In recent years, in the context of global climate change, on the one hand, the frequency of extreme meteorological disasters has increased. On the other hand, the demand for meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation in the whole society is getting higher and higher, which has caused great pressure on the guidance of the meteorological department. The public opinion incident involv- ing the meteorological department has occurred . To fully understand the current status of meteorological information dissemination in the era, this paper adopted methods including departmental information sharing, service channel back-checking, network search, and filing public information inquiry.
We have shown that it is possible to do realistic ray tracing comparison between measured unwrapped phase and over re- alistic refractivity models. The comparison has been done taking into account the ionospheric state. The computation of the non-vacuum ray tracing methods have shown to be reasonably close to the unwrapped reflected phase. Also, the least squares inversion allows the extraction of useful meteo- rological information. We highlight the potential of GPS-RO reflected signals to sense the lowermost layers of the tropo- sphere. The main objective of the work consists in determin- ing the ability of such a measurement to quantify the prop- erties of the low atmosphere (refractivity profile within the boundary layer). The perturbation procedure presented here is in principle applicable to any profile. Nevertheless, given the cost of the raytracing, we consider it practical only if the perturbation inversion is sufficiently accurate after one itera- tion of raytracing, perturbation and inversion. This of course constrains to cases where the a priori information is already close to the solution. Strong gradients presumably reduce the convergence rate for these inversions. However, this may still be beneficial as the reflected signal may probe the gradient at a different angle as the direct signal, providing information difficult to extract from the direct signal. A full assesment, however, requires merging both sources of data, which was beyond the scope, and is still underway.
11 Read more
On the basic of CLDAS V1.0, the National Meteorological Information Center will continue to develop many land surface model simulations, satellite temper- ature data assimilation and other subsequent editions to make the simulation of soil moisture more accurate. But drought disasters are a complex phenomenon involving agriculture, meteorology, hydrology, vegetation physiology and many other disciplines, the needs for multi-disciplinary branch communication, mul- ti-element and the common consideration can be more comprehensive inclusion of crops, soil, atmosphere, and other elements. Therefore, to study drought, soil moisture, rainfall, streamflow, and a combination of many drought indicators are important to make drought monitoring more accurate and reliable.
13 Read more
AMIDS: Aviation Meteorological Information Dissemination System; ARWF: Automatic Regional Weather Forecast; AVM: Aviation Model; AWS: automatic weather station; CEDD: Civil Engineering and Development Department; CLP: CLP Power Hong Kong Limited; Co‑WIN: Community Weather Informa‑ tion Network; CUHK: Chinese University of Hong Kong; CWOS: Community Weather Observing Scheme; DSD: Drainage Services Department; EPS: ensemble prediction system; GEO: Geotechnical Engineering Office; GCOS: Global Climate Observing System; GFCS: Global Framework for Climate Ser‑ vices; HKFIR: Hong Kong flight information region; HKGBC: Hong Kong Green Building Council; HKHI: Hong Kong Heat Index; HKIA: Hong Kong International Airport; HKO: Hong Kong Observatory; IoT: Internet of Things; JMA‑NHM: Japan Meteorological Agency Non‑hydrostatic Model; KP: King’s Park Meteoro‑ logical Station; LIDARS: light detection and ranging; NWP: numerical weather prediction; PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University; PRD: Pearl River Delta; PSMSL: Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level; QPE: quantitative precipitation estimation; QPF: quantitative precipitation forecast; SODARs: sonic detection and ranging; SWIRLS: Short‑range Warnings of Intense Rainstorm of Localized Systems; SCHSA: Senior Citizen Home Safety Association; UV: ultraviolet; WHO: World Health Organization; WMO: World Meteorological Organization; WRF‑ ARW : weather research forecasting model’s advance research; WSD: Water Supplies Department.
17 Read more
the requirements for example by floor prevention department needing to get the display of the rain and other meteorological information of many towns in the same administrative region), and moreover, the interface expansibility is poor, for example, as shown by the product below, it cannot realize the addition of visibility, humidity, highest temperature and accumulated rainfall; besides, only the weather forecast and warning information of one industry can be displayed, so, it is not so intuitive to browse the meteorological information in whole.
