“Most young people don’t want to speak Quechua or pretend they don’t know Quechua”. Throughout my fieldwork in Urubamba, a provincial capital of Cusco, Perú, I repeatedly heard comments like the one above from adults, sharing that youth were not interested in Quechua, the most widely spoken Indigenous language in Peru and the Andean region. High school teachers and principals often reprimanded their students telling them that they were “killing your own culture” by not speaking the language. Mothers and fathers, in turn, reported that youth struggled with speaking in Quechua, using Quechua terms such as “k’uri k’urita” (with difficulty) or “hanku hankuta” (misspoken or crudely spoken) to refer to youth’s mixed abilities, Spanish terms such as “extranjeros” (‘foreigners’), and bilingual Quechua-Spanish terms such as “waqcha pitucos” (a snobbish poor person) to refer to youth’s perceived inability or lack of interest in speaking Quechua. At the same time, I was advised by educators and townspeople that my field site was not the ideal place for me to study issues related to Quechua, as the true speakers live in the high-altitude communities above the valley town of Urubamba. Together, these comments pointed to circulating discourses in my field site and in Peruvian Andean society that the current generation of youth did not care much about Quechua, at the same time, reinforcing ideologies which invisibilized Quechua speakerhood among non-rural residents.
would expect that the new policy is being implemented without too many obstacles. The changes in the policy can be found in Republic of Rwanda’s (2008) Nine Year Basic Education Implementation, where the main objectives were the “Reduction of courses”, “Specialization” and “Double Shifting” (p. 9). With ‘reduction of courses’ the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) literally wanted to reduce the number of courses the pupils had before this new act, giving them more time to focus on less subjects; ‘specialization’ refers to the teachers needing to specialise themselves in either one or two subjects with the purpose of becoming an expert in those subject and as a result being able to pass on more knowledge to the pupils; and, ‘double shifting’ has the purpose of reducing the teacher/pupil ratio by teaching half of a class in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. In Appendix A the curriculum of P1 until P6 prior to the change to English as MOI is presented, whilst in Appendix B the new curriculum of P1 until P6 is shown. It can be seen there that P1–P3 study the following subjects: Kinyarwanda, English, French, Maths, General Paper and Extra Curriculum Activities. Contrary to the younger classes, P4–P6 receive an additional two subjects next to the ones already mentioned: Sciences and Technology and Social Studies. Republic of Rwanda (2008) specifies:
The present day we confidently may say that the process of the languagepolicy in the Republic of Kazakhstan is successful. In Soviet times the languageplanning in Kazakhstan did not exist. There was the official Soviet languagepolicy aimed at reducing the communicative Kazakh-speaking world and steady growth of Kazakh-Russian bilingualism. At present time there is a dramatic expansion of the functioning spheres and the structure modernization of the Kazakh language. Russian-Kazakh bilingualism is being formed. The main reasons of such positive process are political and economical stability in the society, improvement of social and economic situation in the country, the right strategy of the tools in languagepolicy, education and others. According to the research in 1990-91, 32.35% of students were taught in Kazakh while more than 65% of students in Russian. Nowadays the situation is opposite: 62.5 percent of students in Kazakh and 33.5 percent in Russian. Herewith the number of schools with the languages of national groups (Eastern Turkic, Tadjik, Turkish, Ukrainian) have increased. There are six English schools in the country. 46.8 % of the students are taught in Russian, 51.6% in Kazakh which is four times more than in the first year of the country independence. (Altynbekova, 2011)
Statistics before the recent census are outdated and unreliable. The census results will reveal a more accurate picture of language use. Until these figures are released, the current sociolinguistic situation can only be generally described. While Portuguese is reclaiming its place in the language ecology, between 60 per cent and 80 per cent of the population use some form of Tetum (Hajek 2000:409). Heavy borrowing from Indonesian has made Tetum a highly non-standard language that has lost touch with its oral traditions and diverged from its classical forms (Hull 1999). The national languages, or vernaculars, remain in the private, family and rural domains. English and Indonesian, which the NGOs persist in using, compete with the official languages, reducing the incentive to shift to Portuguese and to learn the official orthography of Tetum. Many documents are written in English and jobs are often advertised in Indonesian, which is also frequently cited as a desirable criterion for employment. Television Timor Lorosa’e recently ran a series of programmes teaching English, a gesture that seemed to defy languagepolicy. The Constitution acknowledges the dominance of both languages in the region and their presence in the language ecology. As a way of managing the two languages, Section 159 of the Constitution (RDTL 2002) states that they will have the status of working languages ‘for as long as deemed necessary.’
