By reviewing the available literature, it is evident that there is definitely scope to implement a scheme to reduce road lightingstandards during times associated with low traffic volumes. Such schemes have been successfully implemented in other countries with significant financial and environmental benefits. It is clear that reducing standards will definitely increase the number of road crashes and will very likely increase crime rates if lighting is reduced below P category standards. As can be seen in Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 8, Figure 9, and Figure 10, the level of luminance and day/night crash ratio follows the form of exponential decay which means that the law of diminishing return applies as the level of illumination increases.
Illuminance is a measure of the amount of light reaching a surface, more precisely defined as the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. Road lightingstandards for subsidiary roads tend to focus on horizontal surface illuminance, light incident upon the road surface. It may also be desirable to light vertical surfaces, such as faces and building
The healthcare sector of today has very precise requirement with regard to interior lighting. To fulfill these needs, international standards which specify the strict requirement for each health care facility have come up. Hospital lighting is in particular complex because of the sensitive nature of various patients as well as requirement of high performance from its employees. Hence this makes for a challenging task for designing a lighting scheme for a hospital. Hospital lightingstandards have been well documented by IESNA and its Indian counterpart-National Lighting Code 2010. This work aims at providing healthcare lighting of an international standard in a new health care facility namely of a super specialty hospital. Widespread usage of computer simulation as well as International standards like ANSI RP-29-06, have been rigorously followed and implemented. Thus the aim of this work is creating an optimum system where not only the lighting is optimum but the energy consumption of the said facility is also optimized.
challenge for the designers. They have to design these LED lights small as well as make them light and resistant-proof to many things. Design also needs to keep other practical concerns in mind. The LED luminaires may also have slots for the dust to fall off. These also keep the luminaire cool.LED lights designed to be used in hazardous environments must comply with standards and rated as per the stringent requirements needed in such areas. It must be checked to ensure that a hotspot or a spark does not lead to fire. Even if an internal ignition occurs, the fixture and the housing should be such that it is not allowed to escape from the fixture or the housing. In LED lights, the hotspot is generally found at the junction, which is put inside the LED assembly. This aspect has to be checked at the manufacturing stage. The manufacturing and testing standards for these LED luminaires are controlled by NEC, IEC and other standards and testing bodies. The industry feels that there should be one accepted standard for temperature rating of LED luminaires.
33 Value is in product development a function of both the product recipe and the process that produces it (Browning, 2003). Processes provide benefits at some cost. A value measure should account for quality & performance, affordability and timeliness. Measures in the categories quality, time, customer satisfaction, and technology and innovation that are derived from literature (Appendix C) are thus relevant. Ignoring supplier performance aspects, quality in purchasing can according to the literature be measured by production quality, the maximum level of defects allowable in a product or process, and the customer returns or field failure rate. Time-to-market targets and achievement of introduction and ramp-up schedules is most important in the ‘time’ category. Customer responsiveness, on-time delivery and backorder/stock-out figures are less important because these criteria are difficult to be influenced by product design and value management. The same hold for the customer satisfaction. Although measuring satisfaction as an end goal might be helpful to make valuable decisions, it is difficult to bring this back to a single product and to the contribution of the purchasing function. The measurements on technology and innovation are partly related to the use of industry standards and achieving standardisation. Using industry standards is important because this will increase the value of a product because the market might require the use of industry standards. Standardisation can help to reduce cost of complexity and increase economies of scale. Having these performance measures in place can encourage a purchaser suggesting to use a certain standard in a product. The number of agreements with key suppliers for critical (new) technologies can be a method to improve the value, but it is not directly related to value management or a value mindset in way of working.
Based on the results of the above research that lighting lamps can increase safety in one's condition. Street lights are able to provide a sense of security to a person as big as 10.40 ± 1.16 of the respondents 30 people. A person's sense of security will cause people to stay longer in that place. It is expected that all places to gather should be installed street lights. Instalation of street lamps must comply with predetermined standards.
Use of Electricity is essential for day to day life. Growth of any society or nation is measured in terms of electricity consumed. Out of many uses,Lighting is the most common use of electricity. In other terminology the lighting is called as “Illumination”. For various categories of works different intensity of light is required .The required intensity for each type of categories of use/work are setup by every national and commonly accepted international standards for guidelines and accordingly the luminaries are supposed to be fitted to cater that much intensity of light .The art and science of deciding various type of luminaries for required job is known as Illumination Design.