In all there were around ﬁfty participants from over twenty countries (see Appendix A). All of those originally invited were able to attend. Local logistics were well organised by staff at TMA. The workshop was ofﬁcially opened by Hon Basil P. Mramba, Minister of Infrastructure Development for the United Republic of Tanzania. He emphasised the need for more accurate meteorological information, capacity building of meteorological experts and provision of more support to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in the region. Other speakers at the opening ceremony included Dr. Mohamed Mhita, Director General of the Tanzania Meteorological Agency and Permanent Representative of Tanzania with WMO, Dr. Buruhani Nyenzi, Director of the World Climate Programme, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland and Prof. Chris Reason, Co-chair of the VACS Panel and a Professor in the Dept. of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Dr Emmanuel Mpeta from TMA ably served as the master of ceremonies for this part of the workshop.
16 Read more
T his paper focuses on the design of a 10 MW hybrid power plant using the technical specifications (data sheet) of an industrial solar panel. The main purpose was to find out the exact electrical properties of the solar panel specialy with conjunction to its temperature, to optimize overall output energy. We first describe the most important types of solar power plants and afterwards focus on electric plant. Subsequently, we use a suitable mathematical algorithm to find required, exact technical specifications for the photovoltaic panels from the manufacturer's general data set. After designing and optimizing the electric powered plant, explanation on the thermal power calculation is prov ided for using in the subsequent criteria. In the phase of thermal power design, the meteorological information related to the city of Arzoyeh of Kerman (28° 27′ 35.5″ N, 56° 21′ 56.88″ E) has been introduced into the Modelica, a powerful engineering open source software. Accordingly, a proper code was written to extract both interrelated thermal and electrical energies in the whole months during the year along with its corresponding efficiency. At the end of the work, trade off solutions for increasing the efficiency in different conditions and structures suggested, calculated, and compared.
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.73006 129 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection 93.67%, down by 0.04% to the fifth. It is worth noting that “the importance of the meteorological department to the government’s decision-making services”, “the professional image and service awareness of the meteorological department service personnel”, “the value of meteorological information for deci- sion-making work”, “high-impact weather protection services”, and “meteoro- logical information” The five satisfaction indexes of social and economic bene- fits have declined. Therefore, we must continuously improve our service aware- ness, enrich our service products, work hard on fine forecasts, and constantly improve our service system (Table 1).
10 Read more
Professional weather forecasting and early warning monitoring and analysis. The system provides 12 hours 7 days by wind speed, wind direction, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and weather phenomena forecast information and typhoons, heavy rain, snow and other weather disaster warning information. Forecasts updated once every three hours, the maximum time resolution of one hour, the highest spatial resolution of 4 km, enrich forecast content; update frequency and accuracy are much higher than the public network of meteorological information.
The success of the proposed nautical route is assessed based on the travel time of the vessel to reach its destination. A journey is hampered when the vessel’s speed is less than 1 knot. The use of remote-sensing-driven ice parameters and the meteorological data in SatSINS proved to be successful in avoiding this situation. Ice conditions, navigation parameters and deviation of the actual ship route from the planned route for the three expedition are summarized in Table 2. In all cases, the vessel travelled at an average speed of 5.7 knots or higher in pack ice. However, the SatSINS-proposed routes needed adjustments based on local observations from the ship, especially when severe atmospheric/oceanic conditions triggered variations in the ice cover at a short time scale (i.e., within a few hours). This adjustment, along with the average speed of the ship during her navigation through the ice cover, are used to assess the utility of remote sensing and meteorological information for planning an efficient route. Here we discuss a few ice parameters/processes that impede the ship navigation (represented in terms of key navigation parameters) and the degree of success of SatSINS in offering solutions. A few recommendations for generating more and better operational-oriented scientific products are also presented.
21 Read more
On average over Europe and across all seasons, the CM-SSF is skilful (in terms of hindcast accuracy, sharpness and over- all performance, using the ESP as a benchmark) for the first month of lead time only. This means that, on average, Sys4 improves the predictability over historical meteorological in- formation for pan-European seasonal streamflow forecasting for the first month of lead time only. At longer lead times, historical meteorological information becomes as good as or better than Sys4 for seasonal streamflow forecasting over Eu- rope. Crochemore et al. (2016) and Meißner et al. (2017) similarly found positive skill in the seasonal streamflow fore- cast (Sys4 forced hydrological model compared to an ESP) for the first month of lead time, after which the skill faded away for basins in France and central Europe, respectively. Additionally, on average over Europe and across all seasons, the CM-SSF is less reliable than the ESP for all lead times. This is due to a combination of too narrow and biased CM- SSF hindcasts, where the bias depends on the season that is being forecasted. As mentioned in the methods section of this paper, the ESP is not a “naive” benchmark, which might par- tially explain the limited predictability gained from Sys4.
