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gas & power natural gas

gas & power natural gas

In 2004 Eni’s national network increased by 203 kilometers due to the entry into service of: (i) a new line connecting Gela, entry point of the Greenstream gasline from Libya, to the national network near Enna. The 36-inch diameter pipe covers 66 kilometers and has a transport capacity of 25 million cubic meters/day; (ii) the completion of a 30-inch diameter line connecting Pontremoli to Parma for the transmission of natural gas from the Panigaglia regasification terminal to northern Italy (70 kilometers); (iii) a 32-kilometer line upgrading the pipeline for importing natural gas from Russia; (iv) the sections from Palmi to Martirano and from Campochiaro to Sulmona as part of the upgrade of the Transmed pipeline through a third line for a total length of 53 kilometers. Eni’s regional transmission network is made up of pipes with smaller diameter than the national lines for a total length 22,349 kilometers. These pipes carry natural gas at pressures between 5 and 12 bars, between 12 and 24 bars and between 24 and 75 bars. In 2004, Eni’s regional network increased by 222 kilometers due to the entry into service of new lines, upgrades and of various connections to end users.
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NATURAL GAS SCENARIO IN INDIA

NATURAL GAS SCENARIO IN INDIA

MMSCMD, of which 8.60 MMSCMD was used for CNG (transport) & PNG (domestic) and 6.88 MMSCMD was used for Industrial & Commercial PNG. At present, there are a number of entities operating in 47 geographical areas (GAs) and currently 18 GAs are under bidding process by PNGRB. The PNGRB has envisaged a rollout plan of CGD network development through competitive bidding in more than 300 possible GAs in a phased manner depending upon the availability of natural gas and pipeline connectivity.

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Adding Value to Natural Gas

Adding Value to Natural Gas

– the pipe delivers to locations that are now better served by growing U.S. production. Government policies and programs directed at increasing conversion of the components of natural gas, specifically methane, ethane and propane, into higher-value products can provide diversity and demand for these products. The products produced do not suffer from lack of market access, they do not move by pipeline, they already are moving to many global markets and many of them are sold based on oil-related pricing instead of the very much lower gas prices. This is investing in the petrochemical industry to achieve value creation.
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Benzene and Natural Gas Production

Benzene and Natural Gas Production

The BSEEC study found only one facility with benzene levels exceeding long-term ESLs: the Encana Mercer Ranch well site in South Fort Worth 24 . The site, with 6 wells produces wet gas, and has a battery of 20 tanks for condensate and water. Sample locations within 100 to 150 feet from the tanks had 24 hour readings of 1.96 ppb and a one-hour reading of 3.15 ppb. Although these numbers exceeded long-term ESLs, the site in question was set back such that there were no protected uses within at least 1000 feet of the tanks. 25 Despite the finding, BSEEC said the results “showed there are no harmful levels of benzene and other compounds being emitted from natural gas sites tested.”
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Oil & Natural Gas Technology

Oil & Natural Gas Technology

The EcoShale In-Capsule Technology has been developed by Red Leaf Resources, Inc. to produce high quality liquid fuels from oil shale economically and with a minimal environmental impact. The process comprises heating mined and rubblized oil shale using pipes fired with natural gas burners in a clay-lined, closed-surface capsule. This technology does not require process water, protects ground water by using a liner inside the capsule, and allows for rapid site reclamation by providing an overburden over the capsule [1]. The process schematic is shown in Figure  1.

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Surging natural gas production in

Surging natural gas production in

Natural gas production in parts of the Appalachian basin, especially in western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia, are rich in natural gas liquids such as ethane, propane, and butane. These liquids are gener- ally separated from the natural gas stream and shipped in dedicated natural gas liquids pipelines. Within the federal regulatory framework, natural gas liquids pipelines fall under the Interstate Commerce Act and are regulated the same as oil pipelines. This means that pro- posed gas liquids pipelines do not go through the FERC review process and, importantly, do not receive fed- eral eminent domain authority.
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Natural Gas Engine Technologies

Natural Gas Engine Technologies

As the natural gas engine market share continues to improve, the natural gas engine technologies are developing rapidly. In order to improve the engine performance and meet the demand for various purposes, we have developed a series of technologies in terms of increasing the engine power, inhibiting knocking and reducing thermal load, etc. and have successfully developed various natural gas engines and generator sets, which are widely used in various fields. The gas engines with professional design and perfect control system have shown favorable economical efficiency, dynamic properties and low emission performance.
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Optical Gas Quality Sensor for Natural Gas and Opportunity Fuels.

Optical Gas Quality Sensor for Natural Gas and Opportunity Fuels.

