While much research is underway to develop environmentally friendly building materials, advance energy performance and more efficiently “harvest” on site resources, and while flowing landscape-like forms captivate our collective imagination, architects’ knowledge of principles of ecology and the site- specific ecological impacts of building interventions are limited. What might rigorous engagement with the language of ecology, and more specifically landscapeecology, mean for architects? Might we summon more encompassing portrayals of our activities, descriptions that better enable design professionals to realize projects that minimize damage and perhaps engage in beneficial relationships with surrounding ecosystems? Can a metaphorical appropriation of working concepts in landscapeecology such as “peninsular interdigitation,” patch/matrix “breaks” and “edge/corridor effects” alter how we understand problems of architecture and encourage shifts in methodological tactics? 1 With continued pressure to develop remnant lands within and at the margins of our cities, can we envision a scenario where both architectural enterprise and ecological integrity are achievable?
To achieve this goal, the relationship between landscapeecology and its principles is useful for analyzing the resilience potential of green urban infrastructure. Consequently, this relationship will be scrutinized in this paper in a theoretical manner. Then, the principles and results obtained from this study, will be implemented in Yousef Abad neighborhood in Tehran, Iran. Tehran is a city with many problems due to climate change, such as air pollution, drought, increased temperature and lack of water resources. By conducting field surveys, use of aerial images of area of study and preparation of basic maps and analysis using GIS software, this research provides a proposed model and framework based on its question for using the existing green infrastructure in a city to assess quality of climate resilience based on principles of landscapeecology. In the following, the theoretical framework required for this research is introduced.
Abstract Topographic measures are frequently used in a variety of landscapeecology applications, in their simplest form as elevation, slope, and aspect, but increasingly more complex measures are being employed. We explore terrain metric similarity with changes in scale, both grain and extent, and examine how selecting the best measures is sensitive to changes in application. There are three types of topographic measures: 1) those that relate to orientation for approximating solar input, 2) those that capture variability in terrain configuration, and 3) those that provide metrics about landform features. Many biodiversity hotspots and predators have been found to coincide with areas of complexity, yet most complexity measures cannot differentiate between terrain steepness and uneven and broken terrain. Currently characterizing terrain in landscape-level analyses can be challenging, especially at coarser spatial resolutions but developing methods that improve landscape-level assessments include multivariate approaches and the use of neighborhood statistics. Some measures are sensitive to the spatial grain of calculation, the physiography of the landscape, and the scale of application. We show which measures have the potential to be multi-collinear, and illustrate with a case study how the selection of the best measures can change depending on the question at hand using mountain lion (Puma concolor) occurrence data. The case study showed a combination of infrequently employed metrics, such as view-shed analysis and focal statistics, outperform more commonly employed singular metrics. The use of focal statistics as a measure of topographic complexity shows promise for improving how mountain lions use terrain features.
The studies which have been done in Iran with regard to regeneration patches have been more qualitative and they take the quantitative and spatial properties of patches into account less. Limited research carried out has used more than one or two indices for introduction and the analysis of patches . However, in the present research, several metrics have been taken to quantify the spatial properties of the patches and its interpretation with the landscapeecology ap- proach . In fact, in this study the principles of the landscapeecology, a sub- set of ecology and geography; have been used to distribute and to disperse patches in different geographical directions, to change and to interpret in each direction.
Accordingly, recent scientific questions in landscape ecol- ogy and hydrology focus on the interactions of patterns and processes and their functional implications. Not only catch- ment hydrologists but also landscape ecologists apply mod- elling approaches to tackle this task. Based on their respec- tive theoretical backgrounds (cf. Beven, 2002; Reggiani and Schellekens, 2003; Wiens, 2002b; Levin, 1992), phenomeno- logical models (sensu Bolker, 2006) are used for pattern de- scriptions, whereas mechanistic models are used for process description and pattern generation in an adaptive cycle of inference – i.e. formulating, testing, and rejecting hypothe- ses on the basis of comparisons between observed and sim- ulated patterns (Holling and Allen, 2002). Recent develop- ments in ecological and hydrological modelling emphasize the use of multiple patterns providing insight into different aspects of the studied system for model building and calibra- tion (Grimm et al., 2005; Wiegand et al., 2004; Beven, 2006). The present paper reviews the currently emerging rap- prochement between ecological and hydrological research. It points out some common concepts and future research needs in both areas in terms of pattern, process and function analy- sis and modelling. After presenting some already realised or realisable collaborations, I close with some visions regarding promising concepts from (landscape) ecology that may help advancing one of the most challenging tasks in catchment hydrology: Predictions in ungauged basins (PUB).