The second most important theme that emerges from the contributions is the need for the macro- level to articulate clear, coherent and systematic policies on pedagogy. Pedagogy is central to language-in-education and a successful language education largely depends on the ways issues of pedagogy are addressed in policies and implemented in classrooms. The contributions show that in many contexts (e.g. Japan; Indonesia, Vietnam and Ukraine) policy documents elaborated to implement particular pedagogical policy changes may be vague, incoherent and incongruent with other aspects of national education policies. This lack of clarity in policy documents that seek to implement a particular pedagogy is explicit in many contributions such as those by Liddicoat, Glasgow, Hawanti, Goodman and Nguyen. For these contributors the lack of clarity in framing and articulating policies on pedagogy at the macro-level means that implementation agents at the micro- level are required to interpret policies for themselves, but may not have the backgrounded needed to do this successfully. The inevitable consequences of this situation can be tensions among teachers, conflicts in the interpretation of policies and poor implementation of pedagogical activities. Theme 3: Languageplanning to effectively communicate policy pedagogy
The official name of the second major piece of language legislation is ‘Act No. 1, of 7th January 1998 on Linguistic Policy’ (text published in Catalan, Castilian and English by the Generalitat), but it is generally referred to as the ‘Law of Catalan’. It is more comprehensive in scope and more detailed with regard to specific measures than the 1983 Law of Linguistic Normalisation. Its main aim is to continue and strengthen the process of language recovery – by which is meant ensuring the presence of Catalan in the legal system and several social and cultural domains previously not included in normalisation legislation. In addition to its specific provisions the law contains a number of highly idealistic statements on the historical and present-day social situation of Catalan and the significance of Catalan for “the national formation and character of Catalonia, a basic instrument for communication, integration and social cohesion of citizens, regardless of their geographic origin...” (p.7). The reader is then reminded that Catalan should also be seen as a link with other Catalan-speaking areas outside Catalonia (especially Valencia and the Balearics), thus emphasising the significance of the language beyond its national frontiers. There follows a reference to historical and political events which have contributed to language shift, as well as present-day factors such as demographic changes and “the restricted scope that the language has, similar to that of other official languages of Europe” (p.7) where the trend is towards internationalisation. To the outsider this comparison with other European languages seems curious in its self-confidence. Catalans do not compare their language to other regional minority languages but rather to national ones with similar numbers of speakers, it seems.
Carroll moves to consider the use of languages in teaching and learning in an officially bilingual context study and analyses the language policies of the university system of Puerto Rico, where Spanish and English hold co-official status but where the majority of islanders use Spanish as their first language. In Puerto Rico’s higher education system, English has held a privileged role but institutions have de facto policies that allow classes to be taught in English, Spanish or a combination of each. These policies have allowed academics themselves to decide which languages will be used for teaching, for materials and for assessment. While such a policy allows space for each language, as language choice are made locally by individuals rather than an institutional policy, it also creates problems as it can be difficult for students to know which language of instruction will be used for any particular course. Carroll argues that while such a languageplanning approach may be beneficial for students and academics who are bilingual, the lack of clarity around language of instruction can pose problems for students who have yet to develop academic language proficiency in both languages and advocates for more explicitness in the articulation of language policies.
Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear languagepolicy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of languageplanningpolicy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planningpolicy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planningpolicy system.
speakers. 9 Moreover, they bring forward most of the minority language communities’ human capital. Consequently, ‘[l]anguage policy in education is integrally connected to patterns of language maintenance, language shift, and ultimately to group survival’. 10 However, while such legislation does have the potential to contribute strongly to the protection of endangered languages, in order to do so, it needs to take account of the attitudes of those who will be affected by it – because languageplanning is rarely effective without support at the grassroots level. 11 Yet it is unclear whether the planning measures proposed in Québec would indeed have the required attitudinal backing by adolescents in education institutions. The aim of this article is to elucidate this issue.
