New Materials

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Optical parametric oscillators : a comparison of new materials

Optical parametric oscillators : a comparison of new materials

The new materials possess higher non-linear coefficients and higher optical damage thresholds, which enables more efficient devices with lower oscillation thresholds to be built OPOs are[r]

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New materials from waste and renewable oils

New materials from waste and renewable oils

As the demand for crude oil increases, and oil reserves deplete, the need for renewable materials grows ever more important. Renewable materials primarily come from biomass. Biomass is biological material from living or recently living organisms, mainly plants, and is comprised of wood, plants, landfill gases, household waste and alcohol fuels. Bioplastics are a form of plastic derived from biomass sources, predominantly from vegetable oils and fats, wood (lignin and cellulose) and starch (corn, potato and rice) and have received a lot of attention in recent years as alternatives to petrochemical based polymers. Alternatively waste polymer recycling has attracted attention as a way of reducing the use of petrochemicals to produce polymers. There are two routes of recycling plastics: mechanical recycling, 1 where plastics are ground down and reprocessed for either same or similar use, and chemical recycling 2 where the plastics are turned back into the original components which can be reused to make new materials.
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New materials and devices for preventing catheter-related infections

New materials and devices for preventing catheter-related infections

Catheters are the leading source of bloodstream infections for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Comprehensive unit-based programs have proven to be effective in decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). ICU rates of CR-BSI higher than 2 per 1,000 catheter-days are no longer acceptable. The locally adapted list of preventive measures should include skin antisepsis with an alcoholic preparation, maximal barrier precautions, a strict catheter maintenance policy, and removal of unnecessary catheters. The development of new technologies capable of further decreasing the now low CR-BSI rate is a major challenge. Recently, new materials that decrease the risk of skin-to-vein bacterial migration, such as new antiseptic dressings, were extensively tested. Antimicrobial-coated catheters can prevent CR-BSI but have a theoretical risk of selecting resistant bacteria. An antimicrobial or antiseptic lock may prevent bacterial migration from the hub to the bloodstream. This review discusses the available knowledge about these new technologies.
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New materials and techniques for miniaturised chromatography

New materials and techniques for miniaturised chromatography

aminophenylboronic acid to hexamethylenediamine (B-N coordination), and used tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate as the epoxy reagent. It was hoped that the resulting monolith would retain its boron-nitrogen coordinated state, making it a so-called  “Wuff-type  boronic  acid”  which  may  be  more  effective  at  lower  pH   values. The material did indeed perform well at the relatively low pH of 7.0, with a loading capacity for catechol of 1.56 µmol mL -1 . This value is not that much lower than the loading capacity for cytidine observed for the grafted HPBA monolith at pH 9. Indeed, the material compared very favourably with other BAC materials in terms of its function at pH 7. However, the selective retention of monolith was demonstrated only for adenosine and catechol and the monolith was not exposed to any complex sample matrices, so it remains unknown whether this synthesis approach could make monoliths suitable for real applications.
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New materials for cancer imaging and therapy

New materials for cancer imaging and therapy

Attempts were undertaken to exploit the high brilliance and collimation of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) using infrared spectroscopy at the Australian Synchrotron. The development of a new beamline accessory, Synchrotron Radiation Attenuated Total Reflection Far-Infrared (SR-ATR-FIR), for the THz/Far-IR beamline was instigated and proof of concept studies provided the necessary evidence of SR spectral range superiority over conventional sources whilst allowing for rapid screening of samples. Particular to this thesis is the groundwork on the SR-ATR-FIR spectra of 1 and synthetic precursors, highlighting the in line vibrations to the transmission SR-FIR spectra as well as the capabilities to carry out photodecomposition studies with an out-of-vacuum SR-ATR-FIR system. This particular system has been funded, designed and is now available as of application round 3, 2017 at the Australian Synchrotron. New liquid diamond window cells were tested at the THz/Far-IR beamline with a laser source aligned to the sample chamber to allow for in situ irradiation of samples. Reflection artefacts of the liquid cells, referred to as fringes, hampered the detection of weak and low intensity vibrations in solution due to noise in the baselines. Nevertheless, elevated concentrations of 1 in DMSO allowed for the photodecomposition to be monitored by SR-FIR. Rapid rate of removal of the ν(Pt-OH) and ν(Pt-N 3 ) vibrations was observed in the first five minutes, with
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Functional Nanofibers via Electrospinning: New Materials and Processes.

