There were several limitations of this study, the first of which was a small sample size. The lack of statistically significant differences between subgroups (gender, BMI, socioeconomic status) may have been due to the study being underpowered. Larger studies on the topic are needed, but this exploratory analysis is the first to identify specific, individual nutrition concerns in a modern-day CF adult cohort, and thus represents a foundation on which further patient-centered nutrition programs may be devel- oped. Second, this study used a convenience sample of adults attending our CF clinic with, on average, moderate lung disease. Although identifying nutritional needs may be a valuable tool in all CF cohorts, our specific findings are thus less generalizable to CF children, as well as in adults with very severe lung disease or post-transplant, where specific findings may differ. Likewise, in regards to socioeconomic comparisons, our study necessarily exam- ined CF patients within the United States healthcare system, and while socioeconomic obstacles exist globally, the specific findings may vary in other systems. Finally, this study used an investigator-designed survey tool that has not been validated. Given that (to our knowledge) no similar validated tools exist, we consider it a first step in
Meeting the nutritional needs of men with PC in a busy healthcare setting is a challenge that is likely reflected by the small number of existing services spe- cific to PC in organizations across Canada. Among the six we identified, four were in-person group education sessions. Group education has been shown to be an ef- fective means of delivering health information in a com- parable and potentially more efficient and cost-effective manner than individual education [67, 68]. However, in- person sessions may pose accessibility problems due to geographic and logistical barriers. The remaining two or- ganizations provided nutrition services online, which has potential to provide supportive care to a larger number of men with PC and to overcome barriers to access. Al- though the efficacy of the online services was not assessed, literature suggests telemedicine education can be equally effective as in person education . Between 2028 and 2032, the number of new cases of PC is pro- jected to almost double in Canada . The impact on healthcare services for the growing number of men liv- ing with PC will be substantial. Alternative modes of de- livery of patient information will therefore be critical.
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On-farm habitats, including woodlands, agroforestry, headlands, field margins and agri-environment scheme options such as game bird cover strips, support a wide diversity of floral and faunal resources that may provide opportunities to enhance feed provision from the range for monogastrics. There have been many biodiversity studies of these habitats and this desk study will collate these data and information to test the hypothesis that the range can contribute to the nutritional needs of pigs and poultry (ICOPP Deliverable 5.7).
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The study was conducted to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding nutritional needs of children in a selected hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of mothers regarding nutritional needs of children with a view to find out the deficit areas and prepare guidelines on nutritional needs. Non experimental exploratory research design was used in the study. The data was collected from 100 mothers using purposive sampling technique whose children were in the age group of 1–5 years. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. The conceptual framework was based on Three Phase Theory by Fitts and Posner (1967). Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that majority of mothers (89%) had average level of knowledge, few (9%) had below average level of knowledge and minimum number of mothers (2%) had good level of knowledge. The conclusion of the study revealed average level of knowledge among majority of the mothers regarding nutritional needs of children. Hence, to improve the nutritional status of the child, it is very important to develop a guideline on nutritional needs of children so as to make the mothers aware of the nutritional needs of children.
Within the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland some different approaches have been taken, both to food and nutrition in general and to the problems faced by low-income households in particular. In Scotland adoption of the Scottish Diet Action Plan in 1996 (before devolution) had built on a clear statement of in- equalities in outcomes reflecting unequal access, availability and behavioural demand (142) , with a call to remove ‘bar- riers’ to healthy eating for individuals on low incomes. In practice, as a recent evaluation has shown, there has been no reduction in nutritional inequalities (and in fact no improvement in average intakes) in the ensuing decade (34) . The reasons for such policy failure are complex, but part of the explanation is a loss of focus that permitted too many disparate initiatives, particularly at local levels, with insufficient attention to the wide-scale and pervasive impact of changes in the food sector, to food culture and to loss of sustainable local production (143) . This assessment links into the earlier remarks that local projects and initiatives, whether within a health or ‘food access’ frame- work, seldom show widespread or systematic success in reducing inequalities. At the time of reporting there was some engagement with possibilities for building inequal- ities into national nutrition targets; a very recent consulta- tion on the future of food in Scotland signals some recognition of the need for structural shifts, although explicit mention or address to inequalities is conspicuously absent (144) . In Wales an initiative on Food and Well-being was launched in 2003; this initiative included statements about access for low-income groups and the need to address the role of the food industry (145) . A number of initiatives have been set up, some working across sectors, with clear engagement of low-income groups, although much has been short-term project based (108) . In Northern Ireland a recent survey has investigated the food and nutritional circumstances of homeless individuals (93) , and the Healthy Food for All initiative has been set up as a cross-sectoral response to food poverty across the island of Ireland (146) .
