Human tissue needs to be fixed, processed, cut, stained, and finally analyzed by a surgical pathologist. Specific equip- ment is commonly used for fixation, tissue processing, and staining, which is loaded manually [9,10]. Microtome cuts usually require manual performance. The whole workflow is monitored by a laboratory information system (LIS), which itself is subject to accreditation and certification . Capable LIS report the stages of individual tissues at any time and step of the workflow [12,13]. The quality of the obtained slides varies. Slides of good quality allow easier and more precise diagnoses; although experienced patholo- gists well versed in specific laboratory parameters can view slides of poorer quality with similar diagnostic accuracy. This statement, however, only holds true for “common H&E based” diagnoses, such as tuberculosis or squamous cell carcinoma.
likely to make bad choices, they need help with information on quality and with likely consequences of taking the course. This requires public, i.e. government, regulation of quality assurance and information provision; most governments are concerned with this, but it is unclear that many, if any, do it well as yet. 10 It would seem unreasonable to limit tertiary education if families are willing to spend their own money on it, but it is irresponsible for governments to allow them to do so without reliable information about what they are buying, and both reckless and unfair to subsidize all students who reach a level of education that only a minority of their age group does. Governments should provide financial assistance to talented individuals who could not otherwise undertake higher education if they pursue courses which government approves of, but there is no justification for subsidizing students who are neither from poor families nor especially talented. If most of your age cohort does not get higher education, you should view it as an investment and only undertake it if, paying for it yourself, you believe it will be worth it.
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It is nearly ten years since the BRCA1 gene was identified and genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is now widespread. During the last ten years we have come to accept that genetic testing can be done outside of research settings, that most women wish to have – and are capable of understanding – personal information about the risks and benefits of genetic testing and that routine pre-test psychological counselling is not mandatory. As a group, women do not suffer unduly from anxiety or depression following the receipt of a positive test result  (although we all know of exceptions to this rule). There is still uncertainty about the best estimate to give a carrier for her risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Some argue that different carriers should be given different risks depending on their family history, but this individualized approach to counselling is really too complicated to be practical. But we all
This particular paradigm began when Fuller (1935) pub- lished his first paper on the morphology of auroral activities. In his view, the aurora in the evening sector is quiet, active in the midnight sector and patchy in the morning sector, under which the earth and observers rotate once during the course of a night, observing those fixed three phases. His study was followed by Heppner (1954), which confirmed Fuller’s view. Based on the IGY all-sky camera project, however, the con- cept of auroral substorm was developed (Akasofu, 1964), which differs from the fixed pattern concept. The first firm confirmation of the concept of auroral substorms was made by Frank et al. (1982) by a satellite observation from well above the north polar region.
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and ‘unfavorable’. Such relation is usually expressed in text by stating the information involving either a person (one element in X ) or a target object itself (one element in Y ). The first type of statement called personal view, e.g. ‘I am so happy with this book’, contains X ’s “subjective” feeling and preference towards a target object, which directly expresses sentimental evaluation. This kind of information is normally domain-independent and serves as highly relevant clues to sentiment classification. The latter type of statement called impersonal view, e.g. ‘it is too small’, contains Y ’s “objective” (i.e. or at least criteria-based) evaluation of the target object. This kind of information tends to contain much domain-specific classification knowledge. Although such information is sometimes not as explicit as personal views in classifying the sentiment of a text, speaker’s sentiment is usually implied by the evaluation result.
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seemed to be rather hasty, not well-thought out and opposed to the needs of the Islamic capital market. In the view of others, however, it was no less than a very welcome and long overdue breath of fresh air for the industry. Some critics, who questioned the validity of the Sheikh Usmani pronouncement, argued that the personal view goes against the ruling of the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Finance Institutions (AAOIFI) on the permissibility of sukuk as laid down under its Shari‘ah Standard 13 ( Resolution to the Fiqh Academy on Securitization) 1 .
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This study followed a positivist philosophy by keeping in view the ontological assumptions of the various aspects of the study and the aim to validate a model developed on priory theory and past empirical investigations. The positivist ontology provides an objective view of the social reality (Nonaka & Peltokorpi, 2006). Positivists believe that reality can be understood independent of the beliefs and values of the researcher investigating a phenomenon (Collis & Hussey, 2009; Guba & Lincoln, 2005). Consequently, researcher’s personal beliefs and values are separated from the phenomenon of interest. The primary goal of a positivist research is to “establish (or validate) relationships and to develop generalisations that contribute to theory” (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001, p. 102). Nevertheless, the goal of this research is to identify and understand knowledge collaboration structures and process through frequency of interactions between professionals, which clearly indicates an objective assessment of the reality (i.e. phenomenon of interest). The positivistic, deductive approach, followed in this study implies that the theoretical framework developed through prior theory need to be tested through empirical data.
