Myrtus communis

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The screening of parameters influencing the Hydrodistillation of Moroccan Myrtus communis L  leaves by experiments design methodology

The screening of parameters influencing the Hydrodistillation of Moroccan Myrtus communis L leaves by experiments design methodology

The use of experiments designs in the analysis and the optimization of the essential oil’s extraction process was reported by several authors. Some have used other types of designs such as complete factorial design (Ammar et al., 2010, Silou et al., 2004, Wognin et al., 2010) and others have performed directly the optimization by using response surface methodology (Tan et al., 2012, Mu’azu et al., 2012). In this paper, we made a screening of factors acting on the hydrodistillation operation of Myrtus communis L. We have used the screening designs which are best known for factors with 2 levels: the Hadamard matrices or Plackett and Burman design (Plackett and Burman., 1946). The experimentation highlights the effects of some factors on the studied response (Silou et al., 2004). The choice of screening design for our study instead of the complete factorial design is based on seven studied factors. This number, which is higher than the factor’s number used in complete factorial design, will cause an increase in the number of experiments (2 7 = 128 experiments for seven factors). As for the response surface designs, they are generally used for optimization tests. In our case, a screening design of Plackett and Burman type is more advocated. The objective of this screening study is to determine the most important factors acting on hydrodistillation process of studied plant with a view to a more detailed study of parameters optimization. The perspective will be optimization study which will be concerned only with factors considered influential on the hydrodistillation process.
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Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Myrtus Communis Leaves on Trophozoites and Cysts of Acanthamoeba: An In Vitro Study

Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Myrtus Communis Leaves on Trophozoites and Cysts of Acanthamoeba: An In Vitro Study

common name "myrtle" is a medicinal herb the leaves, branches, berries, and fruits of which have been used widely as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases [22]. The leaves of Myrtus communis are useful in cerebral, stomach and liver diseases, pulmonary disorders, deep sinuses, hair fall, inflammation, haemorrhage, and diarrhea [23]. In this context, anti-Acanthamoeba effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis against T4 genotype of Acanthamoeba was evaluated. The results of this study showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis on trophozoites are more effective than cysts. Rigid double- layered wall of cyst causes a difference in the sensitivity to drug in the trophozoites and cysts [24].
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Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of the Aqueous extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) Linn. Leaves

Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of the Aqueous extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) Linn. Leaves

The aqueous extract of Myrtus communis leaves was screened for hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters like serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase , total protein and level of serum bilirubin (both total and direct). Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o., was compared with Silymarin (100mg/kg, p.o.) treated animals. Myrtus communis leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant reduction in serum hepatic enzymes when compared to rats treated with paracetamol alone. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also done to support the study.
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Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis berries

Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis berries

Ripe berries were collected manually (autumn 2013) from spontaneous Myrtus communis plants harvested in Sardinia, Italy, and stored at −20°C until they were used as substrate for fermentation. The substrate was ob- tained as reported by Liu et al. [44], with some modifica- tions. In details, myrtle berries were added to distilled water (1:1, wt/wt) and homogenized using a Stomacher 400 lab blender (Seward Medical, London) for 10 min. The homogenate was kept at 4°C for 2 h. Then, the hom- ogenate was inoculated with the starter, without any sup- plementation (i), or with the addition of 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract (Oxoid) (ii), or 1% glucose (wt/vol) (iii). The initial cell density of the lactic acid bacterium was of ca. 5 × 10 7 cfu/ml. Fermentation (Mf ) was allowed at 30°C for 48 h, under stirring conditions (120 rpm). An
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Sedative-Hypnotic Like Effect of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Myrtus Communis on Mice

Sedative-Hypnotic Like Effect of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Myrtus Communis on Mice

