Pondicherry played a significant role in the history of freedom movement. Native women occupied a dignified place since the Chola period. During the French colonial rule in Pondicherry, the youth and the working class always spearheaded any political and social economic movement. The British influenced historians and native intellectuals naturally had to come to Pondicherry. Social reformers both men and women appeared on the Indian stage to uplift the women of the land. The women participation in the Indian National Movement was significant. The native women had the capacity and ability to participate in the Merger Movement in Pondicherry. The role played by women in the freedom struggle is one of the most unique, fascinating and interesting aspects of modern history. But their contribution has been hidden and not many sources are available for that. The present study brings to light the role played and the contribution made by some eminent women fighters of Pondicherry to the freedom struggle of Pondicherry.
Unlike some previous studies of menstrual cycle phase and exercise performance, we measured levels of the ovarian hormone P to confirm the occurrence of a true L phase of the menstrual cycle. This is important because menses need not be accompanied by ovulation nor by a substantial rise in P and E2 (Prior and Vigna, 1991). Indeed, the women in this study showed considerable variability in P levels and variability in the P increase from F to L (Table 1) (Fig. 1). Seven of 30 women did not show a typical L-phase increase in P level and may have been anovulatory. These women were excluded from analyses in order to best test the main study hypothesis of a P- mediated increase in physical work capacity.
Another limitation was the lack of information on reasons for not participating in cervical cancer screening. In light of the age at ﬁ rst screening invitation (23 years), some women in our cohort could likely have postponed participation in screening due to pregnancy, for example, as screening during pregnancy is not recommended in Denmark. Thus, some women would falsely be de ﬁ ned as unscreened, when, in fact, they participated in screening at a later time according to clinical recommendations. However, relatively few women resident in Denmark are pregnant at 23 years 49 as the mean age at ﬁ rst pregnancy is 29.2 years. 50 However, non-native women from non-wes- tern countries have a slightly higher fertility (0.2 live births pr. woman higher than native women) than native women. 43 This could mean that potentially more non-wes- tern women than native women have been misclassi ﬁ ed as non-participants in screening in our results. Expanding the follow-up window with another 6 months did, however, not alter our main results.
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There was no identified leadership model for American Indian women lead- ers. Through an exhaustive review of leadership styles it was identified that the Centered Leadership approach lends itself to the culture of American In- dian Women. The components of the Centered Leadership approach include: utilizing personal strengths, managing energy, positive framing, relationship building, and collaborating with others to take advantage of opportunities. Based on the review of the literature and native women’s leadership styles, the concepts of the Centered Leadership Model were utilized to develop “Native Women Leadership: Indigenous Pathway”. Prior to European contact, native women held positions of leadership, shared in decision making and owned property. Today Native women leaders and managers are reclaiming their decision making authority to improve the lives of their nations. The Native Women Indigenous Pathway has not come without barriers and discrimina- tion. The Centered Leadership approach assists in the examination of the American Indian woman’s pathway to decision making. Native women find themselves living in two worlds and must navigate expectations and respon- sibilities by switching between mainstream American and tribal values. How a native woman decides to negotiate these two worldviews is part of what creates her individual identity and her leadership style. A Native American Leadership Indigenous Pathway model is proposed.
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Figure 9 shows that the cumulative fertility of second generation Turkish women at age 30 is about halfway between that of the first generation and native women. As native women tend to catch up on their delayed fertility after age 30, the cumulative rates of the second generation will eventually be closer to those of native women than to those of the first generation. The completed fertility of the first generation is decreasing only slowly. The substantial family formation migration in the past decade, peaking in 2003, explains why the TFR of Turkish women has seen little change since the mid-1990s. Many Turkish wedding partners originate from regions in Turkey where fertility is above the national average, in particular Anatolia (Esveldt et al. 1995, Koç and Özdemir 2004). Currently the fertility in Turkey is below replacement level everywhere, except for South- and East-Anatolia. The fertility pattern of the first generation Turkish women in the Netherlands is therefore remarkably more traditional than that for Turkey as a whole. Given the sharp decline in family formation migration from Turkey and the growing share of the second generation, the TFR for the total group of Turkish women in the next few years will be falling again.