In gas chromatography (GC), the mobile phase is a gas; usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen and the stationary column has a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside glass or metal tubing. The instrument used to perform gas chromatographic separations is called a gas chromatograph (also aerograph, gas separator). The mixture to be analyzed is dissolved in the mobile phase and is passed through the stationary phase, in which different compounds elute at different times called retention time. The retention time allows in identification of a component and peak area in the chromatogram indicates its amount. There are a significant number of GC products available in the market including the GCs specifically designed for measuring the energy content of natural gas.
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The process of liquefied natural gas

The process of liquefied natural gas

The liquid in the circulating high pressure separation tank fl ows into the III stage inlet separator, and all the liquid hydrocarbons fl ow into the precooler and then pass through. After the throttle expansion and expansion, the cooling capacity is provided for the precooling of natural gas. The recycle gas from the circulating high pressure separation tank is also cooled to the same temperature in the pre-cooler, partially condensed into the MRC separator, the liquid coming out of the separator is cooled in the liquefi er and then cooled by the J-T valve after expansion, it is used to provide refrigeration for the liquefi er. And the separated gas is condensed in the liquefi er, supercoiled in the sub cooler, and the fi nal cooling capacity for the sub cooling of the natural gas after the J-T valve. The expanded recirculation gas stream is reheated in the pre-cooler, liquefi er and sub cooler shared shell side of the low-temperature spiral wound tube heat exchanger, and is returned to the recirculation stage of the recycle compressor by the I-stage inlet separator.
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Natural gas demand in Turkey

Natural gas demand in Turkey

 The most striking result is the positive price elasticity values for the electricity generation sector for both short and long run. Actually, the economic theory states that there is an inverse relationship between demand and price; and a positive relation exists between demand and income. Therefore, price elasticity values should be negative. However, in Turkey, electricity selling price of power plants producing electricity from natural gas does not depend on the cost of natural gas. They sell the electricity they produced based on a formula in which the cost of natural gas is treated as “cost-pass-through”, meaning that any increase in natural gas price is directly reflected in final tariffs. In short, natural gas fired power plants do not respond price changes so elasticities do not in conformity with economic theory.
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Ratable Taking of Natural Gas

Ratable Taking of Natural Gas

Ratable Taking of Natural Gas SMU Law Review Volume 11 | Issue 3 Article 9 1957 Ratable Taking of Natural Gas Charles Robert Dickenson Follow this and additional works at https //scholar smu edu/smulr[.]

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The catalytic combustion for natural gas

The catalytic combustion for natural gas

Catalytic combustion is an attractive way to produce thermal energy of high quality from the environmental point of view, since it allows efficient and complete fuel burning at temperatures lower than in the flame combustion and without yielding undesired by-products, such as UHC, CO, NO x and particulate [1,2]. One of the most interesting potential applications of the catalytic combustion is in the natural gas fuelled burners for gas turbine power generation [3]. The very high temperatures in this process demands to the researchers very hard tasks, since an unavoidable contrast between activity and stability has to be taken into account in the choice of the material. PdO is active already at low temperature but cannot stand temperatures higher than 800 _ C [4] and must be therefore protected from overheating. Its use in high temperature applications should be restricted to the ignition section of the reactor, the complete combustion being homogeneously achieved in the gas phase or in more stable catalytic segments in the final section of the burner [5,6].
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A Meta Analysis of Natural Gas Consumption

A Meta Analysis of Natural Gas Consumption

akhteeyar & Abbas Maleki (2015) using PSO model to predict the NG consumption in Iran. Jolanta Szoplik (2015) &Junghwan Jin JinsooKim(2015) predict the NG consumption using ANN in Poland & Korea. Sergas Sergipe Gas S. A., Aracaju (2016) predict the natural gas consumption using Arima model in Brazil. Mustafa Akpinar, M. Fatih Adak & Nejat Yumusak (2016) predict NG consumption using technique hybrid neural networks in Ukraine. Beyzanur Cayir Ervural , Omer Faruk Beyca & SelimZaim (2016) predict natural gas consumption using methods Genetic algorithm in Turkey. Xiaoyu Wang, DongkunLuo, Jianye Liu, Wenhuan Wang, and Guixin Jie (2017) predict the NG consumption using methods hybrid MVO-NNGBM model in China. Zhenwu Zhang & Liu (2017) predict the natural gas consumption using the method PSO & Gray neural network in China.Sanjay Kumar Kar & Michael Ratner (2017) predict the natural gas consumption using techniques ANN in India. Techniques used for prediction of NG in this paper are Neural Network and Adaptive neural network(NNANN) based, Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Programs of Neural Network use iterative process taking given past data to find the connection between given input and output variables and use the model to capture output value for the given input variables.(ZekicSusac at al. 2009).The fuzzy inference system implemented in the framework of adaptive networks(azadeh at al) by using Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system(ANFIS).This technique posses both learning capability and structured knowledge representation employed in fuzzy inference systems of neural networks. Therefore it is appropriate for time series non linear models.
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Natural Gas Flaring—Alternative Solutions