Although significant potentiation of hypnotic activity induced by pentobarbital was observed, PIST model was considered to be unspecific [25] i.e. it’s difficult to predict whether the potentiation is caused by pharmacokinetic or pharmaodynamic interaction between the EO and pentobarbital. But still there were some indications which favor the interaction to be pharmaodynamic. The different routes of administration of the EO (P.O.) and pentobarbital (i.p.) may rule out the possibility of interaction at the level of absorption. Moreover as acute toxicity studies showed that the EO induced liver metabolizing enzymes [30], the possibility of interaction at the level of biotransformation could also be ruled out. For potentiation to occur at this level there must be enzyme inhibition as in the case of CCl4 which prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time in rats [22] suggesting CNS depressant activity of the EO Myrtus communis . The possible interactions at the levels of distribution and excretion, however, are still there which might need further investigations.
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EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis LEAVES FOR ANALGESIC AND GISTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY PROFILE

EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis LEAVES FOR ANALGESIC AND GISTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY PROFILE

In the present research work the essential oil of Myrtus communis Leaves were tested for their analgesic and gastrointestinal motility. The analgesic effect was evaluated in mice, using acetic acid induced writhing test and effect on GIT motility was also tested in mice using charcoal as marker in intestine. The essential oils showed dose dependent analgesic effect in compression with standard drug and significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the writhing at 100 and 150 mg/kg, while the analgesic effect was non-significant at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In case of GIT motility the oils were good laxative at low dose (50 mg/kg) while with increasing the dose the motility was not significant. It can be concluded that the oils should be use for constipation in low dose while for analgesic effect its high dose is required.
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Neuroprotective effect of Myrtus communis and Zingbar officinale in LPS induced neurotoxicity in brain rats’ model

Neuroprotective effect of Myrtus communis and Zingbar officinale in LPS induced neurotoxicity in brain rats’ model

The current study was undertaken to elucidate a possible neuroprotective role of myrtle and ginger against lipopolysaccharides(LPS ) induced neurotoxicity in experimental rat model. Ginger (Zingbar officinale)and myrtle((Myrtus communis )was administered orally (1 gand 300 mg /kg b.wt respectively for one month then neurotoxicity was produced in male rats by intraperitoneal injection of 200ug/g b.wt. After such treatment(4 hr after LPS injection ), the animals were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers, such as, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde,(MDA), interleukine-1β (IL-1β),Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) ,estrogen , 5LOX .15LOX ,lipoxin A4( LA4), Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and Willebrand factor( VWF)were determined in serum and brain tissue of challenged rats. The results revealed significant increase in all investigate stress parameters associated with significant decrease in the estrogen level inLPS-intoxicated rats. Marked amelioration was detected in all biomarkers under investigation upon treatment of LPS induced neurotoxic rats with myrtle or ginger with more or less similar ameliorative effects .
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Evaluation of the antidiarrhoel and antimotility activities of methanolic extract and fractions of Myrtus communis L. leaves in mice

Evaluation of the antidiarrhoel and antimotility activities of methanolic extract and fractions of Myrtus communis L. leaves in mice

Myrtle or Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L.) belongs to the Myrtaceae family. It is a widespread shrub in the Mediterranean area. The objective of this study is to determine the polyphenol content of the methanol (ME), chloroform (CHE) and ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of myrtle leaves and to investigate their gastrointestinal anti- motility, antidiarrhoeal and intestinal antisecretory effects in mice. The plant powder was extracted with different solvents of increasing polarity to obtain the above different fractions. The extracts were stored at 4 C° until use. The content of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins of the different extracts were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The antimotility activity was evaluated using gastric emptying and intestinal transit phenol red method. Atropine (1mg/kg i.p.) was used as a positive control. The antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory effects were determined using castor oil. Three different doses (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) were used with all the tested extracts. Loperamide (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a positive control. Finally, the acute toxicity of the plant extracts was performed according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) method at 2 single doses (2 and 5 g/kg p.o.). The results revealed that M. communis L. leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols. The different extracts dose dependently decreased the gastric emptying and the intestinal transit. All extracts also showed significant and dose dependent inhibition of diarrhoea and intestinal secretion. M. communis L. extracts showed antimotility, antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory activities in mice, which may provide scientific support of the folkloric medication with this plant against diarrhoea.
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Inhibitory effects of myrtle (Myrtus communis L ) leaves hydroalcoholic extract on LDL oxidation in vitro