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Our study adds to the literature on migration and reproductive behavior by focusing on a major, yet understudied, migrant-receiving context and exploring variations in abortion and contraception not only between migrants and nonmigrants but also across categories of migrant legal status. With respect to induced abortion, we found significant differences across the three migration/legal-status groups: Native women showed the highest likelihood of having used an abortion, followed by fully regularized migrants and temporary/irregular migrants. Moreover, fully regularized migrants had a higher probability of aborting a pregnancy than temporary/irregular migrants only in the postmigration period. The detected patterns in abortion use by nativity and migrant legal status conform to two hypothesized pathways through which legal status may be conducive to greater abortion use in that context: migrants’ assimilation into Russia’s ‘abortion culture’ and their access to state-run abortion services. The survey data does not allow us to formally distinguish between the two pathways, but we argue that both operate simultaneously and should not be analytically separated. Notably, our findings differ from those of studies in other migrant-receiving contexts, where overall abortion use is much lower and where migrants typically have higher abortion rates than natives (e.g., Helström et al. 2003; Rasch et al. 2008; Picavet, Goenee, and Wijsen 2013; Rodriguez-Alvarez et al. 2016; González-Rábago et al. 2017). Again, however, due to data limitations, these studies could not be compared to our findings with respect to the role of legal status.
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American women has declined ever since the arrival of the Whites. Paula Gunn Allen in her Sacred Hoops writes “Since the first attempts at colonization in the early 1500s, the invaders have exerted every effort to remove Indian women from every position of authority, to obliterate all records pertaining to gynocratic social systems, and to ensure that no American and few American Indians would remember that gynocracy was the primary social order of Indian America prior to 1800” (Allen,3). She further argues that western studies of American Indian tribal systems are erroneous at base because they view tribalism from the cultural bias of patriarchy and thus either discount, degrade, or conceal gynocratic features or recontextualize those features so that they will appear patriarchal. In every field whether it is academic, political, or popular the whites attempt to paint Native American cultures as patriarchal when they are not. In Contemporary times they view them as hostile savages and in the modern times they are represented as worthless, alcoholic, and lazy people who mistreat their women brutally. The status Abstract: The Native Americans are the indigenous tribes of American. Prior to Columbus visit America was already inhabited by the Native Americans. The Native Americans have long established their society, lived as hunter gatherer and practice matrilineal sytem. But with the arrivals of the Whites things started to change drastically and thereby penetrating into the Native Americans matriarchal cycle of life. Their long silences have given the Whites the opportunity to paint the Native women according to their imagination. Some portray them as savage, some whores or prostitute, and some see them as squaw, doing menial job. In every field whether it is academic, political, or popular the whites attempt to paint Native American cultures as patriarchal when they are not. So, Leslie Marmon Silko has taken up writings to reconstruct and redefine their lives from an insider’s point of view and reclaim their lost identities. This paper aims to study the true status of the Native American women in lights to Silko’s three texts – Ceremony, Storyteller, and Garden in the Dunes and thereby constrasting it with that of the status of the Whites Women and the Status of Native American men.
It has already been shown that breast cancer mortality is lower in Sweden than in Denmark . In contrast, we found a similar mortality among immigrants from Denmark and native Swedes, which supports the conclu- sion by Jensen and colleagues emphasizing the impor- tance of early breast cancer detection in Sweden on decreasing breast cancer mortality . Our findings of higher breast cancer survival by increasing age is in line with the results of previous Swedish studies implying that young women affected by breast cancer have higher mortality even if diagnosed early and receiving intensive treatment [59,60]. In addition, we found higher mortal- ity among immigrant than native women if they were diagnosed at older ages. The older immigrant women in Sweden, thus, suffer from higher mortality for two rea- sons: first, their old age; since later diagnosis in older women has been associated with worse mortality in Sweden [59,60], and second, their migration status. The differences in management and screening uptake have already been observed among immigrant women com- pared to natives and might be an explanation for this finding [61-63].