Landscapeecology is also founded on the principle that spatial patterns affect ecological processes, which in turn affect spatial patterns. This interplay of spatial pattern and process is in fact the overarching focus of landscapeecology. While it can be argued that “ecology” has always sought to explain the relationship between pattern and process, it is safe to assert that “landscape” ecology has shifted the focus to pattern-process relationships over broad spatial extents and emphasized the role of humans in creating and affecting these relationships. This shift has profound implications for resource managers. Let’s consider a couple of examples: • Habitat fragmentation.–Disruption of habitat connectivity is a major impact of human
For each crop, I produced three final models to explain bee diversity, each of which had one significant explanatory variable (P < 0.05) (Tables 3 & 4). The significant field-level variable varied by crop; the row length of flowering crops was positively correlated with the diversity of bees visiting yellow squash (Figure 4), and wildflower cover was positively correlated with the diversity of bees visiting zucchini (Figure 5). For both crops, the proportion of developed area was negatively correlated with bee diversity (Figure 6). It should be noted, however, that this negative relationship for zucchini was largely driven by two points. Upon removing those points, there was no significant relationship (P > 0.05). The clumpiness of wooded areas was positively correlated with bee diversity for both crops (Figure 7). Figure 8 shows examples of landscapes and their corresponding wooded area clumpiness index values. For both crops, the landscape configuration model was the best fitting model (lowest AICc), followed by landscape composition and field-level models (Tables 3 & 4).
The ranges of tree species in eastern North America have generally shifted northward as the climate has warmed over the past 14,000+ years since the last ice age (Webb 1992). Evidence is mounting that tree species, along with many other organisms, are continuing this northward movement, some at very high rates (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2008). There is also increasing evidence of broad expanses of tree mortality that can be attributed to drier and hotter conditions, often predisposing the forests to insect pest outbreaks (e.g., mountain pine beetle in western North America) (Allen et al. 2010). Habitats for individual species have, and will continue to, shift independently and at different rates, resulting in changing forest community compositions over time (Webb 1992). Such shifts are likely to occur in the coming decades in the eastern United States, so that some species will decline in suitable habitat while others will increase to various degrees. While it is likely that certain habitat will become suitable for some species not currently present, it is less clear how rapidly – or even whether – those species will migrate into the region without active human intervention (Higgins and Harte 2006). Studies on six eastern United States species showed that, at the rate of migration typical of the Holocene period (50 km/century in fully forested condition), less than 15% of the newly suitable habitat has even a remote possibility of being colonized within 100 years (Iverson et al. 2004). The relatively rapid nature of the projected climate shifts, along with the limits on the rate at which trees can migrate over a landscape, especially in the current and future fragmented state of forests, constrain the rate of ‘natural’ migration.
Numerous studies have modeled habitat suitability for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus at varying scales using climatic and land cover inputs. Global suitability maps that include Florida show the entire state is potentially suitable habitat for one or both species (Benedict et al. 2007, Medley 2010, Kraemer et al. 2015, Johnson et al. 2017, Ding et al. 2018, Shabani et al. 2018). Johnson et al. (2017) and Medley (2010) used exclusively climatic predictors, some of which contributed to models here (annual mean temperature, precipitation of driest month, precipitation seasonality). Kraemer et al. (2015) and Benedict et al. (2007) used combinations of climate and land cover, and Ding et al. (2018) used the most comprehensive set of predictors, including climate, land cover, population density, nighttime light, and urban accessibility. Modeling suitability on a global scale stretches values across the greatest possible extremes, from extremely unsuitable habitat within the Arctic Circle to extremely suitable habitat in urban Brazil, likely smoothing resolving power for mildly unsuitable areas like central Florida. Broad- scale models also fail to account for competitive displacement, and do not distinguish between subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti and Ae. aegypti formosus, which exhibit different landscape preferences (Brown et al. 2011).