Inhibitory effects of myrtle (Myrtus communis L ) leaves hydroalcoholic extract on LDL oxidation in vitro

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The use of some compound in dietary food stuff include Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) leaves hydroalcoholic extract (ME) may lead to the inhibition of production of oxidized LDL and may decrease both the development and the progression of atherosclerosis. The present work investigated the effects of ME on LDL oxidation induced-CuSO4 quantitatively in vitro. Fasting blood samples from normal people after an overnight fasting were collected and then LDL was isolated. LDL was incubated without CuSO4 as control and incubated with CuSO4 and several concentration of ME (0.2, 2 and 20 µg/ml); and measured the formation of conjugated dienes, lag time and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Inhibition of this Cu-induced oxidation was studied in the presence of several concentration of ME (0.2, 2 and 20 µg/ml). It was demonstrated that ME is able to inhibit CuSO4-induced LDL oxidation and decrease the resistance of LDL against oxidation in vitro. Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) leaves extract showed an increase rate of 5%, 42% and 50% at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 µg /ml, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the ME on LDL oxidation were dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 µg /ml. This study showed that ME prevented the oxidation of LDL in vitro and it may suggest that they have the similar effect in vivo.
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COMPARATIVE IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-DERMATOPHYTES ACTIVITIES OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS LEAVES, FLOWER AND STEM BARK EXTRACTS

COMPARATIVE IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-DERMATOPHYTES ACTIVITIES OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS LEAVES, FLOWER AND STEM BARK EXTRACTS

The current study aim was to find out the antioxidant and antifungal potential of leaf, flower and stem bark extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous and acetone) of Myrtus communis. The antioxidant activity was measured by standard In vitro antioxidant test systems i.e. 1, 1’-diphynyl- 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method using ascorbic acid as standard. Agar well diffusion method was used to check the antifungal activities. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract at 250 µg/mL observed antioxidant activity was 90±2% and 85±1% respectively, while vitamin C showed 88±02% scavenging activity. The result investigated that the inhibition effect of plant leaves at 100 mg/ml give more prominent zone of inhibition as compared to stem and flower extracts.
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Inhibition effects of Zataria multiflora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Myrtus communis essential oil on mycelial growth of green mold of Orange

Inhibition effects of Zataria multiflora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Myrtus communis essential oil on mycelial growth of green mold of Orange

98 | Page Combined effect of essential oil of plants is not equal the effect of individual oil. It is less than the sum of them. The essential oils have an interaction with each other. In studying the antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Zataria multiflura, Myrtus communis and Eucalyptus officianalis on the bacterial of streptocucus, Hemophylus influenza and katarhalis, yazdi et al (2007) showed that the highest growth inhibition zone diameter of all three bacteria is observed in the essential oil of Zataria multiflura and totally, the effects of these three essential oils were good on all three microorganisms. (Yazdi et al., 2007) Aras and osaie (2001) showed that Zataria multiflura essential oil removes the fungal mycelium completely and is able to change the morphology and the kinetics that it's most important antifungal combination was karoecrol that 81 to 83percent of all essential oil is dedicated to it. (Arras et al., 2001) MIC value of the essential oil of 24 plants determined against 9 bacteria and 7 fungi. All essential oils tested have shown MIC values4000- 62.5 µg/ml against Mycobacterium Smegmatis. 13 oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and 17 oils inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. But only 6 oils were effective on Aspergillus niger and 3 of them were effective when the concentration of oil was 4000- 250 µg/ml. in the other study, antifungal activity of 11 essential oils were determined against Aspergillus niger by Broth Microdilution method (Kalemba et al., 2003).
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Evaluation of insecticidal efficiency of treated nets with essential oils of
Satureja khuzestanica (karvakerol) and Myrtus communis (moort) using
bioassay tests

Evaluation of insecticidal efficiency of treated nets with essential oils of Satureja khuzestanica (karvakerol) and Myrtus communis (moort) using bioassay tests

