19 ROI-based prediction. In a next step, we investigated whether similar brain regions encode the valence of thought during both externally cued attributions and unconstrained, task-free rest periods, respectively. To formally address this issue, we defined brain regions that predicted the valence of attributions in Session A (Table 1) as regions of interest (ROIs). When these ROI-based decoding analyses were applied to the data from Session B (within-Session B decoding), we found that distributed activation patterns in the mOFC (Figure 2D) provided information about positive and negative thoughts during rest (average of 60% decoding accuracy across participants, ± 2.99 SEM, p = 0.003). No effect of session order was found (p = 0.71; Figure 2E). Local response patterns in the ACC were also predictive of -free positive and negative thoughts prior to the respective thought sample (average of 57% decoding accuracy, ± 2.43 SEM, p = 0.009). No other ROI that encoded task-related positively and negatively valenced thoughts in Session A was found to predict the affective tone of mental states in Session B significantly above chance level (all p > 0.17).
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In the model developed in this study, it is believed that negative cognitions can be problematic when they cause metaworry. Metaworry occurs when one fears from his/her negative cognitions and considers them ab- normal and special to his/her own mind. Wells (2009) believes that when people are afraid of their thoughts and consider them abnormal and uncontrollable, they frighten themselves more and at the same time try to eliminate and control their thoughts due to worry and fear. However efforts to control and eliminate the negative thoughts don’t cause a decrease in the negative thoughts and impulses, but cause failure in controlling thoughts, and sometimes increase the negative thoughts. When one disappoints to control the negative thoughts, s/he resorts to the obsessive, avoidance and safety behaviors to reduce his/her anxiety and stress. The obsessive and avoidance behaviors reduce anxiety temporarily and this issue encourages individuals to use the obsessive behaviors fre- quently and compulsorily, but this action lead to the retention of obsessive behaviors in the long run and result in duration of the disorder. According to the model of this study, skin picking behavior is enjoyable because it causes distraction from the pain of negative thoughts and is considered as a strategy to control negative thoughts and it cause to duration of the negative thoughts and skin picking obsession. Therefore, in explanation of SPD from the developed model’s perspective, all the three behavioral, cognitive and metacognitive aspects and their interactions have been taken into consideration.
Very often future music teachers before performing experience fear, stress, anxiety and negative thinking. When one does not know how to think positively, mind is filled with anxiety, therefore, in order to achieve effective self-regulation it is necessary to develop a habit of pushing the negative thoughts away and instead thinking about positive, useful things. While in the face of failures to anticipate the anxiety, negative thoughts and analyse the reasons, which encouraged them, so it would be possible to avoid the same mistakes in the future (Carnegie 2013). Music teacher’s profession according to Kirliauskiene (2005) is assigned to professions, to which the emotional tension is typical. It occurs because of concerts, which are an obligatory component of music teacher’s profession. However, concert activities of professionals and music teachers are different. The scholar points out the following differences:
increases in students’ moral maturity will decrease resistance behaviors during teaching-learning processes. Negative and significant relationships in the literature between moral maturity and bullying  and moral attitudes ad aggressiveness and violence  support this relation. One of the goals of the education process is to have students to acquire self-control skills by developing their self-regulation abilities. These skills are rather crucial especially for resistance and negative behaviors. These skills not only help students to develop socially acceptable moral understanding and healthy attitudes  but also support their positive development conscientiously and decrease negative behaviors. Assessment in terms of sub dimensions shows that increases in students’ moral maturity levels decreases their resistance behaviors in class and their negative thoughts and beliefs regarding instructors’ personal and professional qualities. Another important result of the study is related to the fact that increases in moral maturity causes slight increases in beliefs about future benefits of education. This finding shows that beliefs about the future benefits of education are positively affected from moral maturity because moral maturity affects education, careers and economic achievements of individuals . Regarding the teaching profession, the society both expects teachers to be ideal human beings who practice what they preach and want them to contribute to students’ learning about universal values. In terms of moral development, the function of teachers is to be a role model with their emotions thoughts and behaviors and to practice and transfer culture, values, norms, social conventions and morals during in class activities . In this sense, it can be argued that it is crucial to increase moral maturity levels and decrease resistance behaviors in formation students who are the students of today but the teachers of tomorrow.