16 Read more
Abstract. The growth of wind power production in the electricity portfolio is striving to meet ambitious targets set, for example by the EU, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020. Huge investments are now being made in new o ff shore wind farms around UK coastal waters that will have a major impact on the GB electrical supply. Representations of the UK wind field in syntheses which capture the inherent structure and correlations between di ff erent locations including o ff shore sites are required. Here, Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR) models are presented and extended in a novel way to incorporate o ff shore time series from a pan-European meteorological model called COSMO, with onshore wind speeds from the MIDAS dataset provided by the British Atmospheric Data Centre. Forecasting ability onshore is shown to be improved with the inclusion of the o ff shore sites with improvements of up to 25 % in RMS error at 6 h ahead. In addition, the VAR model is used to synthesise time series of wind at each o ff shore site, which are then used to estimate wind farm capacity factors at the sites in question. These are then compared with estimates of capacity factors derived from the work of Hawkins et al. (2011). A good degree of agreement is established indicating that this synthesis tool should be useful in power system impact studies.
It is acknowledged that two Monitoring Network were installed in 1997, one in Atasta (a few kilometers from Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche) and other around DBMT (within the Paraíso, Tabasco municipality) . Un- fortunately DBMT’s network does not exist anymore and Atasta’s station has been working very intermittently. Further, information about air quality is not public and monitoring sites are not well positioned, therefore pro- duced information is not quite about pollution produced by main sources in Atasta’s region. This might be con- firmed by a few of the available public information where it is confirmed that SO 2 in the 2003 period had a
15 Read more
Using computational tools applied to marine sciences it was developed an application for treatment of marine and meteorological information called AppMar 1.0 © , with the objective of performing mean and extremal regimes analysis. The methodology applied considers storm events, effects of hurricanes and the condensed energy in these processes, for the determination of the sea states and the wind fields. The foundation of the application is based in the technique of statistical analysis for the determination of intensity and duration of events in different time scales. In engineering design these kinds of tools are very relevant, because with them it is possible to identify risk elements for coastal infrastructure and activities that take place in fluvial and marine areas. However, it is possible to extend this analysis to different scenarios such as risk analysis in tourism, real estate investment, territorial planning, and environmental impact studies.
18 Read more
The influence of climate conditions on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion was considered in the area of South Moravia. For this purpose, 16 meteorological stations were selected on the basis of acces- sibility of required data, their adequate representativeness, homogeneity, and position of the stations. It was necessary to make the database of climatological factors (such as wind velocity, precipitation and air temperature) of the period of 1961–2003 for the analyses of climatological data. The climatological data was then evaluated for the periods of 1961–2003, 1961–1990, 1991–2000, and 1971–2000. Clima- tic erosion factor, which explains potential erodibility of soil by wind, was determined through the anal- yses of factors influencing the wind erosion. The assessment of influence of expected climate change on the intensity and spreading of wind erosion consists in the selection of suitable climatological model and climate change scenarios on the basis of ability to model the three climatological factors (wind ve- locity, precipitation and air temperature). Climate change scenarios were then applied on the data of the selected climatological stations and the assessment of changes in data sets and the comparative analysis of the outputs of the scenarios with measured data from the normal period of 1961–1990 were done. The climatic erosion factor was also determined from the altered data of the scenarios.
The applicant should provide sufficient information regarding the seismic and geologic characteristics of the site and the surrounding region to permit an adequate evaluation of the proposed site, to support evaluations performed to estimate the site ground motion response, and to permit adequate engineering solutions to potential geologic and seismic effects at the proposed site. Sites should be selected in areas for which an adequate geologic database exists or can be expeditiously developed through site-specific investigations to identify and characterize potential geological and seismic hazards. The seismic and geologic (and meteorological and hydrologic) characterization of the proposed site should consider the most severe of the natural phenomena that have been historically reported for the site and surrounding area and include sufficient margin for the limited accuracy, quantity, and period of time in which the historical data have been accumulated. The licensing process can be longer if there is a need for extensive additional geologic and seismic investigations.