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There were 3200 participants approached for the study, of whom 3137 consented to participate, giving a response rate of 98%. The number of women recruited at the UCH and Yemetu were 631 and 2506, respectively. The mean age and standard deviation were 33.8 and 7.9 years, respectively, with slightly less than half (47.8%) aged between 25 and 34 years and 35.1% aged 35–44 years (Table 1). The distribution of other selected sociodemographic variables is shown in Table 1. A large proportion of the women were currently married (88.8%), while others were single, never married (9.3%), separated (1.1%), or widowed (0.9%). The highest proportion (56.6%) of respondents had tertiary-level educa- tion, followed by secondary (34.5%), primary (7.8%), and no formal education (1.1%). The highest proportion of the women (79.8%) was of the Yoruba ethnic group. There were 1757 (56%) women who were aware of TVU. Concerning willingness to have TVU, 2618 women indicated a “yes” or “no” response, while the remaining 519 indicated “no response.” Based on the 2618 providing a “yes” or “no”
enmity, oppression and belligerence. It witnessed two appallingly devastating conflicts which many had previously thought unfathomable. The great nations whence came numerous forefathers of democracy approached the verge of positively obliterating their nationals' constructive efforts. Merely two decades had passed since the collapse of European imperialism when the preservation of civilised values came into competition during an unprecedented attempt to institute a global hegemony. Following years of extraordinary hostilities, reconciliation came about and parts of the West re-embarked upon a more propitious track. Nevertheless, several states across Europe were a long way from concluding their democratic transition, while a great deal of others became trapped in an authoritarian stranglehold. With respect to the former, consider Francoist Spain, the Estado Novo in Portugal or the Regime of the Colonels in Greece; with respect to the latter, consider Yugoslavia and the Eastern Bloc. Democracy did not dawn in these countries until as recently as the 1970s 2 . As much as the West enjoys patting itself on the back about how far it has progressed, when juxtaposed with other systems of governance, democracy comes out as quite embryonic. We should therefore endeavour to conduce to its uncomplicated gestation and birth. Similarly, we should safeguard the other hallmark of the Western civilisation – the observance of human rights. I shall note that in 2014, fifty years will have elapsed since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed discriminatory practices against minorities and women in The United States 3 . A year later, a half-
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the significance of the Rule of Benedict for understanding New Norcia’s enterprise. To explore these issues and the relationship between them this article has three sections: firstly, I consider Salvado’s reluctant foundation of St Joseph’s in the 1860s as an institution providing care for girls and unmarried women, and suggest a commitment to ‘work’ rather than ‘education’ framed his decisions. Then I turn to New Norcia’s reputation as a self-sufficient settlement, and especially to the Aboriginal women who worked as telegraphists in the 19 th century. The responsibility they and other women of their generation exercised contrasts with the domestic work of women at New Norcia in the next phase of the Mission. This shift from the late 19 th century into the mid-20 th century in the work of women in particular points towards the complex intersection of both race and gender with assumptions about the spiritual value of work. The Benedictine concept of labour as a dimension of prayer is the focus of the final section of the paper. It investigates the Benedictine tradition that insists work is not essentially focused on productivity or prestige, but should be understood as a dimension of living a good and holy life. To be a Benedictine is not to hold a set of precepts but to live a way of life. Indebted to Pierre Hadot, I argue that in this ‘worldview work becomes something we might call a “technology of the self”’; 7 and in the mission context at New Norcia it opened up pathways that defied stereotypes, acting paradoxically sometimes against racist assumptions and sometimes against conventional progress.
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expressed the view that mainstream society was nothing more than “ice cream bars and heart trouble and . . . getting up at six o’clock in the morning to mow your lawn in the suburbs.” NATIVE AMERICANS SEEK GREATER AUTONOMY Despite their cultural diversity, Native Americans as a group have been the poorest of Americans and have suffered from the highest unemployment rate. They have also been more likely than any other group to suffer from tuberculosis and alcoholism. Although the Native American population rose during the 1960s, the death rate among Native American infants was nearly twice the national average, while life expectancy was several years less than for other Americans.
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group, and calculated that the risk of osteoporosis in- creased with higher levels of bone turnover markers. This risk was different for different bone turnover markers and skeletal sites. For all bone turnover markers other than uDPD, the risk of osteoporosis of the PA lumbar spine was 4.5–13 times greater in the Q4 group than in the Q1 group. In the case of the femoral neck, this difference was 3.5–7.8 times. These results also suggest that the risk of osteoporosis greatly increases with increase in the levels of bone turnover markers in native Chinese women. In addition, it is worth pointing out the limitations of this study, even though the second morning urine creatinine levels of these subjects were in the reference value range, but we did not have the simultaneous determination of their serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), to investigate the relationship between bone turn- over markers and eGFR in this study population. Because the renal function is closely associated with bone metabol- ism and osteoporosis.
The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The results show that compared to native born Whites, Black African, Other Non-White and Indian men are more likely to be over-educated, whilst for women it is Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshis who are more likely to be over-educated. Estimating earnings equations shows significantly large over-education penalties for South Asian immigrant and native men, as well as White immigrant men, Black women and White UK born women. However, there are large returns to occupational skills for some minority ethnic and immigrant groups, over and above the returns to qualifications. It is suggested that these groups may therefore find it easier to find a suitable job for their UK education level if higher or further education programmes were combined with occupational specific training.