Functional Nanofibers via Electrospinning: New Materials and Processes.

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are intriguing amphiphilic molecules that consist of a hydrophilic outer structure and a hydrophobic core with the ability to act as hosts for both nonpolar and polar guests. Guest entities include macro- and small molecules bound by noncovalent interactions including van der Waals, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions 1-9 . Electrospinning is a facile yet effective method for producing nanoscale non-woven mats of fibers 10-12 , particularly nanofibers with high aspect ratios attractive in diverse applications including membrane technology, reinforced materials, sensors, textiles, tissue engineering and drug delivery 11, 13-22 . We report for the first time, the fabrication of submicron fibers from highly concentrated hydroxypropyl -cyclodextrin (HPCD) by electrospinning without the addition of a carrier polymer. Electrospinning fibers from pure CD would leverage the distinctive properties of these molecules with the unique properties of nanofibers, opening new possibilities for the synthesis of nanoarchitectured supramolecular complexes. This work also demonstrates that a non-polymer solution system can be electrospun belying commonly accepted hypothesis that nanofiber formation by
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New Materials for Vacuum Chambers in High Energy Physics

New Materials for Vacuum Chambers in High Energy Physics

Vacuum chambers must fulfil ultra-high vacuum requirements while withstanding thermo-me- chanical loads. This is particularly true in high energy particle accelerator where interactions of particles with matter may induce thermal load, material activation, background … The choice of the material of the vacuum chamber is crucial for the final application. Metals such as stainless steel, copper and aluminium are usually used. Even with outstanding mechanical and physical properties, beryllium is used for very specific applications because of its cost and toxicity. Ceram- ics such as alumina are usually used for fast magnet vacuum chambers. With the next generation of high energy physics accelerator generation such as CLIC and TLEP, the problematic of high cy- clic thermal load induced by synchrotron radiation is raised. This paper aims at defining some figures of merit of different materials with respect to several load scenarios and presents briefly their vacuum compatibility.
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Productivity improvements through the use of industrial microwave technologies

Productivity improvements through the use of industrial microwave technologies

Some successful industrial applications are outlined below: ceramic/ceramic matrix composite sintering and powder processing, polymers and polymer-matrix composites processing, microwave plasma processing of materials, and minerals processing. The potential benefits of microwave processing over conventional processes for ceramic processing include reduced processing time, improved product uniformity and yields, improved microstructure, and the ability to synthesise new materials [3]. Vulcanisation of rubber is the first successful commercial application of microwave processing for polymers. The process brought about increased throughput, reduced operating costs, product uniformity, reduced scrap, improved automation and process control, continuous vulcanisation rather than conventional batch processes, improved cleanliness and environmental compatibility. There are significant differences between microwave excited plasma and the common parallel-plate RF (13.56 MHz) plasma. The degree of ionisation is also greater in microwave plasma. In the diamond film formation process, the benefits of microwave excited plasma include energy efficiency, stability and reproducibility of the plasma, and potential for larger production scale. In mineral processing, the use of microwave energy brings about substantial benefits in reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution. By employing the differential coupling of energy and the differences in thermal expansion, microwave processing of ores separates the valued component in the ore and the waste material surrounding it efficiently. Thuery [10] has detailed more successful applications of microwave energy in industry.
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Development of New Sorption Materials for Refrigeration Purpose