Roadway Lighting (Austroads 2004), AS/NZS 1158 Series (Australian Standards 2005) and a document “Road Lighting as an Accident Counter-Measure in 1989” (Fisher 1989) all discuss research involving sixty two lighting and crash studies from 15 countries that was undertaken by The International Commission on Illumination (CIE).This study found that in 95% of cases that lighting was beneficial and that a reduction in road crashes of between 13% and 75% was obtained where road lighting was introduced. This equated to an average crash saving of 30%. Road Lighting in New Zealand ( Jackett 1994) details a study that was carried out by the New Zealand Land Transport Safety Authority to prove the relevance of the CIE study to New Zealand projects. This was due to their uncertainty as to what constituted an “upgrading” and the diversity of international standards of lighting. The New Zealand study covered 1200 sites that were predetermined as having a high occurrence of crashes. Lighting upgrades were employed as a crash control measure together with civil upgrades. Jackett (1994) reports that the New Zealand study showed a 42% overall crash saving where lighting was installed. This confirms the 30% saving reported by CIE as an acceptable measure of crash savings that can be expected from the introduction of good road lighting.
The findings of Michael S. Mott study (2012), entitled “Illuminating the Effects of Dynamic Lighting on Student Learning “indicated that the light is as essential element for human; as a result, the authors have presented that rate of oral reading fluency (ORF) and words read correctly per minute (WCPM) of each students was according to authority standards. The results between the performance of the experimental group and control group providing evidence which those desirable and sufficient illuminances in the classroom as an instructional technology improved by ORF and WCPM at a rate greater than the improvement experienced. Indeed, this study reported desirable light in classroom environments can lead to student’s achievement, motivation, concentration and cognition. Also these results have been confirmed by Schulte-Markwort (2011) by ORF index measurement, when students had been tested. Carol M. Werner (2012) suggested “students did not turn off the lights because they did not think of it and were not sure they were allowed to”.
Interestingly, some buildings’ retrofit projects may face a combination of the aforementioned challenges. For example, the Dirksen Federal Building completed in 1964 and 330 North Wabash completed in 1973, were recently undergone green retrofit projects that faced many challenges including “asbestos remediation, historic preservation standards, maintenance of high security levels and, all-glass transparent facades, most of all, conducting work in and around the occupants of an operating courthouse: energy conservation is one priority among many”. Specifically, the lighting retrofit possibilities were limited because of the desire to preserve the existing historic pattern of the plaster ceiling that contains the luminaries. This issue prevented the project team from increasing lighting efficiency by redistributing light fixture and opted to increase the output of light fixtures instead. This choice has resulted in incurring higher wattages per square foot than the norm today; though, this solution still provided improvement of the existing condition.
Certainly, researchers have advocated the use of lighting- based interventions to enhance worker well-being and performance. For example, Kuller et al. (2006) noted that light and colour should be studied as parts of the more complex system that makes up a healthy building. They also stress the importance of identifying and accommodating individual, task and company-related differences when designing and managing lighting solutions. Following up on this, leading-edge industrial (‘The Effect of Lighting on Well-being’ by Royal Philips Electronics) and government (‘Lighting at Work’ by the Health and Safety Executive) reports suggest that, at a strategic level, developing and maintaining lighting solutions requires four steps: (1) Planning: which involves identifying and setting priorities so that the lighting design is suitable and safe for the type of work performed, (2) Organisation: which means ensuring that all staff are aware of their responsibility to report any issues relevant to lighting, and the systematic provision of resources (e.g., staff training in lighting solutions), (3) Control: which involves setting standards and maintaining them, and (4) Monitoring: which involves checking that planning, organisation and control standards have been
concept utilizes DMPR(Disjoint Multi Path Based Routing in ZigBee sensor networks. The system uses Photo Sensors and Occupancy sensors to control and monitor the lights within the office room and aims at saving energy. The paper on Internet of Things for smart cities by Andrea zanella, Lorenzo Vangelista and their co-workers performs the work on smart city concept and services which includes Structural health of buildings, Waste Management, air quality, Noise Monitoring, Traffic Congestion, City Energy consumption and Smart Lighting .In the optimization of street lighting efficiency the street light intensity is controlled based on the weather conditions and the presence of people.