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This study threw light on the demographic and nutritional intake of the tribal population residing in the Jawadhu hills of Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu. Hinduism was the most popular religion. The majority of the population belonged to the lower strata of society and was employed in farming activities or in unskilled labor. Thus their income was not steady and fluctuated with seasonal and agricultural productivity. The lack of formal education in this community poses further hurdles to social development and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Similar findings were reported by Rao et.al in a survey of tribal settlements in the nine States of India- Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. They found that 98% were Hindus and majority of the households (44%) were marginal farmers, about 14% were small farmers and 7% were large farmers, while about a third of the households did not possess any agricultural land (35%) (2). The National Nutrition Monitoring bureau of India in their technical report of the nutritional profile of tribal populations across India reported that 93% were Hindus, 55% of adult men and 66% of women were illiterate, 75% were laborers involved in agriculture and others (15).
Boron (B) is an essential microelement engaged in proper growth and development of the plant. Among others, boron is responsible for carbo- hydrate transformation and transport in plants, growth of plant meristem tissues as well as pro- cesses of cell wall formation (Matoh 1997, Matoh and Kobayashi 2002). Plants have much differenti- ated nutritional needs as regards boron depending on their species or variety. Relatively low boron requirements are indicated by e.g. cereals, whereas beets and cruciferous plants show high nutritional requirements with regard to this element (Alloway 2008). In plants cultivated in Poland there is often observed boron deficiency, more than ever when grown on acidic, sandy soils with low contents of organic matter, from which boron is easily leached. Additionally, short-term boron deficiency can be
In 1944, as World War II began to draw to a close, many in the USA and around the world began to recognize that the greatest threat to the survival of the world’s population, both for the remainder of the war and after, was not bombs and bullets, but hunger! The war had left hundreds of thousands starving in Europe and Asia, and rebuilding these nations would not be possible with much of the world suffering from a lack of basic nutri- tion. US soldiers entering liberated European cities found emaciated, cachectic, and starved civilians surviv- ing on meager portions of potatoes, bread, and little more. At that time, very little knowledge existed about the fundamental nutritional needs in humans. Thus, the USA and other nations wishing to support relief efforts worldwide realized a greater understanding of how to deal with refeeding and the nutrition delivery required to recover from severe starvation was desperately needed. How else would nations supplying the life- saving food relief know how much was needed to ensure recovery?
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Sustainable use of marine living resources is a concern strongly expressed in Agenda 21. Marine living resources provide food and livelihood to coastal communities. Adequate knowledge, use of new technology and good regulatory measures are necessary to manage and conserve these resources. Agenda 21 aims at developing and increasing the potential of marine living resources to meet human nutritional needs, maintaining or restoring populations of marine species at levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield, promoting the development and uses of selective fishing gear and practices that minimize waste in the catch of target species and minimize by-catch of non-target species. It also urges governments to ensure effective monitoring and enforcement with respect to fishing activities, protecting and restoring endangered marine species, preserving habitats and other ecologically sensitive areas and promoting
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The inspector reviewed a sample of records and found that each resident had nutritional assessment, using a recognised assessment tool, carried out on admission and at three- monthly intervals thereafter or more frequently if required. Residents' weights were routinely monitored and recorded monthly. Where specific nutritional needs or assessed risks had been identified, measures had been implemented to address these risks. The inspector saw that referrals had been made to dieticians, dentists and speech and language therapists whose reports and recommendations were recorded in residents' files. The organisation had employed a dietician to attend the centre for one day each week. The person in charge explained that she had planned for the dietician to review all menus in the near future to ensure that the highest nutritional quality is provided.
