Noise Abatement

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NOISE ABATEMENT

NOISE ABATEMENT

noise, especially at some distance from the road can be described as a steady state noise that does not fluctuate much. But, rail and aircraft noise are acoustically characterized by high noise levels of relative short duration. Noise from industrial installations, construction sites and fixed recreation facilities radiates from a point source and the shape of the exposure area is generally a circle. The noise from various sources may either be steady for a long period or fluctuate over a specified period considerably. Road traffic is a key source of noise in big cities. The speed and exhaust system determines the noise released by road traffic. The contact between tyres and the road surface is dominant source of noise at speeds above 60km/h for light vehicles. In future, tyre to surface noise is likely to become an important issue to be addressed in noise abatement strategies. In urban areas, fast acceleration and re-starting the engine in traffic could result in emissions up to 15dB higher than the normal levels of emission resulting from smooth driving. Another major source of noise is public address system used by temples, mosques etc. Indian Constitution under Article 25-28 guarantees freedom of religion to all persons. But, this freedom of religion is not an absolute one. Freedom of religion is subject to public order, health and morality. In a recent decision, Supreme Court held that no religion prescribes that the prayers should be performed by using loudspeaker or by beating drums. Further, it was held that if religious people make use of such equipment, it should not affect the right of other people. The High Court of Tamil Nadu allowed a petition filed by the Welfare Association of KKR Nagar (Chennai) against Church, and directed the respondent that the noise level should not exceed the permissible decibels. Thus, the State can put a restriction on an institution for maintaining public health. Since the noise disturbs the living and leaves the bad impact on the health of the people, restriction imposed by a state on the noise level does not amount to violation of fundamental right.[3]
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Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

Monetary values act as this common metric and in this paper we estimate monetary values for road- and rail-traffic noise abatement. These two noise sources are of differ- ent character and it is well established that the annoyance from noise individuals report differs between the two modes of transport [41]. The origin of this paper was a recent revision of the official monetary benefit measures of noise abatement, from now on the “ASEK values”, 1 carried out in Sweden [65]. The original values were revised to take into account general price increases and an increase in real growth. It was also decided that the original values should be adjusted upwards since it was assumed they they did not reflect the total social cost, but were missing the social cost of health effects from noise exposure [65]. This revision drew to the attention the potential need for a more com- prehensive revision due to the fact that the values for all transport modes were based (after also other sources had been taken into consideration) on estimates from a study in which the effect on property prices from road noise was examined [63, 71].
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1.2. NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES

1.2. NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES

To reduce noise level in the areas adjacent to the aerodrome, operators of ACFT shall follow noise abatement procedures adequate for the specific ACFT type. If no noise abatement procedures for the ACFT type are available, it is recommended that departures are performed in accordance with ICAO Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 1 (NADP 1) as specified in the Appendix to Chapter 3 of ICAO Doc 8168, ACFT Operations, VOL. I, Flight Procedures, Part I, Section 7.

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Willingness to pay for noise abatement in Singapore

Willingness to pay for noise abatement in Singapore

As discussed in Chapter 5, respondents must accept the policy context provided in the questionnaire and believe that their responses will inform future policies to reduce noise so that the stated preference survey can elicit the true preferences of respondents. This chapter identified two types of anomalous responses, namely, protest respondents and respondents who did not believe that the survey was consequential. In the field surveys, both types of anomalous respondents amounted to around a quarter of the sample size, which is high as compared to other studies (see, for example, Meyerhoff & Liebe (2010) for a meta-analysis). The demographic characteristics that lead to a higher likelihood of these anomalous responses were examined. The relatively high rates of anomalous response may also have been caused by public sentiment. While this factor is not fully examined in this thesis, the ground sentiment in Singapore and its potential impact on the number of anomalous respondents in this survey are discussed in Section 12.2.1. In subsequent analysis, the differential effect of including and excluding these anomalous respondents from the sample is examined.
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1. GENERAL 1.1. ATIS ATIS NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES RUN-UP TESTS 2.2. TAXI PROCEDURES

1. GENERAL 1.1. ATIS ATIS NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES RUN-UP TESTS 2.2. TAXI PROCEDURES

The system is formed by centerline indicators (Azimuth Guidance Unit), approach index and stop position indicator, so as alphanumeric indication, composed of a display unit, control and [r]

