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Failure to pop out: feature singletons do not capture attention under low signal to noise ratio conditions

Failure to pop out: feature singletons do not capture attention under low signal to noise ratio conditions

Pop-out search implies that the target is always the first item selected, no matter how many distractors are presented. Increasing evidence, however, indicates that search is not entirely independent of display density even for pop-out targets: search is slower with sparse (few distractors) than with dense displays (many distractors). Despite its significance, the cause of this anomaly remains unclear. We investigated several mechanisms that could slow down search for pop-out targets. Consistent with the assumption that pop-out targets frequently fail to pop out in sparse displays, we observed greater variability of search duration for sparse displays relative to dense. Computational modeling of the response time distributions also supported the view that pop-out targets fail to pop out in sparse displays. Our findings strongly question the classical assumption that early processing of pop-out targets is independent of the distractors. Rather, the density of distractors critically influences whether or not a stimulus pops out. These results call for new, more reliable measures of pop-out search and potentially a re-interpretation of studies that used relatively sparse displays.

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System identification in priming of pop out

System identification in priming of pop out

I suggest that a coherent framework to explain kernels in PoP can be articulated by considering task goals and ecological contingencies. Finding a target among distractors may benefit from learning about the regularities in the distribution of the items. By exploiting such regularities the observer can anticipate the most likely stimulus configuration in the upcoming trial, thus speeding up responses. The assumption here is that such regularities do exist, but this is not often the case in laboratory tasks: in the classic PoP task, for example, all stimulus features are equiprobable and alternate randomly. Yet, in nature completely random time series are the exception rather than the norm, as attested by the observation of widespread 1/f-type spectra (Hurst, Black & Simaika, 1965). Not only are most natural time series temporally correlated, but also the spatial distribution of resources is often patchy (Taylor, Woiwod & Perry, 1978), such that exploration of the environment also results in sequences of correlated encounters. As such, prediction is clearly attainable in ecological settings and predictive tendencies are likely to be the evolved operational default of behaving organisms.

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Positional priming of visual pop out search is supported by multiple spatial reference frames

Positional priming of visual pop out search is supported by multiple spatial reference frames

et al. (2011) showed that the representation of a single stimulus location in working memory is influenced by the locations of the surrounding items. In their Experiment 2, observers performed a location change detection task. The memory and probe displays contained three items, arranged in a virtual triangle. This configuration could be either repeated or changed: in the latter condition, two of the three items were displaced in random directions in the test display (the memory and test displays were separated by a gap of 3000 ms). Observers’ task was to indicate whether a probe item appeared at the location of a target item (the critical, to-be-judged stimulus was presented in red color; the other items were black). It was found that observers exhibited higher accuracy on location match, compared to non-match, trials. Furthermore, for non-match trials, observers’ performance was higher for trials with changed relative to repeated configurations. Gmeindl et al. (2011) took this result to mean that target location detection is influenced by configural information, specifically, that configural attributes aid information processing at a decision stage where evidence for a mismatch between item locations in the memory and test displays is evaluated – the idea being that detection of a change in stimulus locations is enhanced when the configuration changes, too. This builds upon evidence, reported by Boduroglu and Shah (2009; see also Jiang et al., 2000 or Hyun et al., 2009), that observers, in WM tasks, encode both task-relevant (here: item locations) and task-irrelevant (here: item configuration) information and that the latter can bias observers’ (location) change detection performance. Applied to the present visual pop-out search task, this could mean that in default mode, observers maintain item locations by means of a configuration- dependent (object-centered) code in positional short-term memory (Experiment 2). The reason for this might be that configuration-based coding, or ‘Gestalt’ grouping, can reduce memory load, particularly in the cross-trial tracking of distractor positions. This idea builds on the assumption that observers intend to reduce memory load in positional priming, as they do in WM tasks.