21 Read more
IMD has been issuing experimental Extended Range Forecast(ERF) since 2009 using available products from statistical as well as multi-model ensemble (MME) based on outputs available from dynamical models from various centres in India and abroad. The MME forecast is being prepared once in a week with the validity for subsequent four weeks. The latest generation coupled models are found to be very useful in providing skilful guidance on extended range forecast. The performance of extended range forecasts for the southwest monsoon seasons clearly captured the delay/early onset of monsoon over Kerala, active/break spells of monsoon and also withdrawal of monsoon in the real time in providing guidance for various applications. On experimental basis the MME forecast on meteorological subdivision level up to two weeks are also being used in providing the agromet advisory for farming community. The MME based ERF also provides encouraging results in case of northeast monsoon rainfall over southern peninsula and tropical cyclogenesis over the north Indian Ocean during the post monsoon season from October to December (OND). In addition, the MME based ERF forecast also provides useful guidance pertaining to rainfall associated with Western Disturbances (WD) over northwest India during
17 Read more
The Pyrenees are a midlatitude mountain range, with sig- nificant snowfalls in the high-elevation areas throughout the year. During the spring, Pyrenean river discharges depend on the snowmelt timing, with approximately 40 % of spring runoff being directly attributable to snow (López-Moreno and García-Ruiz, 2004). Thus, snow accumulation has a heavy influence on Pyrenean headwaters. This dependence is mostly due to the generally continuous snow cover from November to April above 2000 m above sea level (a.s.l.) (Alvera and Garcia-Ruiz, 2000; García-Ruiz et al., 1986; López-Moreno et al., 2002) and, therefore, the study of the snowpack at high elevations in the Pyrenees is crucial for understanding and managing mountain river discharges (López-Moreno, 2005), especially in the scenario of global climate change (García-Ruiz et al., 2011). However, contin- uous snow observations above 2000 m a.s.l. are scarce in this mountain range since most only have information from 1600 to 2000 m a.s.l. and those that are available only cover short time spans. Therefore, well-established study areas at high elevations with continuous measurements of meteorological variables and snowpack distribution are required in the Pyre- nees.
13 Read more
Based on the meteorological and geographic information data, with statistical method and the FloodArea model, the extreme daily rainfall of the 100-year return period in Hunhe River basin was established, through the simulation of rainstorm and flood disaster, characteristics of flood depth in warning spot Cangshi village in the upstream of the river were analysed, and possible effect on community economy was also evaluated. Results showed that, the precipi- tation of 100-year return period occurred, the flood depth has been below 1.0 meter in the most areas of Hunhe River basin, the depth was between 1.0 me- ter and 2.5 meters in the part areas of Hunhe River basin, and the flood depth has been exceed 2.5 meters in a small part of Hunhe River basin. After the be- ginning of precipitation, the flood was concentrated in the upper reaches of the river. With the accumulation of precipitation and the passage of time, the flood pools into midstream and downstream. Precipitation lasted for 24 hours, the warning spot was flooded in the beginning of precipitation. With the accumulation of precipitation, water level of the river increases gradually. The depth of warning spot has passed 1.0 meter at the 07 time of the whole process, and the maximum value of flood depth at warning spot was 1.083 meters that occurred at the 19 time. The flood depth of warning spot de- creased gradually after the precipitation stopping, and the depth has been be- low 0.2 meters, the flood of upstream ended. Up to the end of the upstream flood process, in the whole river, about one million five hundred and sixty thousand people were affected by flooding, and thirty-eight billion and two hundred million RMB of gross domestic product were lost, in addition, dry land and paddy field were affected greatly, but woodland and grassland were less affected.
14 Read more
The Freedom of Information Act 1997establishes three statutory rights: 1. a legal right for each person to access information held by public bodies 2. a legal right for each person to have official information relating to him/herself amended where it is incomplete, incorrect or misleading 3. a legal right to obtain reasons for decisions affecting oneself The Act asserts the right of members of the public to obtain access to official information to the greatest extent possible, consistent with the public interest and the right to privacy of individuals. This reference (book) has been prepared and published in accordance with the requirements of Sections 15 and 16 of the Act.
26 Read more