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noun to a verb, meaning ‘to engage with music’ (Small 1998). Accordingly, musicking can be used as an umbrella term for any musical activity from listening to music on one’s own through to performing opera on stage. Levels of engagement can differ between musicking activities, with the use of instruments and the human voice being viewed as ‘active participation’, and listening to music deemed as ‘passive participation’. It is also possible to combine active and passive approaches within a single musicking activity (Guetin et al., 2013). By adopting the term musicking as a key operational definition for this review, the authors view musicking as a creative activity rather than solely aligning music to therapy. This subtle shift of emphasis allows all levels of engagement with music to be reported in the review.
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191 Advocacy is not a new concept but one which has been embedded in nursing practice for many years (Abrans, 1978; Kohnke, 1982; Chadwick and Tadd, 1992). Kohnke’s (1982) classic text refers to advocacy as an ‘act of loving and caring’ and includes providing patients with the right to information to facilitate self-determination with an emphasis on patient safety and wellbeing. Previously the view has been presented that nurses are only able to advocate if they ‘care’ about the patient and failure to care would result in advocacy being a purely mechanical process (Vaartio and Leino-Kilpi, 2004). It is argued, however, that advocacy is not straightforward; not all nurses are able to advocate effectively and it is suggested it can be learnt, developed and applied in practice (Kohnke, 1982). Ashley explained how less experienced nurses would come for advice and to discuss complex cases in order to benefit from the experience and knowledge held by those who had been practising for many years, in Ashley’s case in excess of 30 years. Empirical work undertaken by Chafey et al., (1998) identified that nurses can advocate effectively although, at times, conflict can occur between nurses and other health professionals, resulting in a significant amount of stress within this role.
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Setting Swinburne aside, Noonan’s account classifies extant paradigm cases reasonably well. However, its sensitivity to arguably irrelevant external commitments due to the relational nature of being identity-involving raises doubts about the grounds for these classifications. For the purpose of (ii)-style Classification, not just any feature shared by the positions will interest us. We are looking for features that are both shared by the positions and constitutive for each of them. Here is an analogy. Suppose we live in a world where all round things happen to be red. It would be too quick to conclude that the difference between round and non-round things has something to do with redness. We should come to see that round things could be blue, transparent, etc., and so that facts about roundness can float free of facts about colours. The positions discussed in Sect. 4.3 are the analogues to these counterexamples. They show that even if most paradigm cases of complexity and simplicity respectively share the features Noonan’s proposal mentions, serious worries remain whether possession of these features is distinctive of the respective view. Amongst others, we can thus remain sceptical whether the proposal can deal with the classification of new positions, and how it behaves once interpretation proceeds and gradually uncovers further commitments of a given author.
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Abstract— In the age of the Internet, privacy is a luxury and you have to constantly be on your heels to maintain it. OSN makes it particularly hard for users to guard their personal data. Besides many changes, Facebook privacy settings remain complicated. Even, past updates have unexpectedly made previously private information available to the public. It is difficult to balance the right of privacy and control of personal information when individuals voluntarily place personal information on their profile. Once information is placed on public domains users can easily lose control over who sees it and that may use it. While privacy settings are there to protect users, in practice this is not always the case, whether it is because of slack web design or through lack of knowledge or care by the user. Your data is shared more widely. Even if you have restricted your information to be seen by friends only, friends who are using a Facebook app could allow your data to be transferred to a third party without your permission. Remember: Sharing info with “friends of friends” could expose it to tens of thousands. A new approach is proposed to enable the protection of shared data in OSNs. A different Access control model is formulated to capture the essence of multiple authorizations, along with an access policy specification scheme and a policy mechanism. Along with, logical representation of access control model which allows us to leverage the features of existing logic solvers to perform various analysis tasks on our model. Here also discuss a proof-of-concept prototype as part of an application in Facebook and provide usability study and system evaluation of our method.
Looking back, it is amazing to consider the extent to which locational (or geographical) factors influenced the strategic evolution of all three case study libraries, both before and during my respective tenures. At UWLLib a decision was taken by the Vice Chancellor’s Executive (VCE) before I joined the university to decant and relocate the main library from the St Mary’s Rd site in Ealing to an office block on top of Ealing Broadway station some fifteen minutes walk away. This would be an interim measure for two years pending the creation of a new library as part of the main campus redevelopment project. From a strategic point of view, VCE always acknowledged that the institution would “take a hit” in NSS student satisfaction scores during the period of these building works. They believed these scores would then rebound to higher levels once the students experienced the new facilities.
