Currently there are 37 PEs operating in Nepal including banks and insurance company, telecommunication, electricity, water supply and manufacturingsectors etc. The contribution of public enterprises to GDP of Nepal has been Rs.270 billions. 37 PEs formed under five different acts operate under full and partial ownership of the Government of Nepal, they are, Company Act, Corporation Act, Special Act related to enterprises, Communication Corporation Act and Banks and Financial Institutions Act (Economic Survey, 2015).
The objective of this Thesis was to study the determinants and patterns of trade and specialisation in the manufacturingsectors of industrialised countries. Since many of these countries do not differ much in their technologies, relative factor endowments and preferences, I assume that countries are in fact the same in all of these respects in both of the theoretical Chapters. In Chapter 1 , 1 assume that the countries only differ in size and analyse the relationship between the size of the country and the characteristics of the manufacturing goods it produces and trades. In Chapter 2, there are no differences between the two countries. I suppose that the agglomeration of two vertically linked industries in one location is given by history and then analyse what happens to the location of these industries when a new technology, incompatible with the old, becomes available. Chapter 3 is an empirical study of specialisation patterns in the manufacturing sector of EU countries. The purpose of this concluding Chapter is to review what we have learnt and to suggest directions for future research.
However, the machinery, electrical and optical equipment, and transport equipment industries have high ratios because each of these industries primarily assembles intermediate products. Assembly procedures primarily require electricity but not fossil fuels, which have high carbon intensity. Additionally, the required energy input, material, labor, and capital equipment differ among industries. These differences among manufacturingsectors must be considered when analyzing strategies to reduce GHG emissions.
The aim of this study is to analyze the modeling and forecasting the GHG emission of energy consumption in manufacturingsectors. The scope of the study is to analyse energy consumption and forecasting GHG emission of energy consumption for the next 10 years (2016-2025) and 25 years (2016-2040) by using ARIMAX model from the Input-output table of Thailand. The result shows that iron and steel has the high- est value of energy consumption and followed by cement, fluorite, air transport, road freight transport, hotels and places of loading, coal and lignite, petrochemical prod- ucts, other manufacturing, road passenger transport, respectively. The prediction re- sults show that these models are effective in forecasting by measured by using RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results forecast of each model is as follows: 1) Model 1 (2,1,1) shows that GHG emission will be increasing steadily and increasing at 25.17% by the year 2025 in comparison to 2016. 2) Model 2 (2,1,2) shows that GHG emission will be rising steadily and increasing at 41.51% by the year 2040 in comparison to 2016. Keywords: manufacturingsectors; environment cost; energy consumption; GHG emission; multiplier
Based on the findings of the empirical study, it can be seen that full and matured RL implementation in the Chinese manufacturing sector still has a long way to go. The general results show that the key management barriers to RL implementation in Chinese manufacturing sector are the low commitment to RL practices and the lack of RL experts at the management level in the manufacturing firms investigated. These management barriers are common to whole sector surveyed, with a low management commitment being the most influential barrier for the whole industry (Table 7). The findings of a lack of personnel resources (RL experts and trained personnel) and management’s low commitment to RL practices are in line with previous studies (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005; Lau and Wang, 2009). Having trained personnel and experts are prime requirements for achieving success in any organization. In addition to knowledge and expertise, top management commitment has been reported as the dominant driver of corporate endeavors (Mintzber, 1973). Furthermore, low commitment and the lack of expert at management level may also be positively correlated. A high commitment and/or presence of RL expert at management level should lead to the full realization of the importance of RL to business operation and its potential for firms’ future competiveness. It should also help reduce the reported lack of shared understanding of best RL practices as management barrier in to manufacturing sector studied.
The methodology adopted for this study was in-depth literature review. The above objective is accomplished through literature review of published research studies on the current subject focusing on CSFs and practices which were statistically tested. A total of 46 research papers (published between years 1994 to 2013) were selected from Google search engine and Google scholar engine used to identify CSFs using Pareto analysis. The paper reviewed includes both studies on CSFs of TQM as well as TQM performance studies. Karuppusami & Gandhinathan (2006) used this statistical tool and method to identify CSFs (critical success factors) of TQM in manufacturing sector and Talib et al. (2010) used this statistical tool and method to identify CSFs (critical success factors) of TQM in service industries.
Manufacturing facilities: The majority of India’s car manufacturing industry is evenly divided into three ‘clusters’ around Chennai is the Southernmost and largest, with a 35% revenue share, accounting for 60% of the country’s automotive exports and home of the operations of Heavy Vehicles Factory, Engine Factory , Avadi, Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Missan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Caparo, Mini and Datsun.