Human rights are being ensured in every democratic country. The rights of the minority and the human rights are being protected by a lot of legal policies. According to the International Human Right Act (2003), the various acts in Sri Lanka are, The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Fundamental Rights and Racial Discrimination, The United Nations Minorities Declaration (1992), Universal Declaration of Human rights, International Human Rights Act (2003), The Durban Declaration (2001). Basically, every democratic state is supposed to protect the rights and identities of the multicultural and multiracial groups in their state. With respect to the multiracialism, every political organization of a country like federal and unitary has imposed policies. The minorities and their existence based on the ethnic or national, linguistic, religious and cultural identity and states are to be protected (Mickan, 2006). Of the various functions of a country, the critical ones which are regarded generally to justify the policy decisions are education, justice and administration. It is stated by Creed and Koul(1993), that, one of the highly vexing issues that exist in the world’s minority or ethnic conflicts is the problem of language used in a country and by its citizens. Cases of persecution, widespread and systematic atrocities, violence, and genocide perpetrated acts and sexual violence are seen against the minorities. Thus the government of a nation plans the policies for language and the languageplanning in the government level is called as the languagepolicy. The Constitution of Sri Lanka has laid down the basic foundation for the languagepolicy in the country (Haarmann, 2002). But, it is stated by Nahir (2003), that there is a lack of successful exploitation of the language policies in spite of the government having implied a lot of languagepolicy programs and curricular to ensure the national integrity and language rights. Equity for all groups of people using different languages should be aimed and ensured by the languagepolicy of a country.
This linkage of languageplanning with development and modernization – essential for the early emergence of the field – was influenced by modernization theory (e.g., Rostow, 1960); consequently, early research focused primarily on the role of languageplanning in developing societies. Consideration of the question of exactly who the planners were and what impact their views might have on the goals set to solve language problems has been raised only much more recently (by, among others, Baldauf 1982; Baldauf & Kaplan, 2003; Zhao, 2011). By the 1970s, it had become apparent that language problems were not unique only to developing nations, but that they also occurred as “macro” (i.e., state- level) language problems and situations in polities worldwide. Despite the early optimism, in less than twenty years, by the mid 1980s, disillusionment with languageplanning – due to several factors – was widespread (Blommaert, 1996; Williams, 1992). Since the late 1990s, languagepolicy and planning principles have also been increasingly applied in “micro” situations (for example, in relation to language problems in communities, schools, organizations and companies; see, for instance, Canagarajah, 2005; Chua & Baldauf, 2011).
This study has not explored such an institutional aspect of arts organisations in the region. Certainly more research is needed to probe my speculation that the regional arts scene may be defining itself more distinctively than before, where arts and arts-related service organisations may be changing in relation to their structure, culture and output. It may still be a little too early to conduct empirical research to test the theory provided by DiMaggio and Powell in our particular setting. Also it must be noted that the aforementioned theory is exemplified in much larger contexts such as the development of the Federal Government’s support for the arts in the United States through the 1960s and 1970s. An English region may be too small a field to test the theory. Nevertheless, DiMaggio’s (1983) key contention that public policy implementation inadvertently affects inter-organisational relationships within the field—and this is even more significant for relevant individual organisations than the direct influence of policy implementation on them—seems to have a convincing power. As Hall and Quinn (1983) assert, more research needs to be generated which combines public policy analysis with organisational theory.
The data used in this study were obtained from a survey in which 176 semi-structured interviews were conducted. These include 28 interviews with experts of different fields affected or involved in the second home phenomenon including mayors of the municipalities most affected by second home tourism, directors of large real estate agencies, directors of destinations’ tourism boards, representatives of the provincial tourism department and the development department; 80 interviews with local residents and 68 interviews with second home owners. The survey was conducted in February 2009 and the selection of the interviewees was made completely randomly. People from the four municipalities with the highest share of second homes were interviewed while waiting for the bus, relaxing on a bench next to a ski resort, or just while walking around in the centre of the towns. The questionnaires for second home owners included open questions as well as closed questions to increase the possibility of comparison between the groups. Before answering the questionnaires, the research topic was introduced to the interviewees and the reasons for and the aims of the research were explained. The language used was Italian or German, according to the language of the interviewed people. The representativeness of the second home owner sample is given by the fact that the demographic profile corresponds to the percentages given by a quantitative research conducted on second home owners by the provincial office for statistics (ASTAT) in 2006.
of local investment in UHAs (Bonfantini 2012) (For a larger discussion, see Pietrostefani (2019)). Interviewees remarked that some regional governments have worked much more than others with regard to their historical urban environments. Clearly, there is a lack of geographical consistency within the system (MIBAC and UNESCO/ANCSA Interviews). In some regions, the Italian case presents an over estimation of intrinsic values of heritage which results in a very limited usage of its use values. While in others, lack of enforcement as well as residents and developers disrespecting regulation results in illegal amendments and modifications to historic properties and built environments. This trend introduces a theme that will surface further in the Global South section of this paper. The opportunities and constraints linked to planning will not only depend on how regulations are set up, but in what context and to what degree they are implemented. The formality of policy and value are not immediately tied, the difficult reality of political activity and governance intervenes between them. When regulation is not enforced, conservation is in many ways a political decision, tied to the value of actors within cities with regulation enforced or ignored based on the values of these actors (Tunbridge, 1984). As Bevir, Rhodes, and Weller (2003, 193) argue ‘we cannot properly understand a political practice solely by its legal character’, and so we must attempt to consider how it actually plays out. In analysing how conservation planning compares between northern and southern cities, we must attempt to unpick the element of governance that follows regulation in the hierarchy of political will. As suggested by Balbo (2014, 282), we need to be aware in our reflection, of the reassessment of the government versus urban governance; in cases where state governance is lacking, it may have been taken over by independent entities.