Development of New Sorption Materials for Refrigeration Purpose

Abstract: Solid sorption refrigeration systems are environmental friendly as they run on low grade energy sources. Considering the long term benefits of the solid sorption refrigeration system, many theoretical and experimental studies are being carried out through the world. In this point of view we developed the new sorption materials for refrigeration and find the thermo physical properties and applied the solid sorption refrigeration system, for find out the absorption capacity of the pure sorbent and newly developed materials.Upon the basis of the refrigerant sorbent pair we selected the ammonia chloride sorption refrigeration system for applying the new sorption materials, by doing this experiment BaCl2 is used as sorbent material. We developed the new materials by adding the additives to the sorbent. We selected the additive as the high thermal conductivity material Expanded Natural Graphite. Finally we developed the new sorption materials and tested the thermo physical properties of the pure BaCl2 and mixed sorbent of the BaCl2-ENG and decent comparison obtained between the materials. And also find out the ammonia absorption capacity of the pure BaCl2 and mixed sorbent of the BaCl2-ENG and obtain the comparison for those of the two materials. Thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity are measured. Thermal conductivity decreases with increase in fiber content. Specific heat of samples increases with increase in temperature. Thermal diffusivity decreases with increase in temperature. Which signifies the fibers will be resist to flow of heat acts as insulating. Keywords: Sorbent, solid refrigeration, BaCl2-ENG, Sorption Refrigeration System.
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The chemistry of new group 13 metal diphosphonate materials

The chemistry of new group 13 metal diphosphonate materials

Solvothermal or hydrothermal synthesis is the main technique by which open framework materials are prepared.*® It is also the primary technique by which samples are prepared in this thesis. The process consists of three stages, formation of the gel, ageing of the gel and solvothermal treatment. The gel is stirred until homogeneity is achieved, although in certain gels the solid reagents are suspended rather than fully dissolved. Solvothermal treatment, typically carried out over several days in the temperature range 100 - 260 °C in autoclaves under autogenous pressure, exploits the self assembly of the product from soluble precursors. The reduced viscosity of the solvent, typically water, under these conditions enhances the diffusion processes so that solvent extraction of solids and crystal growth from solution are favoured. Under such non-equilibrium crystallisation conditions, metastable kinetic phases rather than the thermodynamic phases are most likely to be isolated, accessing a large range of new materials.** A discussion of the rationale behind the selection of metal and phosphonate sources, solvents, mineralisers, ageing and solvothermal heating durations is given in Chapter 4.
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In-Situ Assessment of PAHs in Contaminated Sea Sediments

In-Situ Assessment of PAHs in Contaminated Sea Sediments

Abstract: The present study describes the activities performed to test a new method for measuring the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the solid phase of sediments within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. The method is based on the design of a new configuration (new materials) of the commercial passive sampler Chemcatcher as probe for predicting the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in marine sediments (or in water saturated soils).

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Recent Progress in Electrode Fabrication Materials and Various Insights in Solar cells: Review

Recent Progress in Electrode Fabrication Materials and Various Insights in Solar cells: Review

In recent times, substantial progress have been made in the development of primary and applied aspects of solar cells especially in light weight materials and low-cost electrode materials for the improvement of power generation devices. Various new strategies, methods and innovative approaches were implemented in organic, bulk-heterojunction, polymer and dye-sensitized solar cell applications to increase the overall power conversion efficiencies. Herein, we review the recent developments made in electrode materials based on carbon, metal oxides, polymers and nanocomposites for the development of solar cells. In addition, progresses made in the fabrication methods (coating and printing methods) have also been reviewed. The important factors such as solvents, temperature and atmosphere are also discussed. Special attention has been given to the characterization methods reported for the DSSCs.
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Werner, Benjamin Patrick
  

(2017):


	Filtration and novel polymeric containers for the improved quality of biotech drug products.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie

Werner, Benjamin Patrick (2017): Filtration and novel polymeric containers for the improved quality of biotech drug products. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie

The number of prefilled syringes (PFS) as primary packaging for biopharmaceuticals has increased in the last years as many biopharmaceuticals are injected subcutaneously and make up for most of the top 10 US best selling drugs [1-3]. As a consequence PFS have a potential to grow by around 90 % up to 6.7 billion units in 2020. The wide spread usage of PFS is based on several benefits like enabling an easy and quick administration. Further, PFS offer an increased safety due to direct labeling and dosing as well as a reduction of needle stick injuries. Other PFS advantages include reduced contamination risks and minimized overfills [1, 2, 4]. However, downsides of commonly used type I borosilicate glass PFS exist as well [1, 2, 5]. Disadvantages of glass are breakage, delamination or pH shifts due to the leaching of alkali metals [2, 5]. Tungsten traces are introduced into the syringe when forming the fluid path with a tungsten pin. Due to high temperatures during syringe manufacturing tungsten oxides react with glass forming tungsten polyanions. Those polyanions are able to induce protein aggregation in certain cases [1, 2, 6-8]. Another major issue is that glass syringes need silicone oil for functionality. Several studies show that silicone oil alone or in combination with stresses like agitation or shaking can lead to protein aggregation [9-14]. Typically 0.2 - 1 mg medical grade silicone oil is used for the lubrication of the syringe barrel by spray-on technology [3, 4]. In the last years attempts were made to minimize the issues associated with silicone oil by optimizing the siliconization processes. Baked-on or cross linked siliconization techniques led to lower silicone oil levels and reduced silicone oil migration into the drug solution [2-4]. However, a silicone oil free glass syringe is not yet on the market. Since siliconization of the syringe barrel is still necessary, syringe manufacturers investigated other materials for silicone oil sensitive biopharmaceuticals. As alternative to glass syringes polymer syringes made of cyclic olefin polymers (COP) or cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) aroused the interest of the main syringe manufacturers [2]. Currently, two companies offer silicone oil free syringe systems based on COP material, other available polymer syringe systems still need silicone oil for lubrication. West Pharmaceutical Services developed a silicone oil free syringe system with Crystal Zenith ®
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Adult New Reader Materials Available Here: A Survey of Literacy Materials Available in Three North Carolina Public Library Systems.

Adult New Reader Materials Available Here: A Survey of Literacy Materials Available in Three North Carolina Public Library Systems.

Part of this usability problem resides in defining such a collection. What exactly is suitable material for an adult new reader (ANR)? Literature on this topic was plentiful in the 1990s, especially right around the time the 1992 NAAL survey results were released. Books and articles were published by librarians and educators, some who had knowledge of literacy training and some who did not, about titles that were suitable for ANRs. See the titles Choosing and Using Books with Adult New Readers by Marguerite Crowley Weibel, and Light ‘n Lively Reads for ESL, Adult, and Teen Readers: A Thematic Bibliography by La Vergne Rosow, for sample bibliographies on literacy collection development. For articles listing titles that are appropriate for libraries to carry for ANRs, see “Growing the Literacy Collection” by Laura Hibberts McCaffery, “Developing an Adult Literacy Collection” by Susan Kendall, and “Books that Speak to Adult New Readers” by Melissa Buckingham. 1 Also of note are references from area literacy councils and other non-library centered literacy efforts.
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Metabolism and hydrophilicity of the polarised ‘Janus face’ all cis tetrafluorocyclohexyl ring, a candidate motif for drug discovery

Metabolism and hydrophilicity of the polarised ‘Janus face’ all cis tetrafluorocyclohexyl ring, a candidate motif for drug discovery

The all-cis tetrauorocyclohexane motif has been recognised to have particularly polar properties and the ease of synthesis of the phenyl derivative 2 has prompted us to investigate it prop- erties further as it emerges as a building block for the intro- duction of this new motif into medicinal chemistry and other bioactives discovery programmes. The metabolism of the phenyl cyclohexane derivatives 2, 4–7 with varying levels of uorination was explored in incubations with Cunninghamella elegans. This fungus has been used as a microbial model for mammalian metabolism. In the present study we observed that increasing the degree of uorination of cyclohexyl ring leads to a more stable xenobiotic. The phenyl all-cis tetra- uorocyclohexane 2 was signicantly less metabolised than the triuoro-4 and then diuoro-5, the latter of which was exten- sively metabolised. In the case of 2, 4, 6 and 7 metabolism is conned to benzylic hydroxylation.
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Experimental Study for Effects of Cost-Fewer Nanoparticles on Dielectric Performance of Polypropylene Nanocomposites

Experimental Study for Effects of Cost-Fewer Nanoparticles on Dielectric Performance of Polypropylene Nanocomposites