Net income to total assets ratio had also been found to be significant in the manufacturing sector in other previous studies (Gombola, et al., 1987; Ohlson, 1980; Papoulias & Theodossiou, 1992; Theo- dossiou, 1991). In this study, the net income to total assets ratio has a negative B coefficient value and this is consistent with the findings of other previous studies (Ohlson, 1980; Papoulias & Theodossiou, 1992; Theodossiou, 1991). Furthermore, it is also consistent with the hypothesis of this study which stated that there is a negative relationship between net income to total assets ratio and financial distress. Furthermore, one of the macroeconomic variables that is money supply (M2) was found to be signifi- cant in predicting financial distress companies in the manufacturing sector in Malaysia. However, based on the literature, no study had found money supply (M2) to be significant in predicting financial dis- tressed companies in the manufacturing sector. In this study, money supply (M2) has a positive B co- efficient value but it cannot be compared with any other previous studies. However, this finding is inconsistent with the hypothesis of this study which stated that there is a negative relationship between money supply (M2) and financial distress. This study would like to suggest that money supply (M2) has a positive B coefficient value because companies in the manufacturing sector in Malaysia reacted differently to the movement in money supply. Although an increase in money supply will lead to a decrease in interest rate and hence lower cost of borrowing, companies in the manufacturing sector in Malaysia do not react by borrowing more to expand their businesses and this should be an interesting issue for future research.
It appeared there was less potential for increasing motivation in the service industry than in the study in the manufacturing, retail industires. This may be due to the type of service company the researchers surveyed. The hosptial industry due to its very nature, is a very stressful environment. Every day nurses are caring for peole that in some cases are terminol, and who they never have contact with or know how they are doing once they leave the hospital.
A case report is presented by Y Sujatha et al. The purpose of this report is to investigate the effect of adoption of lean manufacturing tools and techniques in the silk production Industry of Andhra Pradesh. During the investigation researcher ask the question in shop floor operator and different level organization individual for 14 different areas of lean implementation such as scheduling, inventory, material handling, equipment, work processes, quality, employees, layout, suppliers, customers, safety and ergonomics, product design, management and culture, and tools and techniques. After analyzing the results they conclude that many companies in the Silk Production industry are committed to implement lean manufacturing. Generally, most of them are “moderate-to- extensive” Implementers .
The scope of this research is to investigate the effect of the working capital on the firm’s performance at both the overall level as well as at the sectoral level. This study is a comprehensive and extensive study, which uses the balanced panel data of the of all the 294 listed manufacturing firms for a period of eleven years covering from 2001 to 2012, and the secondary data are extracted from the websites of Karachi Stock Exchange which is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan. The study is to examine the association of the working capital components on the firm’s performance based on accounting based profitability measures, firms growth measures as well as the market based profitability measures. The dependent variables used in the study are return on assets, net profitability margin, firms growth, and Tobin Q, whereas the independent variables include cash conversion cycle, net trade cycle, current ratio, current assets to total assets ratio, and control variables are size of the firm, firms age, financial debt ratio, inflation and gross domestic product.
total input requirement of sector i for intermediate inputs of sector j. Indicators are normalized so that they varies between 0 and 1. This indicator is available for 29 countries, 38 sectors from 1975 to 2007. As already noticed, once the database is completed with value added, capital, labour and RegImpact the database reduces from 14820 to 6155 observation, with 12 countries dropping out of the sample. This is because observations for RegImpact start in 1975, those for east European countries start in the nineties and in some cases no country observations are available in the RegImpact database, and various missing are presents in the EU-KLEMS database. Table 2 reports a summary of observations by country and sector, while Table 3 shows the over time average of RegImpact by country and sector. Table 2: number of observations
We combine data on trade, production, and input use to document five facts about changes in the value added content of trade from 1970 to 2009. We find that the ratio of value-added to gross exports fell by roughly 10 percentage points worldwide [Fact 1]. Across sectors, the ratio declined nearly 20 percentage points in manufacturing, but rose in non-manufacturingsectors [Fact 2]. Across countries, declines range from 0 to 25 percentage points, with fast growing countries seeing larger declines [Fact 3]. Across bilateral partners, declines are larger for nearby partners [Fact 4] and partners that adopt regional trade agreements [Fact 5]. What driving forces underlie these changes? Using a multi-sector structural gravity model with input-output linkages, we show that changes in trade frictions play a dominant role in explaining all five facts.
In the manufacturing industry, average R&D investments gradually increase from low to high technology sectors. This fact is even more apparent in terms of R&D performance. In the services, the difference between the less and high knowledge intensive sectors (5 and 8) is higher in terms of R&D performing. In the export performance, the medium high technology (MHT) sector has a slight advantage over the others. Due to the structure of the services sector, the exporters are lower when compared to manufacturingsectors although their average export is really high. The average R&D investments in KIFS and KIHTS are almost as high as the MHT and HT sectors. Both high technology sectors in manufacturing and services are the highest R&D performers. The highest average R&D investment is in KIFS. It is followed by the two high technology industries, HT and KIHTS.