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Inter trial effects in visual pop out search: factorial comparison of Bayesian updating models

Inter trial effects in visual pop out search: factorial comparison of Bayesian updating models

Many previous studies on visual search have reported inter-trial effects, that is, observers respond faster when some target property, such as a defining feature or dimension, or the response associated with the target repeats versus changes across consecutive trial epi- sodes. However, what processes drive these inter-trial effects is still controversial. Here, we investigated this question using a combination of Bayesian modeling of belief updating and evidence accumulation modeling in perceptual decision-making. In three visual singleton (‘pop-out’) search experiments, we explored how the probability of the response-critical states of the search display (e.g., target presence/absence) and the repetition/switch of the target-defining dimension (color/ orientation) affect reaction time distributions. The results replicated the mean reaction time (RT) inter-trial and dimension repetition/switch effects that have been reported in previous studies. Going beyond this, to uncover the underlying mech- anisms, we used the Drift-Diffusion Model (DDM) and the Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate (LATER) model to explain the RT distributions in terms of decision bias (starting point) and information processing speed (evidence accumulation rate). We further investigated how these different aspects of the decision-making process are affected by dif- ferent properties of stimulus history, giving rise to dissociable inter-trial effects. We

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Persistent Occiput Posterior position   OUTcomes following manual rotation (POP OUT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Persistent Occiput Posterior position OUTcomes following manual rotation (POP OUT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

A logistic regression analysis of treatment allocation and other variables on the primary outcome measure, operative delivery, will be performed. The following vari- ables will be considered for the logistic regression model: maternal body mass index, maternal age, maternal height, maternal ethnicity, gestation, induction of labour, gestational diabetes, neonatal gender, and RCOG CTG classification in the second stage of labour. Parity, study site and the presence of epidural for intrapartum anal- gesia at the time of randomisation will not be included because randomisation is stratified for these variables. Only variables where P <0.25 in the univariate regression will be included in the multivariate model. Continuous variables that do not show a linear association with the logit function will be divided into quartiles and treated as categorical. Interaction terms will be considered for treatment allocation versus each of the other variables Table 2 The POP-OUT study time-line for the schedule of enrolment, allocation and follow-up

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What pops out in positional priming of pop out: insights from event related EEG lateralizations

What pops out in positional priming of pop out: insights from event related EEG lateralizations

On this background, we recorded the electroencephalogram in the current study to track the time-course of pop-out signal pro- cessing on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis. To adequately asses the—pre-attentive vs. post-selective—locus, or loci, of positional priming effects, we focused our analyses on a number of particular ERLs that can be linked directly to pure perceptual and pure motor processes, respectively. Similar to the study design devised by Maljkovic and Nakayama (1996), these ERLs were recorded while participants performed a visual pop-out search task, in which the response was based—independent of the target-defining color— on the location of the cut-off section or “notch” (top vs. bottom) of the target stimulus. This compound task required participants to first select the unique-color target from the distractors, before they could extract the notch position required to decide upon the correct motor response. Furthermore, the design of the present study included a neutral baseline condition – in which the current target was presented at a previously empty location – permitting effects of re-presentation of the target at the same (i.e., the previ- ous target) location versus presentation of the target at a previous distractor location to be dissociated.

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Children Cautious Strategy and Variable Maturation Time Window for Responding in a Visual Search Task

Children Cautious Strategy and Variable Maturation Time Window for Responding in a Visual Search Task

The stimuli were presented on the computer screen. The ex- periments were performed individually in a room of the school center, with privacy and relative noise isolation and free of distracting elements. Subjects were situated at 40 cm of a 17" computer screen. For the parallel visual search the stimuli were rectangles half blue (RGB code: navy 000080) and half red (RGB code: red FF0000). Red and blue colors were isolumi- nant. The size of single items was .6 cm (.85˚ of visual angle) in the horizontal meridian and of 1.2 cm (1.7˚ of visual angle) in the vertical meridian. The distracter items have blue color in the superior portion and target item have red color in the upper position (Figure 1(a)). For pop-out the target stimulus was the presence of a red rectangle item surrounded by blue rectangles (Figure 1(b)). The stimular set was presented in the center of the screen with a size of 7 cm (9.9˚ of visual angle) in the hori- zontal meridian and of 4.5 cm (6.4˚ of visual angle) in the ver- tical meridian. The distracters alone, in absence of targets, were presented in catch trials for the visual search (Figure 1(c)) and for the pop-out condition (Figure 1(d)). The set sizes were 2, 4 and 6 items. There was a central fixation cross constantly pre- sented during the whole block. The numbers of items were the same in each side of the fixation point and presentation order was randomized. The subjects pressed the right button for tar- gets located in the right side of the fixation point, and pressed the left button of the mouse for targets located in the left side of the fixation point and, they were instructed not to press to the distracters stimuli during catch trials. For pop-out and visual search tasks there was a total 180 trials presented in two blocks: 30 for each condition (2, 4 and 6 items), 80% were target stim- uli (72 stimuli, 24 for each condition) and 20% (18 stimuli, 6 for each condition) distracter stimuli (catch trials). Pop-out and visual search stimular sets were presented in two different blocks, the total number of trials per block was 90. The blocks were presented to all the subjects in the same order: first the pop-out block and then the visual search block.