there are benefits to the research and broader community in greater understanding of economic evaluation, especially with respect to their conduct alongside implementation trials. There is a clear absence of research evidence of the effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness and budget impact of implementation strategies to improve antenatal care that addresses maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy . The application of economic evaluation to health promoting, implementation interventions is limited  while the application of budget impact assessment at the local health service level is completely novel. This will be the first economic evaluation and budget impact assessment of an implementation strategy in this field . It is expected that the practice change intervention will increase the extent to which women are assessed for alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given evidence-based advice and where appropriate, referral to ongoing support services to avoid the consumption of alcohol for the remainder of their pregnancy. The outcomes of these analyses will then inform the state-wide scale up of this implementation intervention and the next step in the research-translation pathway. The outcomes of this economic evaluation will provide insight into the cost, cost- consequence and cost-effectiveness of implementation strategies designed to improve antenatal care addressing the recognised risk of alcohol consumption to the health and wellbeing of both the mother and child , and inform future health care policy, investment allocation and research.
In the world of labour, job satisfaction plays a very important role in one's career [8,9]. Job satisfaction can be defined as a pleasing or positive emotional state proceeding one's work experience or job evaluation . Satisfaction in many aspects including responsibilities, daily tasks and other duties engender high return to an organization while maintaining a proficient and conducive work environment. In addition, it is shown that job satisfaction direct effecting job performance, commitment and intention to leave . The complexity in maintaining the level of job satisfaction requires heedful planning, effective human resources, clear organizational direction as well as excellent financing. A study was conducted in 2014 and found that 40% of medical personnel in Malaysia were dissatisfied with their job. Job satisfaction is a complex combination of many variables. For instance, an employee satisfaction with work to some extent, but dissatisfied with other aspects such as salary and environment .
The A+LS ™ Language Usage curriculum is a comprehensive, integrated grammar curriculum for grade levels 1-12. This program directs students beginning with early grades in the proper use of the spoken and written English language using the Four-Step Approach in each title series. Language Usage I, II, and III have extensive tutorial and instructional voice support. A sequence of nine titles provides an extensive, e-learning solution ideal for schools that want to use technology to improve their instructional process. The A+LS program consists of an Internet-based instructional management system with student assessment tools built in and educators can test students on national, state, district, or local objectives because any set of standards can be added to the system.
SCRISP is capable of deliberately generat- ing such context-changing navigation instructions. The key idea of our approach is to extend the CRISP planning operators with preconditions and effects that describe the (simulated) physical envi- ronment: A “turn left” action, for example, mod- ifies the IF’s orientation in space and changes the set of visible objects; a “push” operator can then pick up this changed set and restrict the distractors of the forthcoming RE it introduces (i.e. “the but- ton”) to only objects that are visible in the changed context. We also extend CRISP to generate imper- ative rather than declarative sentences.
To date, literature on decision making in planning tasks primarily focused either on systems, management or on individual behaviour separately. On the one hand, decision making literature (behavioural economics and psychology) offers many different explanations to some sub-optimal performance in the real world (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman 1974; Schwenk 1988; Bazerman 2005). This sub-optimal performance is observed in the form of systematic deviations (biases) from normative expectations and theoretical optima. Moreover, trait theory from psychology literature suggests that individual differences play a significant role in explaining group heterogeneity and differences in decision making performance (Weber & Milliman 1997; John et al. 2008; Fleeson & Jayawickreme 2015). On the other hand, decision support literature has looked into improving the way systems support human decision-makers (Leighton 1981; Silver 1991; Burstein & Holsapple 2008; Goodwin et al. 2011). Finally, OM and operations research (OR) literature describes a wide variety of the challenges in business, many of which are caused by both management systems as well as individuals, highlighting behavioural issues in the context of operations and supply chain management (O&SCM) (e.g., Lee et al. 1997; Geary et al. 2006; Bendoly 2006; Carter et al. 2007; Niranjan et al. 2009; Kaufmann et al. 2010).