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Innovative Noise Analysis and Abatement Design for Large Mining Vehicles

Innovative Noise Analysis and Abatement Design for Large Mining Vehicles

when in close proximity to the vehicle, but at greater distances, it was observed that the vehicle with the abatement was significantly quieter in comparison to the vehicles without the barrier material installed. In order to quantify this observation, additional analysis was undertaken. The sound power level was calculated using a single channel SPL measurement for the same vehicle, with and without the noise abatement. Using B&K Predictor, an acoustical propagation model was performed for a stationary vehicle as the source and a receptor located 700 m from the source. The simulation was computed twice using the 1/3-octave sound power level of the vehicle; once with the abatement and a second time with the levels for the unabated vehicle. An overall reduction of 3 dB was predicted at the receptors having heights of 1.5 m and 4.5 m. The propagation model followed the methodologies prescribed by ISO 9614-2, and recommended by the MOE for the prediction of noise levels at an outdoor reception area and the plane of a second storey window. For GoldCorp, this was considered to be a significant improvement in the operations, and one which in many cases will allow them to operate within compliance of the MOE guidelines, which otherwise, they would not.
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Case Study Amsterdam Buiksloterham, the Netherlands: The Challenge of Planning Organic Transformation

Case Study Amsterdam Buiksloterham, the Netherlands: The Challenge of Planning Organic Transformation

One of the crucial instruments of the Noise Abatement Act for the Buiksloterham case are zoned industrial estates. Sites of heavy industrial activity have to be designated as zoned industrial es- tates surrounded by a noise contour. The cumulative noise level caused by industrial activities on this contour must not exceed 50 dB(A). Such a zone is an essential part of a land use plan, and cannot be changed without amending the plan. Furthermore, a zone can only be changed or abol- ished if the area or parts of it are de facto not industrial anymore. (Van Buuren et al., 2010: 52). A zoned industrial estate poses strong limitations to housing development. Within the noise con- tour of a zoned industrial estate the preferential limit value (voorkeursgrenswaarde) is 50 dB(A) for dwellings. Under certain conditions, the Noise Abatement Act allows to exceed the protection level, namely if the higher value (hogere waarde) is motivated and does not exceed the maximum noise level that is allowed: 55 dB(A) for planned housing and 60 dB(A) for existing housing within such an industrial zone. The municipality is responsible for granting the permission for a higher value. In the past, the provinces were responsible, but this has changed in 2007. In order to meet the protection levels, the act also allows the municipality to formulate additional requirements for dwellings (silent house fronts, maximum noise level inside, and other additional requirements). Another exemption allowing for a higher noise level of 60 dB(A) is made for seaport-related activi- ties, because mitigation of noise is difficult due to significant outdoor activities. For dwellings re- placing existing ones the noise protection level can be raised (or lowered) to 65 dB(A). Thus the protection level for dwellings actually varies between 50–65 dB(A). Until recently, these protec- tion levels actually did not apply to houseboats as these were considered temporary functions. While the Noise Abatement Act has been installed to protect the quality of living, the exemptions seem to be enforced to safeguard specific activities, thus they are a correction on the restrictions set by the very same act.
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Ms. Jarrette reported that operations at OEA, with inquiries/complaints. These approaches to runways 07 and

Ms. Jarrette reported that operations at OEA, with inquiries/complaints. These approaches to runways 07 and

Jarrette further reported on additional complaints received by residents in Conway area regarding aircraft that missed the noise abatement marks during north flow [r]

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Virginia Department Of Transportation. Highway Traffic Noise Impact Analysis Guidance Manual

Virginia Department Of Transportation. Highway Traffic Noise Impact Analysis Guidance Manual

Note – Barrier Optimization: Similar to other environmental mitigation features, the goal to noise abatement is to achieve 100% effectiveness, i.e., provide benefits to every impacted noise sensitive receptor. However, it is not always possible to benefit every impacted receptor for different reasons. Therefore, when optimizing the proposed noise barrier, the three-tier set of abatement goals should be evaluated, when practical, in terms of establishing noise reductions for benefited receptors only within their areas of frequent outdoor activity to maximize the design year acoustical environment. The relationship between noise barrier cost and noise barrier performance is non-linear. This means that noise benefits typically increase with increased barrier height and/or length; however, at some point, further increases in barrier height and/or length result in smaller and smaller increases in benefit until a point of diminishing returns is reached. A point can be identified where a potential noise barrier provides the best balance between cost and benefit. Final design noise barriers should seek to maximize benefits while minimizing cost, given the need to achieve predetermined design goals and maintain noise barrier feasibility and reasonableness.
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Economic assessment of traffic noise in planning. - Danish experiences