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Our first finding from grid analysis was that there was very large heterogeneity in the constructs generated. The second was that females generated significantly more constructs (female mean 6.87, male mean 5.87 t=-.299,df=54.1, p<.01). The 30 women overall generated 209 different constructs while the same number of males generated 175 constructs. The large variety of kinds of business ownership known to the business owners led to a wide variety of constructs being generated; the very wide heterogeneity to be found in the elements led to the wide heterogeneity of constructs. A comparison of the constructs shows that not only are there no commonly used constructs, there are very few constructs that overlap. Kelly’s (1969) personal construct theory suggests that key systems of constructs are likely to be shared by groups. However, this is not a clear finding in our research. Indeed, there are virtually no similarities in the constructs used by the business owners. Further, instead of a list of constructs such as competitive, active, independent, decisive, and self-confident being generated, a very varied list of personality traits was found such as pondering, guarded and tactile. The constructs used to describe business owners were not loaded with male symbolism. Constructs such as
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initiatives during this period outlined an optimal policy for personal insolvency, partly inspired by Chapter 13 of the US Bankruptcy Code. 32 It included the idea of a moratorium or stay, a realistic payment plan, usually no more than four years subject to majority approval by creditors, adequate exemptions determined by member states, professional debt counsellors acting as advisers and administrators, financing partly by creditor levies, with immediate discharge for the hopelessly indebted. By 2009, Jason Kilborn argued that European policymakers were converging on a ‘unitary paradigm of consumer insolvency treatment’ involving less demanding repayment plans and greater possibilities for the residual discharge of debts. 33 These developments reflect partly a social learning process concerning the fact that many individuals had little payment capacity, and partly state concerns about the public costs of processing debtors. For example, the introduction of the English NINA procedure was driven by a desire to minimise court and government processing costs.
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As Foucault (1980) proposes, the body can be seen as the site of political and ideological control. Through educational, legal and medical systems, a state can define the limits of behaviour and prescribe procedures for those bodies deemed to have violated established boundaries. In particular, Foucault (1979) challenged the status of medicine, arguing that it was not simply an objective set of scientific practices, but rather a major institution of power through which bodies are labelled as deviant or normal, as controlled or needful or control. The requirement for discipline of the body is notable in discourses of public health, where “the body is regarded as dangerous, problematic, ever threatening to run out of control, to attract disease, to pose an imminent danger to the rest of society” (Lupton, 2003: 33). Whereas public health concerns previously focused on the containment of infectious disease, Lupton (95; Peterson & Lupton, 1997) argues that attention has now turned to exhorting individuals to take responsibility for their own bodily health. This “privatisation” of health has had a number of consequences. Firstly, there has been an increasingly emphasis on the link between “life-style” diseases and associated behaviours, where the responsibility for disease is, at least partly, turned back to the individual. Secondly, in promulgating the view that health is a universal right, public discourses demand changes in behaviour and an
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The Internet has become an essential tool in many people’s daily lives. For many, this does not stop when they leave their desktop computers at home or at work. According to an IBM survey released on August 22, 2007, about 19% of respondents said that they spent six or more hours a day on the Internet vs. 9% for TV, suggesting that the Internet has become more popular than the TV (Sass, 2007). Nearly 30 to 40 percent of what is done on the Web could be moved to the mobile phone (Wakabayashi, 2007). For example, Google reported that traffic to their mobile services, including maps, emails, and searches, rose 35 percent between May and June of 2007, a time when most families are on vacation and away from their home computers (Auchard, 2007). To make it even easier for cell phone users to surf the Internet, many web browser companies including Apple, FireFox, and Microsoft have made mobile browsers that are as easy to use as their desktop versions. Apple’s recently released iPhone contains their Safari browser to view a webpage by zooming in and out, while FireFox has updated their Minimo, the Mozilla mobile version, to be smaller and faster than before, and Microsoft has launched a redesigned MSN portal optimized for mobile phone content on June 18, 2007 (Gohring, 2007). Others, including Yahoo and Google, have similar offering for news, sports, and entertainment. However, the ultimate goal of all these companies is to gain a foothold in the potentially
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It is not this way in cases of personal fission, on Lewis’ account. In a case of fission, neither the persons involved nor any of their stages divide. Stages are momentary and so cannot occupy a single, connected region at one time but two separate regions at a later time, since for them there is no later time. So neither S, nor any of the other stages C1 and C2 share prior to fission divide. Neither do C1 or C2, the persons who undergo fission. Like ordinary people, who do not fission or fuse, C1 and C2 are ‘worms’—aggregates of I-interrelated stages, where the I relation is the relation in virtue of which stages are temporal parts of the same individual. In cases of fission, on Lewis’ account, there are two such individuals involved at all times, neither of which ‘becomes two’. Neither C1 nor C2 divide: they merely cease cohabiting. Like the pieces of the cake and parts of the cloak, they become detached. But unlike the pieces of cake and parts of the cloak, prior to detachment they did not merely occupy adjacent regions—they wholly occupied the same region. At every such time, every spatial part of one was part of the other. At every time, t, prior to fission C1’s stage-at-t = C2’s stage-at-t, that is, at every such time they shared stages.
Many of the problems with the first generation of retroviral vectors have now been resolved. Specifically, integrations into genes can be directly selected by the use of read through transcrip- tion (von Melchner and Ruley, 1989) or by the use of splice acceptor and splice donor sequences that activate the expression of selectable markers (Friedrich and Soriano, 1991). Moreover, the integration loci are now readily identified which has meant that it is possible to generate vast libraries of ES cell clones each tagged with a unique insertion event (Hicks et al., 1997; Zambrowicz et al., 1998). My original view that retroviral mutagenesis would become the dominant technology for obtaining mutations seems likely to be correct, despite the current popularity of gene targeting. In part, this view has been realized by founding a commercial company to pursue this objective, Lexicon Genetics Inc., where the implemen- tation of gene trapping on a genome wide scale was set as a primary goal.