Malaria is still one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The main problem is that many of the Anopheles mosquitoes have become resistant to various chemical pesticides and also their resistance or tolerance to pyrethroid insecticides which used for impregnating of bed nets has been reported, so the essential oils of plants with insecticidal properties are good candidates for replacements of chemical insecticides for treating of nets. Thirty-two Polyester untreated mosquito nets were impregnated with Myrtus communis (moort) (at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 30%) and Satureja khuzestanica (karvakerol) (at concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10% and 20%) essential oils. We prepared four treated nets of each concentration. Mean median knock down time (MMKDT) in continuous exposure bioassay test and mortality 24 h after 3-minute exposure test were carried out on nets. Results showed that with increasing concentrations of Moort essential oil the time for knock down (KD) is significantly increased (P = 0.006). On the contrary, by increasing the concentration of essential oil of karvakerol, the time for (KD) is significantly reduced (P <0.001). With increasing concentrations of Moort essential oil ,there was no significant increase in mortality percentage for Anopheles stephensi (P = 0.716), whereas by increasing the concentration of karvakerol essential oil , percentage of deaths and mortality was border line increased for Anopheles stephensi (P = 0.073).
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Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Myrtus Communis L. and Eucalyptus Galbie and their Combination with Calcium Hydroxide Powder against Enterococcus Faecalis

Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Myrtus Communis L. and Eucalyptus Galbie and their Combination with Calcium Hydroxide Powder against Enterococcus Faecalis

To improve the antimicrobial effect of calcium hy- droxide, some researchers have suggested the mixture of calcium hydroxide powder with antimicrobial solutions. Nevertheless, calcium hydroxide mixed with various chemicals such as chlorhexidine, IKI, iodoform, and silicone oil has not been able to remove E. faecalis completely [18-20]. On the other hand, adverse reac- tions to chemical substances have increased attention to natural products [21]. Considering the fact that there is not sufficient scientific evidence on the efficacy of me- dicinal plants, the World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended the assessment of pharmaceuti- cal plants in order to increase their safety and efficacy [22]. In this study, two medicinal plants in combination with calcium hydroxide powder were examined in vitro. One of these plants was Myrtus communis L. from Myr- taceae family. It is evergreen and contains tannin, resin, camphor and 0.3 percent essence. The therapeutic effect of Myrtus is mostly due to the existence of essence in various parts, especially in the leaves of the plants that exhibits significant antibacterial and antifungal activities [23-24]. Eucalyptus galbie from Myrtaceae family was the other investigated plant. Volatile oils and tannins are commonly found as active ingredients of the plant’s leaves that present antiseptic, antipyretic, expectorant, and decongestant properties. This plant is also used as antimicrobial and astringent medication [24].
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Evaluation of the antidiarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae) in mice model

Evaluation of the antidiarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae) in mice model

Moreover, the leaves of Myrtus communis L. are traditionally used for abdominal pain and diarrhea in Pakistanian and Indian traditional medicines [10], in Turkish traditional medicine (the leaves are boiled and the stock is drunk) [11] and in Iranian traditional medicine [12]. In Ethiopia, It has been used as antipyr- etic and sedative agent [13], anti-dandruff (bathing with crushed fresh leaves) [5], antidiarrheal and stom- achic (the leaves are soaked with water overnight and the juice is taken orally in the morning) [5]. Previous in vitro study on isolated tissue preparations demon- strated that 70% methanolic extract of the leaves of Myrtus communis L. revealed antispasmodic, broncho- dilator and vasodilator activities [14]. Besides, the es- sential oil of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle oil) also possessed significant antidiarrheal activity both in vivo and ex-vivo [15]. Therefore, extensive folkloric uses and previous studies were used as a baseline data to validate the antidiarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Myrtus communis L. in mice.
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“Formulation Design and Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Activity of Emulgel Containing Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L.” by Hiba Sabah Sabri, Wedad Kamal Ali, Baydaa Hameed Abdullah, Widad M. K. Al-Ani, Iraq.