and to significantly mediate the relationship between Harm Avoidance-SWB, and Self-directedness-SWB. Indeed, this specific strategy is an ambivalent type of behav- iour—on the one hand efforts are made to avoid negative experiences by suppressing negative thoughts and feel- ings, while on the other hand the individual ruminates about negative aspects of life. This type of behaviour is the reverse of a happy individual who could be described as being low in Harm Avoidance and high in Self- directedness (see Table 4). As in Tkach and Lyubomir- sky’s  study, the results indicate that Mental Control, Direct Attempts, and Active Leisure are positively re- lated to adolescent’s happiness. However, as for adults , Mental Control was positively related to tempera- ment (i.e., Harm Avoidance in the present study and Neuroticism in Tkach & Lyubomirsky’s study). In con- trast, adolescents’ Self-directedness was negatively cor- related to Mental Control. Thus, it remains unclear if
Several other researchers attempted to investigate the relationship between career and life stresses and career decision state. For example, Bullock-Yowell, Peterson, Reardon, Leierer, and Reed (2011) used a sample of 232 college stu- dents to study the relationship among career and life stresses, negative thoughts, and career decision state. This study revealed that an increase in career and life stress was associated with an increase in negative thoughts and an increase in such thoughts was associated with less career decidedness and satisfaction. However, when the variation associated the negative thoughts were accounted for, career and life stress and career decision were found to be inversely related, which is to say that the higher the career and life stress is the lower the career indecision and dissatisfaction. Bullock-Yowell et al. (2011) suggested that career professionals to be attentive to how negative thoughts would impede the career decision-making when individuals are encountering career and life stresses. In Strauser, Lustig, Cogdal, and Uruk’s (2006) research, the researchers used a sample of 131 college students to study how traumatic experience would influ- ence individuals’ development of work personality. In their study, the work per- sonality involves 1) a set of work behaviors such as attention to timeline, interac- tion with peers in workplaces, and appropriate on-task behaviors; 2) knowledge of self such as interests, skills, and values; and 3) ability to make effective career decisions. Trauma was termed as an experience that would cause individuals to encounter injury or death and provoke extensive feelings of terror and hope- lessness. The results showed that there is significant relationship between high levels of trauma symptoms and high levels of negative career thoughts and low levels of work personality. The researchers interpreted that trauma symptoms may negatively affect individual’s cognitive information processing, and the de- ficient in reasoning will then in turn negatively affect individuals’ career deci- sion-making quality. Similarly, Strauser et al. (2006) advised career professionals to be knowledgeable about PTSD and other trauma symptoms. Before address- ing any other career issues, career professionals are advised to make referrals of clients exhibiting trauma symptoms or to teach individuals with better coping skills in the first place.
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Results from the present study also suggest that it may be valuable for future research to assess positive appraisals and positive outcomes (e.g., positive affect, daily functioning). Research to date has focused almost exclusively on describing negative outcomes, despite the fact that many responses to these thoughts (e.g., avoidance) actually result in short-term reductions in negative outcomes and may even increase positive momentary outcomes. For example, one recent study found that thought suppression among individuals with OCD, while globally associated with poorer functioning, actually led to short-term improvements in functioning (e.g., anxiety level, ability to adhere to daily schedule) when assessed at the level of individual thought occurrences (Purdon, Rowa, & Antony, 2007). These findings provide valuable insight into a possible factor that may reinforce and maintain thought suppression attempts, raising the possibility that intrusive or repetitive negative thoughts may be similarly reinforced and maintained through short-term positive experiences (Borkovec, 1994).
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Concerning the role of the valence, three hypotheses have been proposed: The first hypothesis suggests that positive thinking is the most predictive of psychological adjustment. Although some studies have found evidence for this position (e.g., Burnett, 1996), most have found results that support a second hypothesis that posits the greater influence of negative thinking on psychopathological disorders. Kendall (1984) called this phenomenon “the power of nonnegative thinking” and suggested that a lower frequency of negative thoughts, as opposed to the presence of positive ones, is more relevant to differentiate emotionally normal from maladapted groups. This hypothesis has received empirical support from several studies (e.g., Ronan, Kendall, & Rowe, 1994; Treadwell & Kendall, 1996). A third hypothesis, Schwartz and Garamoni’s (1986) states- of-mind (SOM) model of cognitive balance, establishes that a specific proportion of negative-to-positive self-statements accounts for optimal emotional adjustment, and that dysfunction occurs when this ratio shifts. SOM ratios are usually obtained by dividing positive self-statement scores by positive-plus-negative self-statement scores. In a reformulated version of the SOM model, the optimal balance between positive and negative self-talk was assumed to approximate a ratio ranging from .67 to .90 (Schwartz, 1997). Although a number of studies have obtained support for this model, adjustment to the ratios proposed by Schwartz seems to depend on the method employed to assess self-talk (self- report vs. thought-listing) and the categories of thinking evaluated (Calvete & Cardeñoso, 2002; Ronan & Kendall, 1997).