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POP Culture: Interaction of and Influence on the Youth

POP Culture: Interaction of and Influence on the Youth

Abstract— In today’s world of digital literacy’s, popular culture is considered to be a ‘central force.’ It has made inroads into our lives like nothing else has. The 21st century popular culture significantly changed our ways of life and impacted it and has transcended the barriers of age, gender, class, color, religion etc. and has become a part of our daily patterns and its impact on the society is best seen and felt among the youth. It is understood that the youngsters of any era are most susceptible to changes brought by the society. The 2000 s has brought in a new hang-out place for the educated mass - online venues. The advent of computers, internet and the World Wide Web has led to tremendous advancement in technology and thus we are able to access all kinds of documents, databases, bulletin boards, electronic publications like newspapers, books and magazines in all media forms (print, audio-oral, visual) via internet and can create our web pages to publish individual art, writings, videos, movies, etc. on popular websites or on personal blogs. Popular culture is irrefutably connected with commercial culture like movies, television, radio, cyberspace, advertising, fashion etc that is available for online purchase.

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Condition & Problems of Female Domestic Workers (With Special Reference to L.D.A. Colony in Lucknow City, India)

Condition & Problems of Female Domestic Workers (With Special Reference to L.D.A. Colony in Lucknow City, India)

Kalayaan (2006) Migrant domestic workers have the legal status of workers in the United Kingdom (UK) - and are entitled to rights such as the minimum wage, time off, etc. Yet, of more than 300 workers registered with, 43% of workers reported not being given their own bed, 41% were not given regular meals, 70% were given no time off, 61% were not allowed out of the house without their employer's permission. In addition, 10% reported sexual abuse, 26% physical abuse and 72% psychological abuse at the hands of their employers. Many workers were paid as little as 50p an hour, were made to work up to 16 hours a day, and were on constant call to their employers.

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Stimulus saliency modulates pre attentive processing speed in human visual cortex

Stimulus saliency modulates pre attentive processing speed in human visual cortex

Contrasting conditions in which target and distracters shared two features (color and orientation) as compared to only one feature (color), Hopf et al. observed enhanced neural activity underlying the PCN with greater feature overlap between the target and distracter items. They took this as evidence that the processes underlying the PCN reflect the suppression of distracter interfer- ence, so as to resolve ambiguous target feature coding [58]. The present study, however, used simple pop-out search displays in which the target was easily detectable based on high physical distinctiveness, without a need for deeper focal-attentional stimulus analysis. This contrasts with the displays used by Hopf et al., in which the target – defined by an instructed color, which was however shared by the surrounding distracters – could appear at one of two possible locations. To solve the task, participants had to first select and then attentionally analyze the target item (to determine the elevation, top vs. bottom, of the instructed color) before they could decide upon the appropriate motor response. Given this, the conclusion of Hopf et al. that enhanced PCN activations reflect suppressive processes engaged to attenuate distracter interference may be limited to the particular demands Figure 4. Grand averaged event-related brain potentials elicited in response to orientation-defined (pop-out) targets at electrodes PO7/PO8. (a) Waveforms contra- and ipsilateral to the singleton location. (b) Topographical maps of PCN scalp distributions for each of the three Salience conditions (High, Middle, Low) at the point in time when the difference between contra- and ipsilateral waveforms reached its maximum. These maps were computed by mirroring the contra-ipsilateral difference waves to obtain symmetrical voltage values for both hemispheres (using spherical spline interpolation). (c) PCN difference waves obtained by subtracting ipsilateral from contralateral activity for each of the three Salience conditions (High, Middle, Low).