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In this study, the introduction to consuming common Nicaraguan food types had limited effects on the nutrition status of these infants at 6 months of age. The finding that consumption of cow’s milk was positively associated with LAZ was consistent with previous reports [22,23]. There have been several studies from different geographical locations, including China, Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil, that have shown consumption of cow’s milk favorably affects length growth in infants and young children . The recommendation to introduce complementary foods when children are six months old was based on the increased nutritional needs for healthy growth and development that breast milk alone cannot provide [6,7], yet in this study, we did not find that dietary intake with a greater number of food types correlated with nutritional status in males and females at six months of age.
Results: Pharmacists have diverse roles in relation to PN therapy including the following: the assessment of patients’ nutritional needs; the design, compounding, dispensing, and quality management of PN formulations; monitoring patients’ response to PN therapy; supervision of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) programs; education of patients, caregivers, and other health care professionals on nutrition support and conducting PN-related research and quality improvement activities. These services seem to be variable across clinical settings and among different countries depending on the practice environment and pharmacists’ clinical practice in these settings. However, each of these practice domains helps to support the delivery of safe and effective PN therapy to patients.
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Employment Security: Unorganised workers are greatly affected by the seasonal nature of the employment opportunities. The problem of under-employment and unemployment persist to a large extent among unorganised sectors. There are several schemes such as Swarnajayanti Gram Swaeozgar Yojna (SGSY), Pradhan Manntri Gran Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), National Food For Work Programme(NFFWP), Indra Awass Yojna (JAY), Integrated Wastelands (IWDP), Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) and Desert Development Programme (DDP) initiated to generate employment opportunities in rural India. Further, the Government has recently enacted the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act to provide 100 days guaranteed employment to rural households. Though these initiatives have contributed in reducing the rural unemployment problem, the problem of employment insecurity needs to be addressed in a wider context and solved at.
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In fact, it’s not just a matter of moral duty, it’s a matter of self-interest. If the EU wants to avoid having tens of thousands of refugees from these forgotten wars knocking on its door as asylum seekers, it is in its interests to help them on the spot. The cost per head of emergency and development aid is always much lower than, and cannot remotely be compared with, the legal and social costs of an asylum seeker. Humanitarian aid must be determined by the needs of people in crisis-hit areas, not by the closeness of the links a particular Third World country has with its old colonial master. Decolonisation happened forty years ago, and the problems developing countries have two generations on are no longer post-colonial in nature. The instinct of former colonists to turn to their former colonies is understandable, but it is much less justified than it was before and it is counter-productive. The
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D uring the past decade, some dramatic changes in school health programs have oc- curred. Federal laws with mandates for chil- dren with special needs in schools have advanced from Public Law 94-142 to the Individual Disability Education Act and Public Law 99-457, which re- quires schools to include physician participation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began documenting the health needs of school children with the National Adolescent Student Health Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and, more recently, the implementation of a survey that documents the response of schools to the problems of school youth (eg, School Health Policies and Program Study). The Department of Education implemented the Drug Free Schools and Community program to address substance abuse and expanded its role in school health as well as the role of Title I programs in school health (Elementary and Secondary Education Act). The Public Health Service has stimulated school- based primary care through the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health block grant programs to states and, more recently, through the Bureau of Primary Health Care Delivery through their Healthy Schools/ Healthy Communities program.