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In the developed intervention of the present study, it is believed that negative cognitions can be problematic when they cause metaworry. Metaworry occurs when one fears from his/her negative cognitions and considers them abnormal and special to his/her own mind.  believes that when people are afraid of their thoughts and consider them abnormal and uncontrollable, they frighten themselves more and at the same time try to eliminate and control their thoughts due to worry and fear. - believe that efforts to control and eliminate the nega- tive thoughts don’t cause a decrease in the negative thoughts and impulses, but cause failure in controlling thoughts, and sometimes increase the negative thoughts. When one disappoints to control the negative thoughts, s/he resorts to the obsessive, avoidance and safety-seeking behaviors to reduce his/her anxiety and stress  . Obsessive and avoidance behaviors reduce the anxiety temporarily and this issue encourages individuals to use the obsessive behaviors frequently and compulsorily, but this action leads to the retention of obsessive be- haviors in the long run and result in duration of the disorder. Therefore, in explanation of the OCD from the viewpoint of the developed intervention in the present study, all the three behavioral, cognitive and metacogni- tive aspects and their interactions have been taken into consideration.
Psychological intervention should be based on the indi- vidual patient’s specific goals for problem solving, not just a general coping strategy . Negative automatic thoughts are associated with reduced health behavior and physical activity [4, 5]. Therefore, perioperative rehabilitation for cancer patients should focus not only on exercise, but also on psychoeducation for coping style. Successful exercise experi- ences can dramatically improve negative automatic thoughts. Physical therapists often initiate postoperative exercise, and so they should take the lead in psychoeducation to help patients replace negative thoughts with more adaptive coping styles during rehabilitation. As psychological constructs and QOL are worse in patients with short duration rather than long duration since diagnosis [20–22] and surgery [23–25], early combination treatment of rehabilitation and psychoe- ducation could be useful in cancer patients. Patients in the early postoperative phase experience pain and reduction of QOL, and therefore the treatment should be individualized for each patient’s symptoms.
Always visualize only favorable and beneficial situations. Use positive words in our inner dialogues or when talking with others. Smile a little more, as this helps to think positively. If we feel inner resistance when replacing negative thoughts with positive ones, do not give up, but keep looking only at the beneficial, good and happy thoughts in our mind. Disregard any feelings of laziness or a desire to quit. If we persevere, we will transform the way our mind thinks.
decreases motivation to adopt inefficient attitudes through modifying the contents of thoughts. Mindfulness represents a different relationship with thoughts. Rather than emphasizing bringing together events consistent or inconsistent with thoughts, this technique highlights individual’s resistance to negative thoughts that is achieved through a different mindset, paying more attention, and concentration. It can be therefore concluded that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy affects the components of rumination in people with migraine.
When facing a diagnosis of a life-threatening disease such as prostate cancer, disease-related thoughts could relate to men’s assessment of quality of life. It is possible that the thoughts of men who receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer alternate between healthy reflections and involuntary thoughts. Involuntary thoughts that appear suddenly, repeatedly and that are unwelcome – intrusive thoughts – constitute one component of post-traumatic stress disorder  and can be seen as a marker of in- complete cognitive processing of the emotional trauma caused by the cancer diagnosis [2,3]. Intrusive thoughts have been seen as reflecting an incomplete coping process after a traumatic event  and, in theory, a suc- cessful coping process is vital if quality of life is to be maintained . In direct relation to a traumatizing event, possibly the frequency and intensity of intrusive thoughts can serve as a measure of the quality of life. Studies performed at one time-point in the disease process or among patients receiving various treatments, suggest that there could be an association between in- trusive thoughts and impaired quality of life among men with prostate cancer [4,6-9], but quality-of-life measure- ment scales rarely include questions on thoughts . The presence of intrusive thoughts has also been linked to depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance [3,11]. On the other hand, prospective large-scale studies in well- defined study-groups could reveal if the association be- tween intrusive thoughts and quality-of-life outcomes is sufficiently well based for further utilization in studies or clinical interventions.
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In the PMER, the purpose of the primary process is to attain social desirability. In order to achieve this goal, people cannot express their real emotions in many occasions. In the primary emotion regulation process, it is assumed that people regulate their emotions in three possible ways. People may express, suppress, or reappraise their emotions, depending upon the intensity of emotion and the acceptability of the emotion in the situation. Specifically, negative emotions are usually suppressed in the primary process and transferred to the secondary process to be repaired. However, if the intensity of negative emotions is very high or the situation warrants the expression of negative emotions, people directly express their negative emotions to others. The PMER proposes that such expressed negative emotions in the primary process may or may not need to be regulated by the secondary emotion regulation process. Reappraisal is another possible way to regulate negative emotions in the primary emotion regulation process. Reappraisal is a form of cognitive change that involves constructing a potentially emotion-eliciting situation in a way that changes its emotional impact (Lazarus & Alfert, 1964). If the negative emotion could be dealt with by reappraisal in the primary process, such negative emotions might be resolved immediately. Therefore, these negative emotions would have no need for the secondary emotion regulation process.