The questionnaire consists of three parts. In the first parts some questions are asked about lighting products and different lighting brands. In the second part you are asked to give your opinion on a number of statements considering Philips. Finally, in the third part some final questions are asked. At the beginning of each part some instructions are given: please read these carefully before filling in the answers. The questionnaire will take about 25 to 30 minutes to fill in.
The energy consumption at the residential level either in building or houses is the major part of India. As per the report of Central electricity authority (CEA), the energy consumed by residential sector is 22.97% of total electrical energy generated in India, which is about three times greater than that of commercial buildings . One of the reasons for above is due to the buildup area for residential sector is seven times greater than commercial building sector. Due to modernization, improved standard of living & improved economic conditions of peoples in India, the residential sector is growing & consumption of electricity is increasing with the increase in the use of modern home appliances, air- conditioners & other electrical equipment. So the objective of this study is to catch this great opportunity to reduce the electrical consumption of residential sector by investigating electrical consumption of lighting systems & various home appliances.
Based on the paper title, “AUTOMATIC LIGHTING CONTROLLER”, controls the amount of lighting in a room by constantly monitoring the level of luminance in a room. Lights are then controlled such that required illumination is available in the room. It can be applied effectively in commercial buildings, homes, colleges etc.
Nowadays, this product, music and light doesn’t use widely. It is only used when there is a celebration like Christmas Day, launch ceremony, concert light or any other function. So, the main objective of this project is to produce music synchronized lighting to be use at Malacca building. This is because; Malacca is the one of historical city in Malaysia which is having the most tourist visits. Meanwhile, this system can make the whole building in Malacca much more interesting, and at the same time the environment will be more cheerful.
The proposed system is based on the Energy Consumption Management System ( ECMS ) of PowerManSwitch ( PMS ) Engineering ( Nilsson, 2003 ) . It is a system implemented as a set of de- vices that can be used in street lighting installa- tions to control the lamps. The punctual control devices are driven using Power Line Communi- cation ( Tsiamitros, 2003 ) . The system was real- ized within the frame of a 5th Framework Euro- pean Research Project ( PMS ) . During the devel- opment of this project traditional software and protocols were implemented to control on / off switching and regulate such devices. However, since traditional software solutions do not of- fer characteristics like collaboration among the parts of the lighting system in order to achieve the optimal solution and also autonomy for each part to act independently, we decided to attempt a new approach for the software by applying multi-agent technologies to this domain. In this paper, we present the architectural ap- proach along with the results achieved from the execution of a system’s prototype developed with JADE ( JADE ) , where agents compete in order to minimize power consumption. JADE was chosen as the agent framework, since it is one of the available frameworks that can be deployed on small devices and facilitates the development of agent applications ( Krzysztof, 2005 ) .
Public lighting accounts for €56 million in public expenditure annually and is a major item in council budgets. A large proportion of the 480,000 units in the lighting stock are in need of replacement with more efficient luminaires in order to meet energy and carbon reduction targets. The following document is predicated on the assumption that LED lighting will be increasingly used for public lighting and aims to mitigate the negative effects within the constraints of the drive for energy efficiency and lower carbon production. It is important to point out, however, that in line with the recommendations of bodies such as the Institution of Lighting Professionals the greatest savings will be made by dimming lights or removing unnecessary lighting. This document outlines aspects of public lighting in relation to the installation of LED lighting and the desirability to reduce both light levels and the blue spectral component. LED technology is known to have positive outcomes in terms of economic and environmental aspects (including carbon dioxide reduction) and the replacement of older lanterns with modern full cut-off designs which reduce or eliminate light emission above or near the horizontal provide further gains. We suggest that besides the introduction of this technology and also “trimming and dimming” of lighting levels, the colour of the spectrum produced by LED installations and its relationship to the behaviour of human vision at low light levels should be considered when specifying and installing exterior lighting. Consideration of lighting colour and its impact can lead to a reduction in the level of lighting, its impact on the environment, and also potentially reduce human health effects such as sleep disruption.