Political thought

Top PDF Political thought:

Nature and artifice in Hobbes’s international political thought

Nature and artifice in Hobbes’s international political thought

This article has shown the dynamic relationship between the notions of nature and artifice in Hobbes’s international political thought. Given that commonwealths are in a state of nature, they face a constant threat of wars of aggression, and ultimately have to rely on their own resources to defend themselves. Sovereigns, in particular, have to fear for their lives and liberty, as they are likely to be specifically targeted at war. Furthermore, Hobbes suggests that rulers can only enjoy relative security as long as their states are well ordered and powerful enough to deter foreign invasions.
Show more

20 Read more

The Epistemology of Islamic Political Thought in Indonesia

The Epistemology of Islamic Political Thought in Indonesia

Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (shortened to PKS or PK Sejahtera) 5 is a political party based on Islamic foundation in Indonesia which is also concerned with Islamic sharia. 6 PKS is more known as the youth party which is clean and professional, having social awareness that is relatively permanent (not only a show around the General Election). PKS is also known as Islamic party with a relatively tidy party management, and an impression as cadre party, rather than a mass party, although recently it starts to widen its mass basis. In the beginning of its establishment, PKS impressed as an exclusive Islamic party in style, although since it has been adapting rapidly to sociological condition of Islamic society in Indonesia, e.g., case of determining the beginning of month in Saudi Arabia. Suspectedly PKS is also more nationalistic and open to plurality of groups and even religions. Besides, PKS‟ politicians, in several certain cases, were relatively able to be professional political figures (such as the imminent succession of the party‟s president and who will hold the state political office afterward). PKS is also more oriented to quality work, rather than to authority only. Even though lately PKS is considered more pragmatic and power hungry, as it seems there is tendency of PKS to build coalition with non-Islamic parties (secular) with different ideology, in several electoral processes. Even there is researcher who assess PKS as actually has hidden agenda prepared for later use. The political thought of PKS model can be said as a combination between bayani, irfani and burhani.
Show more

9 Read more

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

The remaining chapters in the book strain at the boundaries of what might ordinarily be considered the history of political thought, at least in the ‘Cambridge’ mode. They feel more like intellectually-inflected political or administrative history. Widukind De Ridder offers a high-level history of early-19th-century Belgian politics and of Belgian liberalism, dwelling more on events and personalities than ideas. Anna Ross’s contribution examines the Prussian Ministry of State during and after the revolutions, focusing on bureaucratic politics and programmes of action. Alan Sked, finally, considers the attitudes of the Austrian ‘official mind’ towards the problem of nationality in the empire, offering a host of intriguing quotations, but prioritising the narration and explanation of material shifts in policy. All three chapters are excellent pieces of history. In each case, however, the context seems to have eaten the ideas. If this counts as ‘Cambridge’ work, then the label has become elastic indeed.
Show more

5 Read more

The Position of the Concept of Revolution in Hannah Arendt's Political Thought

The Position of the Concept of Revolution in Hannah Arendt's Political Thought

Given the fact that Arendt draws a rela- tionship between revolution on one hand and violence and totalitarianism on the other hand; in her view, violence is only permitted to the point where it leads to a revolution that will lead to the establishment of freedom, otherwise violence, per se, will endanger humanity with catastrophic damages. On the other hand, violence is an integral part of revolution, and if it is not put on the path to freedom and establishment of a republic, is yet another problem and defeats the purpose. It should also be noted that totalitarianism also plays an important role in political thought and leads to isolation and lacking of identity in human beings,and not only will it lead to the atomization of people, but also basically leads to the redundancy of human beings. In conclusion, the concept of revolu- tion plays a central role and has a pivotal po- sition in Arendt's political thought, and other concepts and topics make sense around the axis of revolution.
Show more

14 Read more

The Concept of the Political in Contemporary Western and Non-Western Political Thought

The Concept of the Political in Contemporary Western and Non-Western Political Thought