Landscape features documented to increase the perceived scenic beauty include water features  and broad-leaved forests . The distance to the nearest water course (Lantmäteriet database), pro- portion of waterbodies in the buffer (CORINE), and the proportion of forest and of broad-leaved forest (CORINE) were used. In Finland, a preference for forest stands with a higher mean tree height and a skewed distribution of height has been highlighted . The mean tree height in the buffer was calculated and standard deviation of tree height was used as a proxy for the skewness (SLU Skogskarta). In Sweden, the touristic value of a forest increases with the number of clear-cuts and decreases with the size of the clear-cuts within a given area . The proportion of clear-cuts in the forest (SLU Skogskarta) in the buffer was thus added to the exposure dataset.
exotic softwood plantations — the plantation estate is set to treble in the next two decades (Department of Primary Industries and Energy, 1997). While many fragmented plant and animal communities are still responding to widespread clearing instigated many dec- ades ago, a second phase of landscape change is now occurring. Many taxa in these areas will be subject to two major landscape changes in less than 200 years. Such large-scale changes in such a short period make it important to track their eﬀects on biodiversity. For example, if many species have adapted to woodland fragments surrounded by a predominantly grazed land- scape, some may be maladapted to a subsequent land- scape transformation to a predominantly radiata pine landscape. If this is the case, and species become iso- lated within woodland remnants surrounded by ‘‘hos- tile’’ exotic radiata pine forest, then theoretical extinction models predict that species loss from frag- ments would be very rapid at the onset of isolation and the decline, gradual over time (Macarthur and Wilson, 1967; Wilcox, 1978). However, we did not ﬁnd isolation time eﬀects on species loss in the Tumut Fragmentation Experiment and this raises questions about the validity about such theoretical predictions. Thus, in the Nanan- groe Study we will be in a position to more closely observe transitions. As a prelude to this, forecasts of possible future changes in species occurrence are out- lined below. These predictions are based on the out- comes of the cross-sectional study in the Tumut Fragmentation Experiment 10–30 km to the south of the Nanangroe Study. For example, it will be interesting to determine if the eﬀect of the number of live trees in a eucalypt remnant on common ringtail possum diﬀers as the radiata pine trees develop in the surrounding land- scape (Fig. 4). It is plausible that the woodland remnant size and hollow tree eﬀects will disappear as the sur- rounding landscape eventually provides suitable or par- tially suitable habitat for the common ringtail possum. This predicted change could occur because of the ability of the species to eat radiata pine needles and make nests or dreys from such foliage. Hence, animals will no longer be totally reliant on resources within woodland
Gradient analysis (Ruszczyk et al., 1987) has been broadly applied in urban ecological studies over the past two decades (McDonnell & Hahs, 2008), and much longer in ecology more generally (Whittaker, 1967). It is intuitively compatible with a landscapeecology perspective (Snep, Timmermans & Kwak, 2009), and despite criticisms of the limitations of gradient analysis as an approach for studying urban ecology (Catterall, 2009; Ramalho & Hobbs, 2012a), the potential remains for this approach to be the ‘scaVolding’ upon which deeper investigations are built (McDonnell, Hahs & Pickett, 2012; Ramalho & Hobbs, 2012b). In taking the assemblages identified through gradient analysis (Conole & Kirkpatrick, 2011) as the basis for the present study, I acknowledge the reality that the urban–rural gradient is not simplistically linear (Ramalho & Hobbs, 2012a) or neatly concentric around the ‘down town’ centre (Catterall, 2009). The reality of non-concentricity does not limit the usefulness of gradient analysis in understanding complexity and nuance in urban bird ecology. While acknowledging the utility of the urban exploiter/adapter typology, I seek in this paper to deconstruct the concept of ‘urban tolerance’ for birds, and test the hypothesis which contends that ‘urban tolerance’ is not monolithic, but multifaceted.
density, its connectivity with other populations, its demographic structure and its genetic health—all of which have implications for the dynamics of microorganisms infecting the host species (Ellis, Václavík, & Meentemeyer, 2010; Prentice, Marion, White, Davidson, & Hutchings, 2014; Spielman, Brook, Briscoe, & Frankham, 2004). Further, pathogen dynamics can be inferred directly using pathogen genetic data (Archie, Luikart, & Ezenwa, 2009; DeCandia, Dobson, & vonHoldt, 2018) and incorporated into landscape genetic analy- ses. Understanding specifically how infectious agents respond to the influence of landscape factors on hosts enables us to predict how such agents might spread based on present landscape config- urations, as well as under potential future landscape scenarios (Real & Biek, 2007). This knowledge can subsequently inform manage- ment efforts at the population level (such as vaccination targeted at key regions, culling), as well as broader decisions relating to the management of the landscape itself, which is a key aim of landscape genetics generally (Manel & Holderegger, 2013; Segelbacher et al., 2010). Landscape genetics is being applied by managers at relatively low rates compared to related ecological fields such as landscapeecology, conservation biology and telemetry research (Bowman et al., 2016). Therefore, studies that contribute to the management of disease agents within populations could increase the practical im- pacts of landscape genetics significantly. However, the conceptual underpinnings of pathogen landscape genetics are not fully devel- oped, and the methodologies employed are diverse and potentially confusing for new practitioners.