“Formulation Design and Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Activity of Emulgel Containing Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L.” by Hiba Sabah Sabri, Wedad Kamal Ali, Baydaa Hameed Abdullah, Widad M. K. Al-Ani, Iraq.

until extraction Harvested leaves of Myrtus communis L. were obtained from local Baghdad gardens,, and dried to at room temperature then the dried leaves were grinded, and the essential oils of the plant were extracted by hydro-distillation method of the plant material, the most common method for volatile oil extraction, using a Clevenger type apparatus.In this process the plant material being boiled in water, using a fire source from below the vessel. The oils were separated from the aqueous layer by using a separatory funnel and dehydrated with anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in clean, dark brown bottles at 4°C.This process was repeated until almost all the essential oil was extracted. 11 Identification of Myrtle Oil Components
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Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis) Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis) Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Recently, the use of essential oil has become popular due to antimicrobial properties (Akin et al., 2010). Essential oils may enhance the activities of digestive enzymes and nutrient absorption, and thereby improving the nutritional value of feed (Di Pasqua et al., 2007). Myrtus communis (from Myrtaceae family and subfamily Myrtoideae) is an annual plant used for medicinal, food, and spice purposes (Baytop, 1999). This aromatic plant grows wildly in the coastal areas of Tunisia, Morocco, Turkey, France, and Iran (Romani et al., 2004). The fruits are mostly composed of volatile oils, tannins, sugars, flavonoids, and organic acids such as citric and malic acids (Martin et al., 1999). The leaves contain tannins, flavonoids such as quercetin, catechin, myricetin derivatives and volatile oils (Baytop, 1999; Romani et al., 2004). The essential oil can be obtained from the leaves of Myrtus communis by steam distillation (Baytop, 1999). Ozek et al. (2000) reported the most important constituents of MEO as myrtenol, myrtenol acetate, limonene, linalool, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, β-caryophyllenein, p-cymene, geraniol, nerol, phenylpropanoid and methyleugenol. Different parts of Myrtus communis essential oils have been used for different purposes. The antioxidative property of flavonoid derivatives from Myrtus communis had a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases (Romani et al., 2004). The antimicrobial effects of the essential oils against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans have also been demonstrated by Yadegarinia et al. (2006). Essential oils obtained from the leaves of Myrtus communis have also antiseptic and anti‐inflammatory activities (Al- Hindawi et al., 1989), as well as antibacterial properties (Hayder et al., 2003).
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The Study of Ultrasonic Waves on Dormancy-Breaking in Ferula Assa-Foetida, Ferula Gummusa and Myrtus Communis

The Study of Ultrasonic Waves on Dormancy-Breaking in Ferula Assa-Foetida, Ferula Gummusa and Myrtus Communis

Medical plants are adapted to different kinds of dormancy to survive in the worst situations. Regarding to ecological viewpoint, this kind of adaptation is very important in respect to restriction of genetic draft and decrease of genetic resource of medicinal plants. This leads to plant survival even after prolonged drought. Since some of them are endangered species and in the other hand increasing in the production and culture of medicinal plants this turns to a problem. To overcome this problem scientists apply different kinds of treatments (like heat, chemical and physical treatments).So to overcome the germination problem of F. assa-foetida, F. gummusa and Myrtus communis, four different times of 42 KHz ultrasonic waves (0, 4, 8 and 12minutes) were applied on the seeds of this plant. The experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with four replications. The collected data were evaluated by SPSS 14. The essential oil of seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation. Oil of the best treatment of F. gummusa was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In the current study we reported the existence of F. assa-foetida in Oshtorankoh mountain for first time. Treatment Results showed that: There were significant differences between ultrasonic waves’ treatments (4, 8 and 12 minutes) and control (0 min). 30 days after treatments, the percentages of seed germination for each treatment of F. assa-foetida were 35, 75, 57/5 and 62/5% , for F. gummusa were 25, 60, 52/5, 45 and for Myrtus communis were 0, 42.5, 50, 35 in 4, 8 and 12 minutes ultrasonic waves’ treatments and control (0 min) respectively. In this study, 4 minute ultrasonic wave’s treatment clearly provides the best results for all species therefore ultrasonic waves method is a cost effective way for increasing seed germination rate in F. assa-foetida, F. gummusa and Myrtus communis. GC and GC/MS results showed differences in the composition of the essential oil of control and 4 minute treatment in F. gummusa.
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Ethnobotanical Study of Three Medicinal and Aromatic Species Satureja nepeta, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus from Masmouda Town (Ouazzane Province: Morocco) [Article Retracted]