The best efforts of the five most influential contemporary schools of Western political theory, then, have failed to produce a satisfactory philosophical response to the accusation made half a century ago by Koselleck, to the effect that much modern political thought is in fact profoundly anti-political since it tends to subsume the political under the moral. As I said at the beginning, however, there are several British scholars whose recent work on how the political is to be studied illuminates more clearly the direction future research should take. Foremost amongst them are Michael Freeden at Oxford, Raymond Geuss and John Dunn at Cambridge, and Margaret Canovan, formerly of Keele University. Since Freeden’s work provides the most systematic response to the problem, it provides a convenient jumping board for constructing an agenda for that research involving ten key requirements.
Show more

22 Read more

A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300 1450

A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300 1450

Some features of the book's structure too mark a break with Ullmann's. Beginning Chapter 1 in the fourth century rather than the mid-fifth allows Canning to appreciate the importance of Constantine's reign, and to set Justinian's ideology of Christian Empire in its full Late Antique context. It also means the inclusion of Augustine (pp. 39-43), and this provides the basis for consideration of 'I'augustinisme politique' in the Carolingian period. Though he accords no recognition to the work of Peter Brown (Beryl Smalley ed., Trends in Medieval Political Thought ( 1965), including indispensable papers by Brown and others, is quite the most surprising omission from his Bibliography), Canning writes with benefit of The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought ( l 9F) edited by J.H. Burns, and makes good use of the sections by Donald Nicol on Byzantium, and by P. D. King on the barbarian kingdoms: the notes to Canning's Chapter 1 contain seven references to The Cambridge History. Chapter 2 is clearly seen by Canning himself as an important and distinctive feature of his book: the period from the eighth century to the eleventh was, he writes (p. 44), 'of crucial significance because it witnessed the consolidation of characteristic medieval ideas about both the nature of organised society and its structures of authority and power. Many of these concepts ... were to remain basic for the remainder of the Middle Ages'. Such an appraisal contrasts with that implicit in
Show more

5 Read more

Machiavelli and the Foundation of the Modern Political Thought

Machiavelli and the Foundation of the Modern Political Thought

based on a theory, but since it is present in the do- main of investigation, it acts as the cornerstone of a theory whose identification is not possible (Taba- tabaee, Op, Cit: 589). It can be said that investiga- tion in the humanistic fundamentals in the political thought of Machiavelli, plays an important role in understanding his ideas. For him, since human beings are subject to ego, and is instinctively sel- fish and ambitious, as a result any relation and in- teraction between them is based on acquiring profit and repelling damage. Centrality and nobility of individuals‟ passions and their disobedience from the ethical and religious obligations and their doubt about their instinctive preference and their doubts about their instructive preference, and principally doubt in calling them virtues lead to a new ap- proach which is contrary to the old thinking and in contradiction with it. In explaining the idea of Machiavelli, it should be stated that “the most im- portant motivation for everybody in his life, is his wishes, and these wishes, contrary to the ideas of the ancients who consider them as the outcomes of passions and the causes of ethical corruption, and, in fact, ethics and politics of the ancients did not have any objective except egotism, in Machiavel- li‟s political thinking, it is a natural issue (Ibid: 496). Exploration of disputes, tension, friendship and generally, any social relations, and any inter- state ones, with the help of explanation of instinc- tive characteristics of individuals who are, as was mentioned before, ambitious and selfish, can help illustrating the definition and elaboration of the politics in the new era.
Show more

10 Read more

Designing video and audio resources on the history of political thought

Designing video and audio resources on the history of political thought

as I explain in the video, thinks man is far from being a naturally political being, and that, in his natural state, he would, in fact, lead a life that was in ‘continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short’ (Hobbes, 1651/1981: 186). In taking this approach I was attempting to enthuse students about Hobbes, seeing his attempt to answer the question ‘why should I obey government?’ as providing a different answer to the dominant trends in political thought at the time and, as such, his views being novel for the time.
Show more

12 Read more

Power, knowledge and legitimacy in the political thought of Imam Mohammad Ghazali

Power, knowledge and legitimacy in the political thought of Imam Mohammad Ghazali