In regard to the degradation of the natural landscape as temporal landscape change there is increasing concern that it has transformed the spatial patterns which has had an influence on the ecology and biological structure. Fragmentation, homogenization and the shrinking size of the natural areas are consequences from spatiotemporal LULC change particularly for urban development and agriculture expansion. Although many landscape change research studies have been conducted in the past it is difficult to understand of the ecological response due to the limited knowledge and approach (Sun et al., 2012). In fact, past studies of landscapeecology have mostly focused on the impact of urban development and evaluate the static pattern of the consequences related to the natural landscape (landscape structure; composition and configuration). However, the ecological function degradation due the natural landscape structure change is been difficult to translate. The impact is apparent to the ecologist however it is difficult to explain to professionals of other disciplines, for example, designers or land use planners. Thus, in the process of urban development, attention to ecological sensitivity is not always given serious consideration.
In a recent study of tūī habitat use and landscapeecology in the Waikato region (Innes et al. 2005), observations from landowners showed that tūī are winter visitors to urban and rural areas where they feed mainly on nectar of planted non-native species. Most tūī that were banded and radio-tagged in urban areas within the region during winter flew back to the nearest native forest patches (approximately 7–16 km away) to nest in summer (Innes et al. 2005). Similar results were found in Hawke’s Bay in 1984–88 (unpubl. DSIR report) and in Auckland (Bergquist 1985a,b). However, a different pattern of movement was observed for tūī in the Southland region (Powlesland unpubl. data). Tūī nested in woody patches in the urban parks within Invercargill and in winter flew several kilometres to flowering heart-leaved silver gums (Eucalyptus chordata) on farmland to feed on nectar. Exotic vegetation associated with urban parks and shelterbelts in farmland, therefore, provide Southland tūī with two important resources, nesting habitat and a winter food source. Regional variation in kererū movement was also detected. Some tagged kererū in Taranaki were relatively sedentary in urban and suburban areas, while others moved extensively (35–100 km) between native forest blocks, particularly during autumn and winter (Powlesland et al. 2007). Like tūī, kererū mainly nest in native forest patches but will also nest in exotic trees in parks and plantations.
History of landscape structure (Brabcová, Molnarová, 2010) therefore involves the development of relationships in human society that are also reﬂ ected in the semantic development of terms: the “hide” was originally an amount of land suﬃ cient to support a household, but later in Anglo- Saxon England became a unit used in assessing land for liability to “geld”, or land tax. The Anglo- Saxon word for a “hide” was “hid” (or its synonym hiwisc). Both words are believed to be derived from the same root hiwan, which meant “family”. Bede in his Ecclesiastical History (Bede, 731) describes the extent of a territory by the number of families which it supported, as (for instance), in Latin, terra x familiarum meaning ‘a territory of ten families’. In the Anglo-Saxon version of the same work hid or hiwan is used in place of terra … familiarum. Other documents of the period show the same equivalence and it is clear that the word hide originally signiﬁ ed land suﬃ cient for the support of a peasant and his household (Lennard, 1944). The term “pluzina” (ploughland) is of the same origin and it describes the way of division of land tenure among family members and later among all the inhabitants of a village.
As can be seen in the plethora of data and the huge degree of multidisciplinarity (Figure 1), a full and immediate open access across all disciplines is supposed to be the dream of any eScientist and stakeholder involved in this thought process. At a glance, ecologists should be eScientists par excellence. Most ecological disciplines, in fact, overlap and typically (re)use data from other sciences, which leads to a huge increase in science productivity. Ecology often bene- fits from methods originally developed for mathematics, physics, and chemistry (Cohen 2004; Elser 2006) and