Policy Process

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Gendering the REDD+ policy process in Ghana

Gendering the REDD+ policy process in Ghana

roles between men and women. Relatively, Connell (2009:73) writing on gender relations states that analysis of such relations also includes relationships and hierar- chies among men and women. The notion of ‘gender’ which focused mainly on women in the document resonate the perspective commonly related to Women in Development (WID). The WID perspective connects women’s subordination to difficulties in resource access with less focus on social relations that defines access and ownership (Razavi and Miller, 1995:12). The document did not present different ways through which people used to mediate for their involvement in forest manage- ment The above statement is not in any way evaluating the existence of gender ine- qualities or otherwise but as to how is it taken as a fact to support the representation of a policy problem. The document presents the following assumptions; that climate change will pose differential impact on both men and women at different locations (p.4). The differing effects of climate change on different social groups are not only the consequence of climatic variability but unequal power relations which define resource access, social status and participation in policy making. A taken for granted view is that women are underprivileged by and through many ways [like norms which promote male leadership] within the existing and evolving social relations. The document also assumes that forest activities in Ghana is controlled and managed mainly by men [page.9]. This, it explained is due to neglect of women’s concern in forest management programmes. Another point is that climate change policy making at different levels (international and national) has not consider gender concerns. It assumed that the knowledge, experience and rights of women are not being consid- ered. It further suggests that the incorporation of gender concerns in REDD+ policy will produce positive outcomes. The above statement does not consider other factors like existing policy influence, inadequate funds and lack of political will that could also impact on the policy outcomes. It simplifies the policy process with the argu- ment that policy makers will act on the gender proposals once they discuss it.
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Gender equity as policy paradigm in the Irish educational policy process

Gender equity as policy paradigm in the Irish educational policy process

well as in the character of the relationship between them. Intensification is produced by a more specialised set of agents than those who fuel the expansion and contraction of a paradigm. Its currency is research findings and theoretical developments. In a reversal of intensification, simplification results in a sparse paradigm. Theories are reduced to assertions, the language becomes sloganised and there is a paucity of legitimation. Where a paradigm experiences continuous expansion and intensification it begins to take on the features of a system. In expanding it will have infused a greater swathe of reality that is meaningful to educational decision making; in intensifying, the interconnections between various features of a paradigm will be articulated and refined. Through these joint processes of “filling out” and “filling in”, a paradigm systematises. This can be observed when it begins to exhibit such features as strong framing, protective strategies and reproductive mechanisms. Mutation also involves expansion/contraction of the components of a paradigm. But in this case the change does not take the form of incremental additions or subtractions. The defining characteristic of mutation is the reworking of an element of a paradigm to the extent that it facilitates the emergence of a new paradigm. The emerging paradigm is experienced as an outgrowth from the base paradigm. In merging, paradigms gain through the act of partnership. In a reversal of this process, paradigms may subdivide and form two or more autonomous structures. The rupture of a paradigm signals its demise as a coherent force in the shaping of the policy process. In reality, even in the more explicit and codified domain of science, as Archer (1996) points out, any theory can be saved from patent falsification. Even more so with meaning, diversity and pluralism are more likely than elimination.
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Educational policy, policy appropriation and Grameen Bank higher education financial aid policy process

Educational policy, policy appropriation and Grameen Bank higher education financial aid policy process

The stage model is the textbook version of the policy, but provokes for adaptive and useful policy formulation. It has hierarchical levels in formulating the policy because here multiple layers of stakeholders are involved in the policy-making process. Agenda setting, decision making, and implementation (and evaluation) are used as distinct phases. However, it can be misleading because the process is not actually linear, more complex than it is. But it has conceptual strengths. Edward Elmore thinks that it transcends the boundaries of specific institutions and points to the ways in which individuals and groups interact across them. The stage model examines the real-world consequences of specific policy decisions. However, the basic criticism of the stages framework is that too often it is represented as a model of actual decision processes. In the real world, events seldom unfold in this neat, ordered fashion, and policy decision making only rarely follows this pattern. Moreover, often policy maker focuses on policy analysis and neglects implementation and consequently support is lacking. Therefore, policy may be implemented poorly or not at all. Therefore, the stages model, then, is most useful as a heuristic for identifying times and places in the policy process where different tactics for shaping policy come into play. Problems with the stage model are misunderstanding and/or disagreement down the line, and in fact it doesn't actually work as per way formulation.
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Seven rules for researchers to increase their impact on the policy process