Investigation and thinking on concepts such as knowledge, power and legitimacy is considered one of the most important subjects in this study. Till now, the concepts of knowledge and power by using Foucault's discourse on Ghazali political thought, have not studied by researchers And this is may be one of the innovations of this research. Of course, in this article we will act de- scriptive – analytical method and using Foucault's discourse concepts. So, Due to the position of each of these concepts in Islamic thought, Assessment the position of power, knowledge and legitimacy in the Ghazali political thought will be analyzed. The results that obtained during this study, investigate the position of knowledge, power and legitimacy in the political structure of Ghazali government. In Ghazali political thought, the concept of knowledge have the superior position in structure and form of his government and in this structure, Knowledge is in the ser- vice of the government and power; That this claim within the Ghazali intellectual framework observed for defining Esteslahy policy, But since Ghazali knows the greatness of caliph as a factor for the homage, formation and survival of the government and believes A special place for the ruler and king for community administration, In practice, says the primacy of power over knowledge so, getting out the legitimacy of power.
Show more

10 Read more

Hobbes, metaphor and political thought

Hobbes, metaphor and political thought

00001t tif HOBBES, METAPHOR AND POLITICAL THOUGHT JA M ES WILLSON QUAYLE SUBMITTED IN FU LFILM EN T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF P h D AT THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOM ICS UNIVERSITY OF LONDON[.]

283 Read more

The political thought of Sayyid Quṭb

The political thought of Sayyid Quṭb

themes in the socio-political thought in Egypt of that time. Sayyid Qutb's work: Social Justice in Islam was the right answer from Islam to the problem of injustice in society. This work deals with an area relatively unexplored by modern Muslim thinkers before him. He has proved that the people would find that everything they reckon new in

189 Read more

Victorian Political Thought on France and the French

Victorian Political Thought on France and the French

Victorian Political Thought on France and the French is a convincing and readable volume that will be invaluable for scholars and postgraduate students. The significant cogency of this monograph stems from two important theoretical premises. Firstly, Varouxakis does not slip into shallow, one-dimensional explanations: rather he succeeds in maintaining a subtle balancing act between a number of interesting antitheses throughout the entire narrative. Accordingly, he has an eye for relevant life experiences of the various writers, as well as for integrating crucial general factors, such as the British feeling of superiority (which was based upon the idea of moderate liberty above all else); and the intricate relationship between the Irish problem and the belief in the Celtic roots of French culture. In addition, he strikes a balance between short-term responses to actual political events, such as regime changes on the one hand, and the recording of more settled long-term visions regarding the national character of the French on the other.
Show more

5 Read more

Methodological Impediments to Innovation on Political Thought of Islam

Methodological Impediments to Innovation on Political Thought of Islam

rational problems and was not able to come up with new political and social theories and basically, did not consider that to be its duty. Attention to political issues in ethical works written by ibn Moskuyeh Razi; Khajeh Nassir-ed-din in his book, Akhlaq Nasseri; and Mohaqqeq Sabzevari in his book, Rozat-ol-Anwar Abbasi, could not achieve much. Therefore, the political thought of Islam was limited to jurisprudential issues which paid attention to reviving religious tenets, ordering good and prohibiting vice, apostasy… in domestic policy as well as preventing domination of foreigners, contracts for behaving with non-Muslims and… in foreign policy. Such issues, as we said before were based on quotes and were expressed in the simplest way. Although they could meet political and social needs of their time hundreds of years ago, they did not follow complexity of those needs in the course of time and it seems that if they continue on the same path, they will not be capable of meeting the needs of a modern society. Even jurisprudential books that have been written in recent years have attended to such important issues within the old jurisprudential frames. viii This trend has had four consequences. Firstly, issues of political thought have not been established in Islam within scientific and theoretical frames commensurate with advancement of political and social systems. Secondly, some came to believe that Islam basically lacks the capacity to give rise to political thought and theorization in this field. Thirdly, many researchers whose goal is to delineate the political thought of Islam pursue this goal within jurisprudential frame and their efforts, therefore, is not possible to prove fruitful. Fourthly, proponents of a dynamic political Islam in the modern world try to defend their viewpoints on the basis of political and jurisprudential bases and the opposite side does not consider their defense to be serious or convincing. Even jurists who pay attention to such modern issues as democracy, human rights, structure of the Islamic government, party politics, political participation, and so on; do not discuss such issues in depth. ix Apart from that, fiqh has become basically stagnant with respect to new topics and it seems that there is no way to infer solutions to new problems from old texts.x 4. Generalizing Sanctities
Show more