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For the second-generation women of Turkish or Moroccan origin the background of the partner did seem to play a role. Our results revealed that having a partner of the same ethnic origin is positively associated with second and higher order births. However, women with a first-generation partner experienced fairly similar second and higher order birth rates as women with a second-generation partner, and thus not higher, as was expected. This suggests that having a partner who is socialized according to the same ethnic fertility preferences mattered for the couple’s fertility behavior, but that the duration of his exposure to the fertility norms, values, and preferences in the country of origin did not have an additional influence. However, this finding could also be interpreted in the light of women’s partner preferences. There is literature that suggests that second-generation women of Turkish or Moroccan origin may prefer a first- generation immigrant partner for emancipatory reasons: marrying a same-origin partner living in Belgium implies potential interference from in-laws living locally, which may be avoided by marrying an immigrant (Timmerman, Lodewyckx, and Wets 2009). This may help to explain why unions with an immigrant endogamous partner experienced similar second and higher order birth rates as unions with a second-generation husband. In order to improve our understanding of the association between the process of mate selection on the one hand and fertility behavior on the other hand, further studies could analyze union formation and childbearing simultaneously using multiprocess models (Kulu and Steele 2013; Trimarchi and Van Bavel 2017).
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practitioners about the importance of testing pregnant women for GDM and type 2 diabetes. The result will be seen in more women with GDM and/or type 2 diabetes receiving the care they need to reduce the risk of costly complications, including pre- eclampsia, birth injury, and neonatal hypoglycemia in the short term and the long-term risk of diabetes for both mothers and their children. Screening rates for GDM and type 2 diabetes in pregnant women are expected to improve as a result of the new coverage guidelines. However, more needs to be done. To protect today’s mothers and the next generation, policymakers must rec- ognize the seriousness of diabetes.
The setting is a desert. And in this empty, barren world sits some kind of machine of the future. It whirls to life and out pops this Native American, somewhat confused and in obvious debate over who and where he is. He walks and walks, until he comes upon a dead body. Upon closer inspection, we find the body is his twin! And upon the back of his arm is a tattoo that reads “Made in China”. Bewildered, our hero checks the back of his own arm, only to find the same tattoo. He walks and walks, trying to find some explanation. Over a hill, he spots a vehicle moving toward him. He raises his arms to signal for help. A shot rings out, and our hero is dead. We see two hunters, congratulating themselves over a kill. And we end on the machine, whirling back up to life, and the door pops open.
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The first transition to be analysed is union formation, including the events of direct marriage and cohabitation. Native British women are the reference group in all of the comparisons. Figure 2 shows that native British women have a higher risk of first union formation than most other groups. However, the highest union formation levels are observed for immigrants from South Asia in the UK, those from Turkey in France and all of the population groups in Estonia. There are also large differences between immigrant groups in their respective countries, as well as between the countries. France and the UK both show similar patterns, with certain immigrants exhibiting low risks of union formation and other immigrants exhibiting high levels. All of the groups in Estonia have a high risk of union formation, with immigrants and their descendants experiencing somewhat higher levels than natives experience. Additional analysis showed that the elevated risks of union formation mainly reflect the comparatively early entry into first unions that is characteristic of all of the groups, whereas the difference between natives and immigrants stems from the lower proportion of people who were never-partnered within the latter group (Rahnu et al. 2014). In Spain, in contrast, all of the groups are below the benchmark of the native British women. Most immigrants in Spain have a significantly higher risk of union formation than the native Spanish women.
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Table 2 presents the relative risks of first union formation by migrant status. Women from South Asia have a 10% higher risk of union formation than native British respondents; whereas immigrant women from the Caribbean region have a 48%, women from other countries a 35%, and those from other European (and industrialised) countries a 20% lower risk of union formation (Model 1). These patterns persist when we additionally control for women’s educational level (Table 2, Model 2). The descendants of immigrants have a significantly lower risk of union formation than native British women. Further analysis of the timing and the level of union formation revealed that the lower risk among the descendants of immigrants is largely due to differences in the timing of union formation. The share of women who ever experienced a union is not that different for both those groups. Most ethnic minority women start unions later, and their first partnership is often a marriage, which is typically formed at a later age than cohabitation. Furthermore, their histories are censored when they are in their 30s: thus our proportional hazards model shows lower union formation rates for them. However, notably, the share of women who have entered a union at least once is large among native British women. The figure is as high as 95% for older cohorts.
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Obesity has been prevalent among postpartum women in many developed countries. In Taiwan, the importance of postpartum weight control has been highlighted by the Department of Health, Executive Yuan . The ideal BMI for Taiwanese adults has been determined as 18.5-24; a BMI less than 18.5 indicates the individual is underweight and a BMI over 24 characterizes an over- weight adult. These BMI values have been provided as guidelines for public health policies and have been included in health promotion programs. In this study, at the 6 th month postpartum, there was no significant dif- ference between the BMIs of immigrants and Taiwanese women. In addition, both groups showed similar aware- ness of vaccination-related information such as time schedules, purpose, and the management of potential adverse effects of vaccination. Despite the small sample sizes in this study, the results could provide different ways of thinking about the health of immigrant women, especially for ways of respecting culture and assessing discrimination issues in Taiwanese society.