Ethnobotanical Study of Three Medicinal and Aromatic Species Satureja nepeta, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus from Masmouda Town (Ouazzane Province: Morocco) [Article Retracted]

An ethnobotanical study of aromatic and medicinal plants was carried out in Masmouda mountainous area (Ouazzane province). The aim of this study was to identify therapeutic usages of the most used species of this region. After confrontation of collected data by interviewing local people, syntheses allowed us to exploit this popular know–how. Then, monography of three selected species, namely Satureja nepeta, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus, was established as a contribution to save this orally transmitted knowledge. Based on testimony of 100 interviewees, this survey revealed that medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) are used by 91% of the interviewees among them illiterate people (70%) were the most depicted. It also revealed that these plants are most of the time used by men (52%) older than 50. According to the majority of interviewees, plants leaves are the most used organ and decoction is the preparation way generally used. The study also showed importance of phytotherapy to Masmouda’s people. This population exploits the three species for many therapeutic purposes in the following order: Satureja nepeta is the most used (75%) then, follows Myrtus communis (58%) and Pistacia lentiscus ranks third (48%). Results provided by this study constitute a data basis for our further researches in phytochemistry and pharmacology with the aim to discover new bioactive and natural substances. Valorization of these results through pharmacology and industrial fields could ensure improvement of traditional medicine to a modern one and a renovated pharmacopeia.
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Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis grow in West of Iran, across Zagros moun- tains and other parts of the country. Insecti- cidal and larvicidal effects of different doses of essential oils of S. khuzestanica and M. communis have been reported (Uehleke and Brinkschulte-Freitas 1979, Traboulsi et al. 2002, Yang et al. 2004, Yi et al. 2006, Cetin et al. 2007, Martinez-Romero et al. 2007, Knio et al. 2008, Amer and Mehlhorn 2009). Other researchers have stated antimicrobial, anti- fungal and antiparasite effects of mentioned plants and essential oils of two other plants (L. officinalis and S. sclarea) that grow in Iran (Hayder et al. 2004, Shahidi-Bonjar 2004, Sonboli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006, Ben Arfa et al. 2006, Appendino et al. 2006, Mahdi et al. 2006, Burt et al. 2007, Cristani et al. 2007).
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Estimation of conservation value of myrtle (Myrtus communis) using a contingent valuation method: a case study in a Dooreh forest area, Lorestan Province, Iran

Estimation of conservation value of myrtle (Myrtus communis) using a contingent valuation method: a case study in a Dooreh forest area, Lorestan Province, Iran

Our investigation dealt with myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) forest sites in Dooreh, a city in Lorestan Province, Iran. Myrtle, as a non-timber forest product, is an ever- green medicinal plant. It belongs to the family Myrta- ceae and is found naturally in many parts of the province. This valuable shrub forms dense populations at low elevations at some of its natural habitats. Given its ability to grow and develop in some unfavorable cir- cumstances, such as warm climates, myrtle is one of those plants that plays a significant role in the conserva- tion of its environmental habitat. This plant contains two important volatile oil substances, i.e., Myrtenol and Depantyn, which are very valuable to the pharmaceut- ical industry and thus, potentially myrtle can play an important role in the local economy (Makkizadeh Tafti et al. 2006). As well, this species, is of importance in maintaining environmental sustainability in semiarid re- gions. Because of its evergreen features it helps to make the landscape more attractive and aids the restoration of natural ecosystems (Salehnia 2008).
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