10 Read more

The Concept of “Political Legitimacy” in Shia Political Thought (With Focus on Imam Khomeini’s Political Thought)

The Concept of “Political Legitimacy” in Shia Political Thought (With Focus on Imam Khomeini’s Political Thought)

At last, exploration of Imam Khomeini’s political thought undertaken through a review of his speeches, quotations and organized works demonstrated that however his early works on Fiqh dealt exclusively with divine legitimacy and the issue of “Appointment” to such an extent that people’s vote seems to be completely of no importance, later works and speeches which are largely related to after Islamic Revolution period contain remarka- ble emphasis on the determining role of people in the process of governance. Indeed, as in Imam’s perspective practical require- ments have always been prior to the theoreti- cal logic of issues, it is no wonder that he had formally recognized and confirmed the de- mocracy in this preferred level, but did not present an illustrative explanation of the rela- tionship between his early theoretical argu- ments on divine legitimacy and implications of practical level as mentioned above. This inquiry tends to suggest that the legitimacy in Imam Khomeini’s point of view is divided to two main stages; first is associated with the establishment of government and second re- lates directly to basic aims of the government and primary need for its formation. According to Imam Khomeini, the legitimacy in the first stage is mostly a popular one, while the sec- ond stage relies heavily on a ground of divine legislation and legitimacy.
Show more

11 Read more

American Political Thought

American Political Thought

It is sometimes claimed that the greatest contribution that the United States has made to the history of political thought is the idea of America itself; however, the history of political thought in the United States is marked by ongoing political contention rather than consensus. In this course we will explore a selection of key texts that have helped shape and contest the political idea -- and the political ideals -- of America, texts that comprise the traditions and countertraditions of American political thought. Beginning with a sermon delivered at sea to Puritans on their way to the “New World,” and ending with a seminal twentieth-century debate over the viability of a democratic public, the course will emphasize how intellectual argument in America has shaped and been shaped by the larger political culture of which it is a part. We will study key historical texts that are not only rewarding to think about but also rewarding to think with in light of
Show more

9 Read more

Qanun and the Modernisation of Political thought in Iran

Qanun and the Modernisation of Political thought in Iran

The above analysis and interpretation of Qanun shows clearly how this newspaper involved in the construction of political thought and modernization of Iranian society during the 19 th century. If other newspapers published for instance during the Nasir al-Din Shah such as Roznameh Vaqay‘ Ittefaqeyyeh did not involve itself in social and political discourse, merely reporting on state activities, Qanun by contrast not only tried to bring these kind of debates to the surface, but actively encouraged people to become critically involved in discussion and argument. Qanun also used a different language, not only in the style of writing, which was more Persian than Arabic, and was simple, fluent and easy to understand, but also in terms of a new language of interpretation based on a combination of religious phrases with secular elements. This newspaper is indeed the pioneer paper in introducing the modern and Western thoughts and ideologies to Iranian society. The method of introducing the modern concept of ‘law’, for instance, shows clearly Malkum Khan’s ability to use various forms of interpretation in order to make a complex idea understandable and acceptable to the majority within society. This method of interpretation is in itself a pioneering step and forms a part of the wider contribution of press to the process of modernization and political development in Iran.
Show more

39 Read more

Realism and liberalism in the political thought of Bernard Williams

Realism and liberalism in the political thought of Bernard Williams

As we saw in Chapter One the refusal to insulate matters of principle from the exigencies of practice has a long history in Williams’s ethical thought (and is more generally part and parcel of his general characterisation of philosophy as a humanistic discipline). It is present in his earliest paper on political philosophy, ‘The Idea of Equality’, despite predating his later realist turn by around four decades. In this paper Williams distinguishes between two core principles of egalitarian thought – equality of respect and equality of opportunity – and emphasises the ways in which the pursuit of one is likely to engender a loss of the other. The pursuit of equality of opportunity will destroy a certain sense of common humanity which is itself a precondition of equality of respect, because ‘there are deep psychological and social obstacles’ to the idea that there could be a society in which equality of opportunity was the sole criterion of the distribution of goods and this did not have the effect of encouraging contempt and condescension’ (IBWD, p. 113). Yet Williams revealingly notes that it would also be wrong to focus on equality of respect alone, because ‘an ideal of equality of respect that made no contact with such things as the economic needs of society for certain skills, and human desire for some sorts of prestige, would be condemned to a futile Utopianism, and to having no rational effect on the distribution of goods, position and power that would inevitably proceed’ (IBWD, p. 114). He insists that we must recognise such practical constraints and that although we may find this uncomfortable, ‘the discomfort is just that of genuine political thought’ (IBWD, p. 114). Thus, just as his work in ethics seeks to make sense of ethical life as it is
Show more