Seven rules for researchers to increase their impact on the policy process

To conclude, we still need to address one potential objec- tion to our paper. If, as our paper argues, all research is sub- jective, if all research involves selection and interpretation and if the selection and interpretation made in a specific case reflect the values and preferences of those involved, where does this leave our paper? Is our paper not subjective? We think it is. Our paper reflects our personal interest in open, non-technocratic but well-informed decision-making, as well as our institutional affiliation – policy analysts in a water management department with a majority of hydrologists and engineers –, which compels us to reflect on the link between the policy process and technical and hydrological research. Yet, we think that our paper also reflects the reality of the (water) science – policy interface, that our analysis is valid and does not contradict the available data, and moreover, that it can be used by researchers who want to contribute to the policy process. It is up to the reader to check whether we are right, to test the validity of our analysis, to reflect on their own values and preferences, and if necessary, come up with an alternative analysis.
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Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process

Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process

The prevalent context also shaped the policy processes in the formulation of the OHP because whereas our findings show that the actors were well aware of some documented stages of policy process, there were how- ever processes that were context specific and needed to be followed in the country; the absence of which had led to a failed attempt at formulating the OHP in the past. However, there are no definite boundaries between the stages as perceived by the policy actors and as outlined in literature. As noted by Foltz, some stages may be skipped, merged; while some stages may occur simultan- eously [37,39,40]. Also, the findings of an incrementalist approach to policy development where it was perceived that dissemination of policy documents was a stage in the process of the OHP before implementation could occur has been commonly adopted in developing coun- tries [5,37]. The noted delays and “bureaucratic bottle- necks” during the OHP development is not peculiar to this particular policy; it is the nature of policy making to be iterative and sometimes have very fuzzy boundaries be- tween stages [5], but this can be limited or made worse by the interest and power of the actors involved. Other strengths and weaknesses in this study also resonate with a detailed analysis of the oral health care system in Nigeria by Adeniyi et al; and some of the strengths could be per- ceived as opportunities and some weaknesses as threats, were this paper to have used the SWOT (Strengths, weak- nesses, opportunities and threats) analysis framework [24]. The characteristics and power of various actors al- though varied, were unified by a common interest of for- mulating a policy which will be adopted by the Federal Executive Council. It could almost be said that all the actors formed a single policy network driven by a com- mon interest [41]. However, this is not always the case with all policy making, as was seen in Ghana’s experi- ence during the formulation of the National Health In- surance Policy where stakeholders were primarily trying to protect the interests of their various constituencies [42]. Although the technocrats and bureaucrats were more in number than the donors, CSO and politicians [5], each group of actors played key roles at different stages of the policy process, and even when they were not playing key roles, remained involved to varying ex- tents at all stages.
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Nature of Policy Process Encourages Economic Underdevelopment in Africa

Nature of Policy Process Encourages Economic Underdevelopment in Africa

The paper discussed the concept of policy from different dispositions. It examined the attitude of African leaders within the context of policy formulation and how it affects the economic development in the continent. Some of such policies from selected countries were discussed. It was concluded that not until such approach is kept aside, economic development in Africa will be a mirage.

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Understanding the Environmental Policy Process Policy Process 1

Understanding the Environmental Policy Process Policy Process 1

Subcommittee Setting Subcommittee Hearings Interest Groups Report to Committee Witness Testimony Member Interests Majority Staff. Report Minority Staff Report[r]

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Land information systems and the policy process

Land information systems and the policy process

ABSTRACT There is a commonly held belief in the land information systems community that there is a strong causal link between the availability of reliable, consistent information and eff[r]

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The policy process on climate change

The policy process on climate change

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first session or as soon as practicable thereafter, decide upon modalities, rules and gu[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

Art Educational Administration Quarterly v20 n3 p129-160 Nagel, S 1980 The Policy Studies Handbook Heath & Co, Massachusetts Peterson, P 1976 School Politics Chicago Style University of [r]

