use duration analysis to examine the e ff ects of subject qual- ifications, grade divisions, gender and year of graduation from teachers’ college on the probability of securing a permanent teaching position in the Ontario public school system. For this study, an ideal dataset requires information about the subject qualifications of the teachers’ college graduates, as well as timing information related to when they began the job-search process. A common problem with the datasets that are typically used in labour economics (e.g., NLSY, Youth in Transition) is the small number of respondents who are teachers, and the lack of information about which subjects or grade divisions they are qual- ified to teach. For these reasons, the literature commonly uses school administrative data pertaining to individuals who often had already been hired as a teacher, thus making them unsuitable for examining how schools select teachers. To overcome these data limitations, I created a new dataset by web scraping and processing the Ontario public register of individ-
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Essays in the economics of education: graduate specialisation, training and labour market outcomes in the context of disparities in local economic performance in the UK

Essays in the economics of education: graduate specialisation, training and labour market outcomes in the context of disparities in local economic performance in the UK

Introducing these arrays of fixed effects helps to control for some of the selection effects outlined above, but involves three additional identifying assumptions. Firstly, to control for endogenous residential selection, I assume that all individuals from a given TTWA have a common, time-invariant set of unobserved characteristics which influence (1) their location decision and (2) their degree specialism. Specifying an array of domicile TTWA fixed effects allows areas of residence to have a single, intercept-shifting impact on the probability of taking a given subject. TTWAs are defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using census data on commuter flows. They identify geographical areas in which the majority of individuals both reside and work and consequently more closely reflect the geography of the labour market than administrative boundaries. This paper uses the 1998 TTWA edition from the ONS, which is based on commuting data from the 1991 census and identifies 297 TTWAs across England, Wales and Scotland. This allows the analysis to move towards a more causal interpretation of the coefficients on local labour market conditions, to the extent that the unobserved characteristics of individuals from the same area are both common and time-invariant. 10
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As if behavioral economics: Neoclassical economics in disguise?

As if behavioral economics: Neoclassical economics in disguise?

commensurability, with its unrealistic implication of ruling out lexicographic choice rules. If, for example, x represents a positive quantity of ice cream and y represents time spent with one‘s grandmother, then as soon as we write down the utility function U(x, y) and endow it with the standard assumptions that imply commensurability, the unavoidable implication is that there exists a quantity of ice cream that can compensate for the loss of nearly all time with one‘s grandmother. The essential role of social interaction, and time to nurture high quality social interactions as a primary and unsubstitutable source of happiness, is emphasized by Bruni and Porta ‘s (2007) recent volume on the economics of happiness. The disadvantage of ruling out lexicographic choice and inference also rules out their advantage of time and effort savings, in addition to improved out-of-sample prediction in some settings (Czerlinski, Gigerenzer, and Goldstein, 1999; Gigerenzer and Brighton, 2009).
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The New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM):Econometric Analysis of Remittances from Italy to Rural Bangladesh Based on Kinship Relation

The New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM):Econometric Analysis of Remittances from Italy to Rural Bangladesh Based on Kinship Relation

This theory dealt with household and household considers as a single unit in the light of this theory. This single unit of household is use in the analysis for migration. The individual migrant worker considers a subset of the household. The costs and benefits of the migration decision shares with migrant and his whole household. The individual migrant is part of the beneficial contract of the household members (Stark and Bloom, 1985). Household benefits from the income generate from different sources. This phenomenon became a form of coinsurance. This theory does not reduce the importance of individual activity in decision- making for migration. The actions and performances of individuals could be explained in the framework of decision-making unit with his whole household (Stark, 1991). This theory has established a unique relation with analytical approach of migration from an economic perspective and the more sociological view in which human behaviour has been examined. Therefore, remittances among household are integral to migration under the new economics of labour migration (NELM). Following below figure 1.1 show the mechanisms of the theory of New Economics of Labour Migration.
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Research and Teaching Fields Applied Microeconomics, Behavioral Economics, Health Economics, Development Economics, Experimental Economics

Research and Teaching Fields Applied Microeconomics, Behavioral Economics, Health Economics, Development Economics, Experimental Economics

Harvard School of Public Health, Assistant Professor of Global Health Economics, Global Health and Population Department, 2011-current.. Harvard School of Public Health, Postdoctoral [r]

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Collaborative Innovation of Economics Society: Economics, Banking, and Islamic Economics Review

Collaborative Innovation of Economics Society: Economics, Banking, and Islamic Economics Review

Judul : Collaborative Innovation of Economics Society : Economics, Banking, and Islamic Economics Review (BNBB) / penulis, Dra. Any Meilani, M.Si., Yosi Mardoni, S.E, M.Si., M. Fuad Hadzig, M.Si., Dra. Hendrin Hariati Sawitri, M.Si., Luthfi Ibnu Tsani, S.Pd., Rini Efrianti, S.E., M.Si., Prof. Dr. Taufiq Marwa, S.E., M.Si., Prof. Nurlina Tarmizi, M.S., Ph.D., Dr. Sa’adah Yuliana, M.Si., Afrida Putritama, S.E., M.Sc.Ak. ; penelaah materi, Yosi Mardoni S.E, M.Si., M. Fuad Hadzig, M.Si. ; desainer cover/ ilustrator, Nurul Fitriana, S.Ds. ; lay outer, Nono Suwarno. ; Copy Editor, Yosi Mardoni S.E, M.Si., M. Fuad Hadzig, M.Si.
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Reconciling resource economics and ecological economics: the economics of sustainability and resilience

Reconciling resource economics and ecological economics: the economics of sustainability and resilience

Recent interest in ecological economics has led to the recognition that intertemporal re- source allocation problems of natural resource economics and the problem of externalities studies by environmental economics are not the only environmental challenges faced by economics. The physical basis of economic system cannot be ignored by economists if we are to meet these challenges. The research agenda of ecological economics goes some way towards meeting the environmental challenge. Nevertheless, the speed with which ecological economics has grown and the recognition of the inadequacies of existing models has led to a neglect of some aspects of existing models that are related to the research agenda of ecological economics in interesting ways.
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History of Economics or a Selected History of Economics?

History of Economics or a Selected History of Economics?

What I say does not mean that historians should a-critically accept the Nobel history. It is legitimate to offer an informed judgment about someone who should have received the prize but did not, for instance. But more discussion is clearly needed, about its laureates, possible past candidates, and what is perhaps more important, possible future winners. Historians of economics are in a unique potential position to take a lead in this discussion, yet they are seldom part of it at all, often because they are discussing the life of some obscure XIXth century figure. That is their role too, surely, but no less than looking at the present in historical perspective. Should a Nobel Prize really be something unexpected? I am writing here and now, London, July 2007, and I say Paul Romer is going to win the Nobel Prize in economics. Personally, I think it will be well deserved, and I could develop why. But it could easily be the other way around. The point is, when someone wins, how often is there a historical account of that person’s work available – even if included in a broader historical discussion? Should the laureate win first and only after the first draft of his intellectual history be written, if at all? When someone wins it is always the non-historian colleagues that write reviews for journals. I see a world where historians of economics engage a realistically impartial discussion about the merits of different candidates, in particular in historical perspective, but we are certainly very far from that world today. In fact, a historical account about the intellectual history concerning many of the existing laureates since 1969 does not even exist.
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