Economic assessment of traffic noise in planning. - Danish experiences

In Denmark there is increasing focus on maximizing the socio-economic benefit of environmental investments. The Road Directorate has a long tradition for developing and using cost-benefit evaluation methods, which include external costs such as noise, and recently the Ministry of Transport has published guidelines on how to carry out such evaluations. These methods and guidelines will be presented as a basis for pre- senting actual assessments. In 2003, a working group with members from six minis- tries published a suggestion for a strategy to reduce road traffic noise, which focuses on the cost-effectiveness of various means of noise abatement. These means include barriers, various types of pavements, less noisy vehicles and planning initiatives such as reduced speed. In 2004 the Danish Road Institute did a technical and socio-
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+JEPPESEN 1. GENERAL CONDUCTING FLIGHTS BETWEEN LT

+JEPPESEN 1. GENERAL CONDUCTING FLIGHTS BETWEEN LT

If no noise abatement procedures adequate for the ACFT type are available, it is recommended that departures from RWY 07 and RWY 25 be performed in accordance with ICAO Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 1 (NADP 1) as specified in the Appendix to Chapter 3 of ICAO Doc 8168, Vol. I, Part I, Section 7.

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STE FMD SNU BRK .RADAR. VIENNA, AUSTRIA ASTUT FIVE WHISKEY (ASTUT 5W) [ASTU5W] BRATISLAVA FOUR WHISKEY (OKR 4W) ARRIVALS

STE FMD SNU BRK .RADAR. VIENNA, AUSTRIA ASTUT FIVE WHISKEY (ASTUT 5W) [ASTU5W] BRATISLAVA FOUR WHISKEY (OKR 4W) ARRIVALS

vant populated areas around the airport. and aircraft noise is monitored in all rele- Flight tracks are recorded at Vienna airport Climb with the optimum noise abatement take- off profile appropriate for the particular type of aircraft. Please adhere to noise abatement procedure as strictly as possible.

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DENVER ARTCC CONTROL WING REHABILITATION September 2008 (DEMOLITION & ABATEMENT)

DENVER ARTCC CONTROL WING REHABILITATION September 2008 (DEMOLITION & ABATEMENT)

B. Equipment and Waste Decontamination Unit - Provide a detailed plan of the proposed equipment and waste decontamination unit and location to the RE (in coordination with the Contractor’s IH) for approval prior to the beginning of construction. Seal vertical and horizontal surfaces similar to Section 02080.3.8 of these Specifications. The unit shall be maintained water-tight, the Contractor will be liable and responsible to the FAA for leaks/damages occurring during the abatement activities. The equipment and waste decontamination unit shall consist of, at a minimum, a clean room, an airlock, a wash station, a second airlock and an equipment room. The unit shall provide a continuous closure from the building to the temporary storage unit. The unit shall be designed in such a way as to be completely enclosed and restrict access to the casual observer or passerby. In the event a vacuum type system is used, the Contractor shall install a 4 foot tall fence completely around the unit, creating a buffer zone between the unit and pedestrians passing by.
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SOX Emissions Reduction Policy and Economic Development: A Case of Yokkaichi

SOX Emissions Reduction Policy and Economic Development: A Case of Yokkaichi

We estimated the total private investment in abatement as follows: The amount of investment in abatement has been published in The Regional Environmental Pollution Control Program in Yokkaichi (Yokkaichi Kogai-Boshi Keikaku) since 1971. This includes investments in aba- tement both by the public and the private sector in the Yokkaichi area. However, there are some reservations. First, since public investment includes not only invest- ments against industrial pollution but also those against pollution from urban and city life, we must take away the latter for our purpose. Second, although the investment by the private companies are those in Yokkaichi, some investments by the public sector, e.g. the Mie Prefecture and local governments of surrounding districts, may be done outside of Yokkaichi. We must also take away these except for investments financed by subsidies from other governments to Yokkaichi.
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Defence of abatement for defective works