269 Read more

Virtue in Machiavelli’s Political Thought

Virtue in Machiavelli’s Political Thought

(Āshoori: 8). The scrutiny by the translator and his specialty in political thought and intellectualism is the reason for his emphasis on the importance of virtue. ‗A highly significant point that made me revise this translation, was the perception of the concept of ‗virtue‘ and ‗virtuoso‘ that occurred [to me] as the result of reading ‗Machiavelli‘ by Skinner.‘ The importance of the word, led the translator to Musa‘s bilingual text in which he has proposed twelve equivalents for ‗virtue‘. Among them are volition, oneness, force, virtue (excel- lence), meritorious, creativity and interaction be- tween the body and the soul (Ibid: 14, 15). In translating the ―king‖ to Persian, Āshoori also consults two German translations of the ―king‖ but after months of searching and asking the Counselor of the Italian Embassy of the time, who was also familiar with Persian literature and lan- guage, finally he comes up with the word ‗Honar‘ (art) (16). Mark Musa‘s emphasis on the creativi- ty, intelligence and innovation as aspects of the concept of virtue, causing the translator to do a search and finally find the equivalent for ‗art‘ in Iranian literary and mystical works such as Nasi- hatol-Molook, Shāhnāmeh, Marmuzāt-e- Asadi and Sa‘di which hinder his understanding of the political centrality of virtue.
Show more

10 Read more

The political thought of F.A. Bland

The political thought of F.A. Bland

If the discipline of public administration has a forgotten man in Australia, that man must surely be Francis Armand Bland. Professor of Public Administration at the University of Sydney from 1935 until his retirement in 1948, Bland was a prolific writer and a well-known commentator on public policy and affairs, as the bibliography of his writings published in the June 1948 edition of Public Administration (Sydney) clearly attests .(1) Yet with the exception of a short article by E.N.Gladden published in 1975 (2), little has been written about Bland since the obituary in Public Administration (Sydney) in September 1967, noting his death in April of that year. ( 3 ) Volume 7 of the Australian Dictionary of Biography, that in which Bland's life and work could appropriately have been recorded, contains no article about him; and such scattered references to him as one does encounter relate most often not to his scholarly work, but to his activities as Chairman from 1952 to 1960 of the Joint Committee of Public Accounts of the Commonwealth Parliament. As a personality in Australian intellectual life in the 1930s, Bland has recently received some attention in an unpublished doctoral dissertation (4), but his political thought has been subjected to virtually no sustained critical attention .(5)
Show more

259 Read more

Geopolitics and global democracy in Owen Lattimore's political thought

Geopolitics and global democracy in Owen Lattimore's political thought

The question of political agency was central to Lattimore’s understanding of the role of international organizations in the era of decolonization. Lattimore was an enthusiastic supporter of decolonization movements worldwide and hoped the war would speed this process up. He saw the 1942 bilateral Treaty for the Relinquishment of Extra-Territorial Rights in China, signed by the British and Chinese governments, as the dawn of a new geopolitical era in Asia. The new order would no longer be characterized by unequal or exploitative political and economic relationship, but by local governments for the benefit of local populations. Yet he warned that the legal change did not eradicate the Western mindset which considered Asia as an area that has ‘things done to it’ by the West. ‘It is often assumed that Asia is not a part of the world which can be expected to do things that alter the destiny or destroy the power of decision of the Western peoples.’ Accordingly, Asian states were not considered an ‘original political force’. 56 It is unclear whether there is a contradiction
Show more

43 Read more

Show all 6686 documents...