Another worry is the future of the camp itself. No one knows if it will be moved, following a statement by the education minister in which he expressed a wish to repossess the technical school for the beginning of the new term in October. Autumn sees the arrival of the rains, followed by cold weather, especially at night in this mountainous region. “Most of the people in the camp want to return home as soon as possible”, says Melachu, “but I know that it is going to take some time. I cannot go back to my home in Senafe because the town is still occupied by Ethiopian troops. We have also been told that everything is in ruins. The soldiers have taken everything, even the doors and windows.” Eritrea is one of the poorest countries in the world and the war has set its development back many years. Everything in the frontier zones needs to be rebuilt: schools, roads, dispensaries, water pumps and electricity systems. On top of this, most of the
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This study established that adolescent needs were being met with 67.8% reporting that they received nutrition ad- vice in at least one area of service. However, coverages of critical service domains were still below average. This in- cluded advice on healthy diet/diet diversity, exclusive breast feeding, nutrition supplementation, food fortifica- tion and blending as well as complementary feeding. The last three domains were significantly below the average and would require much attention. On matters of utilization, the study isolated two domains of utilization of nutrition services. The most widely utilized were nutrition services that falls within the preventive-focused services such as collection of IFAS, regular nutrition visits for counseling and education, practice of quality diet and use of ITNs. The second level of utilization was curative- focused services which were characterized by vitamin A supplementation and use of RUTF/RUSF. Based on quali- tative data analyses, nutritionist and nurse were more likely to increase overall utilization of nutrition services.
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Corporation, College Station, TX). Two experienced data entry clerks were involved in the process after receiving orientation on the survey questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to assess basic respondent character- istics. Variables explored in assessing determinants of maternal nutritional status were: socio-demographic characteristics (maternal age, educational status, marital status, ethnicity, religion and occupation and annual household income). Access to and utilization of health services (antenatal care and household visit by commu- nity health workers) and food assistance related variables (type of assistance mothers or other household members received, receipt of TSF or safety net food rations in the preceding 6 months) were also examined.
Transitional technologies tend to focus on sep- arating and insulating agriculture from the ecologi- cal and social environment in which farms and farmers must function. For example, confinement livestock and poultry operations remove animals from their natural habitat and isolate them physi- cally and visually from public exposure. Similarly, hydroponic vegetable production removes crop production from reliance on soil fertility as well as the vagaries of weather variability and changes in climate. Both of these technologies are now allowa- ble under U.S. standards for “organic” food pro- duction. Genetic engineers are working to weather- proof crops to cope with an increasingly volatile climate. GPS-guided robots and drones are being developed and tested to reduce future needs for farmworkers and the associated risks to public health. Separation of agriculture from nature and society seems to be the ultimate objective of all of these industrial technologies.
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parenteral nutrition preparations was not considered to be a problem, as it was thought that the body would syn- thesise its own. Glutamine has essential roles in acid-base balance, nitrogen transport and maintaining muscle mass and function, and is an energy source for rapidly dividing cells, particularly those of the immune system and gut. As the most abundant amino acid in the body, it is now rec- ognised that glutamine synthesis and release is insuffi- cient to meet demands under severe metabolic stress. Glutamine must therefore be supplied from nutritional sources if levels are to be maintained. Several studies have shown that glutamine levels decrease markedly after major surgery and during critical illness. Decreased serum glutamine has been associated with immune dysfunction in animal models and death or infectious complications in septic patients. In randomised controlled trials (RCTs) amongst patients, glutamine-supplemented PN has been associated with improved nitrogen balance, higher intra- muscular glutamine levels, improved mood, enhanced immune cell function and no elevation of proinflamma- tory cytokine profile [9-14]. In animal models glutamine enhances intracellular glutathione (which combats free radical tissue damage) . Such effects of glutamine sup- port on the stressed immune system in the patient receiv- ing critical care could lead to 'successful inflammation', i.e. the ability to combat infection, and decrease the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, where excessive free radical induced damage occurs.
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