Natural Gas Flaring—Alternative Solutions

In the sea bed, once the methane is saturated in ocean with the appropriate temperature and pressure, ice crystal will start to grow into a gas-like lattice that traps the dissolved methane. There is actually no major chemical bond between the water molecule and methane other than Van der Waals forces. But the major influence is the presence of a guest molecule inside the ice crystals that increases the melting point of ice to several degrees above 0˚C and makes the structure more stable. This property of gas hydrate can be experimentally investigated and capitalized on, to effectively store natural gas as hydrate for energy conservation instead of flaring the gas wastefully. Figure 4 shows the crystalline cage-like structure formed when water molecules formed crystal lattice around methane gas.
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Determinants of natural gas demand in Ghana

Determinants of natural gas demand in Ghana

Adom (2011) estimates the electricity-economic growth nexus in Ghana and its impli- cations for energy conservation measures and environmental policy. The Toda and Yomamoto Granger Causality test is used to carry out the test of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth from 1971 to 2008. The results obtained revealed that there exists a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption. Thus, data on Ghana support the growth-led-energy hypothesis. These findings differ from Esso’s (2010) findings that suggest that economic growth has negative effect on energy consumption in Ghana after 1988. The differences may be due to the nature of data, estimation method and the time frame for the estimation. The results on the energy studies on Ghana are therefore not conclusive. Therefore, this study uses the STSM to assess the effect of income and other economic factors on natural gas demand in Ghana. Table 2 shows the summary of findings on the relationship energy consumption and growth in Ghana and Africa.
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Russia and the EU Natural Gas Market

Russia and the EU Natural Gas Market

The country’s growing stake in the energy market and regional reliance on Russian natural gas supplies has given the Kremlin leverage to bargain with neighboring countries and balance against great power states beyond its immediate periphery to structure political negotiations to the advantage of national interests. The absence of both a global market and benchmark price for natural gas has created a regionally segregated natural gas market that places price regulation largely under the control of producers. This has made the market extremely susceptible to price shocks brought on by disruptions in supply or demand. Russian gas supplies are therefore sold according to a formula that pegs prices to an oil index in order to maintain gas prices uncommonly high. Meanwhile, the reliance on long-term, bilateral energy agreements with take-or-pay provisions, which enforce fees for unused gas, simultaneously ensure advantageous contract terms for Russia, while subverting efforts to develop a unified European energy policy. xxxiii Thus bolstered by ‘petro- confidence,’ Moscow has increasingly exploited these circumstances to reclaim control over strategic natural resources and renegotiate former deals with foreign investors.
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Inhibition of Gas Hydrates in Natural Gas Pipelines by Application of MEOH

Inhibition of Gas Hydrates in Natural Gas Pipelines by Application of MEOH

and natural gas are present at low temperature and high pressure. Such conditions often exist in oil and gas wells and pipelines. Hydrate plugs can damage equipment of gas transport system. Petroleum industry spends over two million US$ each day to prevent hydrate formation in wells, pipelines and equipment. Natural deposits of gas hydrates also exist on Earth in colder regions, such as permafrost or sea bottom areas. Natural gas hydrates are unconventional energy resources. Potential reserve of gas in hydrate deposits is over 1.5x1016 m3 distributed offshore and on land. About 97% of natural gas hydrates have been located offshore and only 3% on land. At present time there are several federal research programs in a number of countries for development of gas hydrate deposits. Over 220 gas hydrate deposits were discovered, over a hundred wells drilled, kilometers of cores studied. Gas hydrate resource is distributed conveniently for development by mostly every country. Special properties of hydrated cores were studied, and effective tools for recovery of gas from hydrate deposits and new technology for development gas hydrate fields were developed. There is a long-term commercial production of natural gas from hydrates in Siberia. Researchers continue to study the properties of natural gas hydrates in reservoir conditions and to develop new technologies for exploration and production of gas from hydrate deposits in different geological conditions.
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The Use of Exergy in the Expansion of Natural Gas

The Use of Exergy in the Expansion of Natural Gas

With the assumption that natural gas must maintain the same temperature before and after ex­ pansion, a higher internal efficiency o f the expansion machine is o f vital importance for efficient transfor­ mation of heat into mechanical work: good internal efficiency means higher heat input, but also more ob­ tained work. Since the pressure energy o f natural gas is already available (in contrast to standard cy­ clic processes), no compressor is required.

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The Optimal Allocation of Iran's Natural Gas

The Optimal Allocation of Iran's Natural Gas

he optimal allocation of natural gas resources to various uses such as final and intermediate consumption, injection into oil fields, and exports can help policymakers to use this kind of resources efficiently. Empirical evidence support using hyperbolic discount rates instead of fixed discount rates in the economic literature. The purpose of this study is to maximize the social welfare function and analyze the optimal paths of different uses of natural gas over the next three decades based on a nonlinear dynamic programming model using a hyperbolic discount rate. The results show that in the current situation, gas exports do not maximize social welfare, but by expanding Iran's natural gas production, exports will lead to maximizing social welfare.
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Strategic Stockpile in Natural Gas

Strategic Stockpile in Natural Gas

Amount of Additional Natural Gas Necessary to Build a Stockpile Equal to The Consumption Between 1945 and 1979, and the Corresponding Estimated Reserves After Stockpiling.. At 0% Increas[r]

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