PP Nanocomposites: Additives of clay and fumed silica nanoparticles to the base Polypropylene industrial polymers has been fabricated by using mixing, ultrasonic, and heating processes in nanotechnology Research Centre, Aswan University - Egypt. Preparation of studied polymers has been used SOL-GEL method [25]. Filling polypropylene with a certain nanoparticles greatly increases electrical properties, tensile strength, impact strength, flexural modulus, and deflection temperature under load with a corresponding reduction in elongation according to type and percentages of nanofillers. Thus, SEM images illustrate penetration of nanoparticles in polypropylene for Clay/PP nanocomposite and Fumed silica/PP nanocomposite as shown in Fig. 1. The base of Polypropylene materials is a commercially available which industrial products are already in use in the manufacturing of high-voltage (HV) and their properties detailed in Table I. HIOKI 3522-50 LCR Hi-tester device is measuring characterization of nanocomposite insulation industrial materials.
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Effects of Varying Recycled Glass and Groundnut Shell Ash on Strength and Durability Properties of Self Consolidating High Performance Concretes (SCHPC)

Effects of Varying Recycled Glass and Groundnut Shell Ash on Strength and Durability Properties of Self Consolidating High Performance Concretes (SCHPC)

© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 36 The mineralogical and Morphological analysis of GSA were studied by using X-ray diffraction and SEM image as shown in figure 1.0 above. The SEM image revealed irregular surface with visible pores. The distinctly visible pores would enhance the pore structures formation of the concrete produced with this ash by improving the binding capacity of the component materials.

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Application of the 3ω method to micro  and nano scale thermal systems

Application of the 3ω method to micro and nano scale thermal systems

As covered in Chapters 2 and 3, there are many emerging applications for the 3! method which reach beyond its use as a thermal conductivity measurement technique. These appli- cations utilise the 3! method to apply heat stimulus precisely to a system, and interpret the response through some coupling between the thermal domain and the property of interest. Of these, one relatively new application is to use the 3! RT as a flow sensor. Thermal flow sensors are a well established concept, with the most common design using one heating ele- ment and two thermocouples to sense flow magnitude and flow direction [81]. In contrast, a defining property of the 3! method is that the RT acts as both heating element and ther- mometer. This characteristic allows the RT to act as a single element flow sensor. This idea was explored by C. Clausen et al. on a millimetre scale RT element to measure bio-film thickness, fluid velocity, and water contact [80]. Other research teams have since used the technique in a biological context to assess cell viability and disease state [89], measure the thermal conductivity of single cells [90], and to detect droplets in microfluidic systems [82]. As demonstrated by these examples, the 3! method has great future potential in microfluidics. One particularly interesting idea which has not been explored, is to use the finite thermal penetration depth of AC thermal waves to spatially explore fluid flow in microfluidics, and mass transport in growing biological systems.
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The design and synthesis of new molecule based magnetic materials

The design and synthesis of new molecule based magnetic materials

The advantages of MOFs as magnetic materials are in that many of them show a long-range magnetic ordering behaviour 39-49 providing that some interaction pathways are present in two or three directions in solid states of materials. The complexity of molecular architectures and topologies of MOFs also brought diversity into molecular magnetism. Some unusual magnetic properties are observed such as canted ferromagnetism, metamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. 45, 49, 65-67 However, some major disadvantages have also been recognised such as comparatively weak magnetic exchange due to the longer distance between the two nearest magnetic centres, leading to low T c for many
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A New Technique for Quality Assessment of Railway Ballast Materials

A New Technique for Quality Assessment of Railway Ballast Materials

Consequently, a new approach should be developed that enables the evaluation of ballast quality in an integrated manner which is the purpose of current research. To obtain this goal, a new evaluation index is created in which, the values of main quality tests are combined by assigning justified coefficients according to their allowable limits. The allowable limits are determined by extensive survey of acceptance criteria for various types of ballast materials in different railways. Considering this index, the ranking (e.g. quantifying the total quality of ballast) as well as the unified comparison of various ballast materials will be able to provide. The comparison of the new index is also followed via the abrasion number (AN) approach in the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Finally, extensive laboratory tests are conducted to investigate the application of the new
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