At current scenario of globalization in market more competition in manufacturingsectors. Productivity and quality are the most important crucial factors to be considered to take an edge in the market. Health and safety is one of the most important aspects of an Organization’s smooth and effective functioning. For continuous production it is necessary to run the machines without any interruptions. This study is an effort to analyze the outcomes of Risk based maintenance (RBM) in manufacturingsectors. The case studies are taken from peer reviewed journals.
This paper investigates empirically the main determinants of firm competitiveness under conditions of economic turmoil, with the use of panel data techniques. The study is based on firm-level financial data of 693 firms from the high and medium technology manufacturingsectors in Greece, and covers the time period 1996-2011, distinguishing between the pre-crisis (1996-2007) and the post-crisis (2008-2011) period. The results show that the key factors determining firm competitiveness are size, age, leverage, capital intensity and new fixed assets formation. Also, economic crisis has been found to change significantly, and in some cases dramatically, the pattern of the tested relationship.
principle justifying economic intervention by the state in exceptional times. The concept of rebalancing has been employed by elite policy-makers to refer to a long but relatively coherent list of economic issues, most obviously the contribution of different sectors and different regions to the British economy, but also international trade, and the relative importance of saving and investment in contrast to, respectively, private debt and consumption. Overall, we contend, rebalancing discourse serves in effect to provide a new, if temporally delimited, moral political economy of state intervention: for as long as a strong case for sectoral (or other) rebalancing can be maintained, state intervention to redress that balance is justified. Such state intervention is good, yet by the same token, other forms of state intervention (which cannot be justified in terms of the rebalancing imperative), or the very same state intervention extended beyond the (exceptional) period in which the economy can be shown to be unbalanced, are bad. As such, we contend, rebalancing serves to circumscribe, in public discourse, the parameters of state intervention both sectorally/regionally, in that such state intervention should be limited to initiatives that will serve to restore a (natural) condition of economic balance and temporally, in that the imperative (and the legitimation for intervention it provides) only apply during exceptional times (in which the imbalance persists).
Before the advent of oil boom, each of the three regions of Nigeria in the early 1970s was unique for production of export cash commodities. The Northern part earned foreign exchange from the export of grandaunts while the Western Region depended on cocoa and rubber. The Eastern part was well known for production of palm oil and kernels. This however changed diametrically with the emergence of crude oil export in 1958 and the oil boom of the 70s. Oil proceeds (oil wealth) have consequently come to determine the rate and path of growth of the Nigerian economy. The sad reality today after 56 years of exploitation and exploration is that the ephemera resource is now of anxiety. It has suddenly crept into the nation’s consciousness that the economy is on the precipice should it continue to hang on the depleting foreign exchange. In fact, experts say the economy would collapse and this would have grave implications for the country by 2020 when the nation’s foreign partners would no longer have need for the sweet crude. The indices are real with the discovery of shale oil and gas oil in the United States of America. The US being a major destination for Nigeria’s crude oil, the implication is that in the near feature the Americans would halt importation of oil from Nigeria. Thus the nation’s foreign earnings from oil export would drastically plummet, making the economy to be vulnerable as a result of the apparent feature to develop other sectors or even utilize the enormous wealth from oil to develop critical infrastructure. The global perception of Nigeria is that of a richly blessed oil producing nation but with a growing poverty index. The problem of low economic performance of Nigeria has to do mainly with the failure by government to utilize productively the financial windfall (oil wealth) from the export of crude oil to develop the key sectors of the economy. The oil boom of the 1970s led to the almost total neglect of non-oil tax revenues, expansion of the public sector, and deterioration in financial discipline and accountability.
develop, and efficiently value chains through its internal components. This would generate a more effective participation between software companies, ICT services, multimedia, and research centers, through comparative services and training. With this, the intention is to meet and support the needs of the local companies involved in advanced manufacturing, domestic and international market. Therefore, it is essential to prioritize the promotion of the services offered by all these companies, so that they seek to create synergies that favor them. In addition, they should seek the interest of other sectors of the economy in the State of Chihuahua, particularly in the case of the export manufacturing industry, an important sector for the regional economy, and one that requires mostly these services in relation to technology, particularly in terms of software development.
A reason behind servicification of manufacturing is that firms are increasingly offering services together with their products in order to better compete in the market, as it seems that demand is less focused on the product itself, and more on the package of services it comes with, this contributing directly to the product differentiation and sophistication. Neely  shows that the boundaries between manufacturing and service firms are more and more thin especially in advanced economies. There are two illustrative examples given: i) Rolls-Royce Aerospace does not only sell aero engines, but a complete care package “power by the hour”, where the firm retains the responsibility for risk and maintenance of engines to a much greater extent than it used to do in the past when it only offered spares and repairs, and ii) IBM that is offering more business solutions than it is a hardware provider.