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their correctness or incorrectness. . This increases the incentive for change with inevitable barriers and encourages the person to work towards the realization of his valuable goals, and this can lead to improved mental health and life expectancy in addicted women. In a committed activity, an individual is encouraged to take the ultimate effort and effort to reach the goal. In fact, in this kind of therapy, the main goal is to create psychological flexibility; that is, to create the ability to make practical choices among the different choices that are more appropriate, rather than to act purely to avoid disturbing thoughts, feelings, memories, or desires Imposed to the person. The commitment and acceptance therapy has two parts: mindfulness, action, and experience in the present, and is taught to people who, by accepting their emotions and avoiding experiential avoidance, live and live now, and better with the challenge Affect after a wife's addiction. Acceptance and commitment therapy helps to control inferior thoughts and inappropriate behaviors to self-acting. In fact, since adherence and commitment therapy does not mean disturbing
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We showed that people with schizophrenia have higher negative belief and thoughts than controls. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that objective QOL was pre- dicted by side effects and neurocognitive function, whereas subjective QOL was predicted by depression and PAT and NAT. Therefore, we suggested that the key targets of treat- ment in people with schizophrenia to improve subjective and Table 3 relationship between subjective quality of life and clinical variables
Focusing on the process outcome of acceptance an improvement due to the intervention can be concluded, which is in line with previous research, showing the effect of Living to the Full on acceptance, and underlining the mediating role of acceptance for the effect of the intervention (Bohlmeijer et al., 2011). However, taking this into account, it appears perplexing that regression analysis revealed no relationship between acceptance and positive mental health in the present study. Speculating on this finding, a possible explanation might be that the process of acceptance does not exert direct influence on positive mental health. Instead, Living to the Full might promote the process of acceptance by improving the ability to recognize negative experiences without blundering into cognitive exertion, which afterwards reduces the tendency to exercise experiential avoidance. This again might create psychological and mental freedom to lead an engaged life, which ultimately increases positive mental health. Although this line of thought presumes a complex interaction of core processes and is purely speculative, it fits into the theoretical framework of ACT, stating that engaged living is the main step towards a meaningful life and the process of acceptance rather embodies a means to an end on the way to positive mental health, as it supports to break away from cognitive entanglement and paves the way towards value-based behavior and committed action (Hayes, 2004; Hayes et al., 2006).
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Metacognition Scale: This scale was developed by Wells et al.  and comprised 30 self-report items to measure one's beliefs about own thinking. In this scale, items were rated on a 4-point Likert scale anchored by 1 (‘do not agree‘) to 4 (‘agree very much’). This scale includes five sub-scales, each comprising six items. The sub-scales include positive metacognitive beliefs about worry, negative metacognitive beliefs about worry, low cognitive performance, negative metacognitive beliefs about thoughts such as superstition, and cognitive self-consciousness. The internal consistency of overall scale is approximately 0.93. Moreover, correlation coefficient of the overall scale with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was reported to be
The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; ) consists of 10 items of positive affect and 10 items of negative affect, each of which is rated on a scale from 1 (very slightly/ not at all) to 5 (extremely). The measure has been validated among adult samples, with alpha co- efficients ranging from 0.84-0.90 . This scale was ad- ministered at the beginning of each session (before the participant knew which task they would perform) and again immediately following the task. Any short-term ef- fect of the task during the post-meal period was mea- sured by the change score, where a positive change score on the PANAS negative affect subscale would represent an increase in negative affect over time and a positive change score on the PANAS positive affect subscale would represent an increase in positive affect over time.
Ajzen and Fishbein’s (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action suggests an individual’s intention to perform a behaviour as the direct determinant of the actual behaviour. Such intention is a result of two other determinants, namely “attitude” and “subjective norm”. Attitude is referred to as the personal factor of “positive or negative evaluation of performing the behavior (p.6), and “subjective norm” is referred to “the person’s perception of the social pressures put on him to perform or not perform the behavior (p.6)”. Evaluation of outcome (EOO) is one factor contribute to attitude and is defined as ‘an individual’s belief that a behavior (change) leads to certain outcomes, and his judging and computing on how beneficial these outcomes are; it is the determinant of an individual’s ‘attitudes toward such behavior (change)’ (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980).