Defence of abatement for defective works

In the case of C.A. Duquemin Ltd v. Raymond Slater, 18 it was explained that abatement entitles the purchaser to deduct the difference between the value of the work and materials at the date supplied and their value if they had not been defective. It does not, however, permit anything other than a deduction against the price. This case however, left open question, particularly in the context of building contracts, as to which work and materials are subject to abatement. 19

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DENTON POLICY FOR TAX ABATEMENT I. GENERAL PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES

DENTON POLICY FOR TAX ABATEMENT I. GENERAL PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES

conditions of a contract between the City and the applicant governing the provision of the tax abatement and the commitments of the applicant, including all the terms required by Section 312.205 of the Tax Code and such other terms and conditions as the City Council may require. Should the commitments subsequently not be satisfied, the tax abatement shall be null and void (unless the tax abatement agreement provides for a recapture of the property tax revenue lost proportionate to a partial failure to meet the minimum thresholds set forth in the agreement) and all abated taxes shall be paid immediately to the City of Denton and all other taxing jurisdictions participating in the tax abatement agreement. Provisions to this effect shall be incorporated into the agreement.
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When starting with the most expensive option makes sense: optimal timing, cost and sectoral allocation of abatement investment

When starting with the most expensive option makes sense: optimal timing, cost and sectoral allocation of abatement investment

To shed light on these questions, we study the optimal timing, cost, and sectoral allocation of abatement investment. We capture the transition to clean capital using a parsimonious abatement investment model with three basic fea- tures. First, emission reductions require investment that has long-lasting effects on emissions. For instance, once a building is retrofitted with better insula- tion, emissions from that building are lowered for decades. Second, we take into account the limited ability of an economy to switch from carbon-intensive to low-carbon capital overnight. We model this with convex investment costs, sometimes called adjustment costs in the theory of investment (Lucas, 1967; Gould, 1968). They capture increasing opportunity costs to use scarce resour- ces such as skilled workers and appropriate capital to perform abatement in- vestment. For instance, retrofitting all buildings in a country in three months would be much more expensive than doing it over three decades. Third, we take into account that different GHG emissions in each sector mean different abatement potentials in each sector. Once all the buildings are energy neutral, no more GHG can be saved in the building sector; and if every coal power plant is replaced with renewable power, the abatement potential of the power sector is depleted.
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Cost Benefit Analysis of Air Pollution Abatement Options in the Ger Area, Ulaanbaatar, and Health Benefits Using Contingent Valuation

Cost Benefit Analysis of Air Pollution Abatement Options in the Ger Area, Ulaanbaatar, and Health Benefits Using Contingent Valuation

Annual average fuel consumption of ger area households was 3.49 t of coal and 3.27 t of wood when using ger stoves, and 4.49 t of coal and 2.99 t of wood when using wall stoves. These estimates are based on the number of households reducing fuel consumption through abatement options. Emission reductions were calculated using the following calculations. Ger area households fuel consumption and emission factors are shown in Table VII. Estimated TSP, PM 10 , SO X , and NO X emissions reductions from abatement

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Optimal global dynamic carbon taxation

Optimal global dynamic carbon taxation

An early discussion of this problem was provided in Chichilnisky and Heal (1994) 1 . They contrasted optimal marginal abatement costs of carbon emissions in a multi region setting when lump sum transfers are possible between different regions with a situation in which such transfers are ruled out. They found that in the latter optimal marginal abatement costs were different in each region, whereas with lump sum transfers the classical result of equated marginal abatement costs prevailed. They used a static model around a global public bad as an approximation to the climate change problem, but given the inherent dynamic nature of the climate problem, they mostly derived basic theoretical results that as such are hard to apply to concrete climate change policy questions.
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Community Driven Nuisance Abatement

Community Driven Nuisance Abatement

A successful nuisance abatement process must involve the active participation of individuals living close to a nuisance property. Given the amount of time and effort necessary to execute a long-term campaign, it is important to have a large group of volunteers to draw from, avoiding putting all of the organizing and execu- tion on the shoulders of a few individuals.

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