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Health, human rights, and the policy process

Health, human rights, and the policy process

Having both a mainstream and complemenury approach to provision of health em: to tbe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is an important principle ill settiag the context fo[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

People accepted appointment as IB examiners after technically anaiysing the content and assessment requirements of particular subjects within the broader context of the aims of the PB pr[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

of the headmasters figuring in the administration stage were also key actors during the execution stage where their schools were trialling the IB program along with newcomers such as Sa'[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

North American IB Office Some American headmasters were members of the CIS from 1949 and of the ISA which was formed in 1951, comprising mainly parents in its early years Miss Julia Hend[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

Several related soluiions were mcmted over Hme, beginning with the rnnturitk internationale by Meyhoffer in 1925, a UNESCO international diploma by Philip in 1946 at the instigation ~f T[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

Educational Context: Ifhe t y p e of prggrams already in existnce within a country or within a school, the amount of support by governments or focal authorities, the number of non-govkmm[r]

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International baccalaureate : policy process in education

International baccalaureate : policy process in education

Fibure 12.7 The Involvement of Education Officials Across Policy 291a Process Stages and the Factsrs that Influenced Them Figure 12.8 The Involvement of UNESCO Across Policy ProcesStages[r]

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Tracking	
  Evidence	
  in	
  Use	
  in	
  the	
  Policy	
  Process

Tracking  Evidence  in  Use  in  the  Policy  Process

This provides an important technique for mapping the policy arena into which evidence is being sent. Efforts to track evidence use in the policy process must necessarily take into consideration those contextual features and barriers - what I term Ôpolicy challenge variablesÕ - which exist in the arena into which an evidence source is destined. Evidence which is produced with insufficient reconnaissance leads to policy uptake failure. These Ôpolicy context variablesÕ are crucial to a true understanding of the factors and processes affecting the policy uptake of evidence.
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Examination of the public policy in process in Libya

Examination of the public policy in process in Libya

described by Meier and O‟Toole (2006) as professional individual people, who have highly developed skills, and are specialised in certain policy areas, such as university scientists and other academics and researchers. The outsiders, as they argue, can participate in the process of policy development and deliberations not because they are sanctioned in law, but because they have direct institutionalised access to them. They commonly gain this entree by serving in an advisory or consultative capacity to these agencies. As they hold advisory positions, they would be at the centre of the most celebrated policy dispute, so they can participate in formulating a policy and assist in its implementation through an elaborate system of advisory machinery. In addition to this, the outsiders are more independent than the permanent official, so they can speak their minds without editing their thoughts for fear of reprisal by their administrative superiors in government. This independence of judgment may help to promote diversity of opinions and views. Therefore, the outsiders whether serving as advisers, consultants, or on temporary assignment with the agency, can be identified as superior players in these stages of the policy process. In addition, the outsiders who may become temporarily involved in the agency‟s operation can have far more influence over the direction of an agency‟s policies than any of its career employees. Thus, the power that resides in a bureaucratic organisation because of its specialised functions and capacities is not always controlled by people who are actually bureaucrats, in the true sense of being permanent employees of the agency for which they work. Such permanent employees often find themselves discounted and in the unhappy position of having no real voice in their own organisation‟s major policy decisions.
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"Policy-Making and the Integration Process - Implications for Integration Theory"

"Policy-Making and the Integration Process - Implications for Integration Theory"

There may have been serious analytical problems with some of the early theoretical approaches. This does not mean that none of their insights were valid. Indeed, just as Haas (1970:607) noted of Deutsch's 1954 work on regional integration, "Deutsch raised all the major questions and introduced many of the concepts that still preoccupy and guide the research effort", the same might today be said of much of the work of the neo-functionalists. The underlying assumptions as to how and why institutions, interactions between the various interests and policy participants, the importance of the types of polices under negotiation, and the capacity of actors to adapt and learn, were important in the process of integration may not have been as clearly articulated by the early theorists as they would have desired, or may even have been founded on false premises. However, the policy literature has clearly demonstrated that many of these actors and processes do, nevertheless, have an important impact on the EU policy process. Perhaps the most important contribution of the recent upsurge in studies which employ the tools of comparative politics and policy analysis to the study of
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