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Integrated Vector Management as an Effort to Anticipate the Spread of DHF in Tanjungpinang

Integrated Vector Management as an Effort to Anticipate the Spread of DHF in Tanjungpinang

problems in the port area and the airport are delegated to Tanjungpinang Class II KKP. One of the routine activities carried out by Tanjungpinang Class II KKP is Aedes sp vector control through periodic larvae observation, adult mosquito surveys, and larvae and mosquito eradication through larvasidation and fumigation in the perimeter as well as buffer ports areas and airport. Mosquito control at larval and adult stages are carried out if HI>1 because internal regulations require that there is no vector in the perimeter area of the international port and airport. Aedes sp vector control in the administrative area of Tanjungpinang was carried out by the Board of Health based on the occurrence of DHF cases and the findings of epidemiological investigations conducted by the health center. There were differences in the control systems carried out by the KKP with the Board of Health. The lack of synergy of vector control carried out between health and non-health sectors as well as the lack of awareness and active participation of the community has increasingly increased the spread of dengue cases in Tanjungpinang. According to a study conducted by Wiwik Trapsilowati et al., the importance of the active role of the community tackling the incidence of DHF. In addition, Ismet Sawir in his study stated the importance of the role of the community in preventing mosquito -borne disease while the government is only a facilitator. (18)(19) (20) (21)

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PoP: Prediction on Predictions with Ensemble Method

PoP: Prediction on Predictions with Ensemble Method

The predicted value for the final number of patients using data until time T becomes a function (trend) of T . We here consider the use of this trend to predict the final number of patients. So far, we have been discussing about the better predictor in the sense that the newly proposed method is superior to other conventional methods. However, in this paper, we try to use all the methods already proposed, and to make a better result than that by using a single method. That is, we will make a prediction using the predicted values already obtained. We call this methodology the PoP, the prediction on predictions.

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The Adversity Pop Culture Has Posed

The Adversity Pop Culture Has Posed

beauty as physical attractiveness; some consider beauty to be in the refinement of one’s inner most self. The inner most self is a person's deeply felt psychological and emotional nature. The physical appeal of Pop Culture is a product of a society that has been separated from the metaphysical, those internal dynamics of self and self-perception. “The image belongs to the world of form, through which we move with our bodies, thoughts, and senses. Reality is the world of the movements of the Spirit, and we live in that too, but without knowing it;" 16 in this passage the author describes the neglect of the metaphysical aspect of our everyday lives. This neglect causes us to focus on the outward superficial physical aspects of life. It is the aspect of choosing which reality to exist. Focusing on image can be misleading, for things with physical properties can change from one state of being to another very quickly. There are many layers of existence, and to focus on the initial layer (the first reaction to what is seen on the surface) will never give a total understanding of what is comprised within something. Unless introduced to Fine Arts- the art hierarchy, people won’t know about the true world of art global exchange. This is my concern about academic art; academic art is a part of the system of art hierarchy. There must be a middle ground with all arts and art communities. For those not trained in academic art, many are stuck in a mediocre state of technique negating development of the expression and message in the body of work that is the very voice the world will engage. Most never consider their audience. So, not only are they not studied in technique because they are not a part of this hierarchy, no one expresses to these artists the importance of global representation. Due to the lack of exposure to art or higher education many American African artists are stuck in a realm of solely aesthetics thus there is no statement to be read for nothing is being said; this is so because there are very few American Africans who are fortunate enough to study in academia or have

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Stereoscopic visual saliency prediction based on stereo contrast and stereo focus

Stereoscopic visual saliency prediction based on stereo contrast and stereo focus

In this paper, we exploit two characteristics of stereo- scopic vision and propose stereo visual saliency predic- tion based on stereo contrast and stereo focus. Stereo contrast is a product of color and depth contrast and the pop-out effect describes the contrast in objects. Stereo focus is based on the focus mechanism of human stereo vision, which describes the region of human focus. For each value of the two models, we individually enhanced the important region to make it more distinctive. The two values were individually converted into two saliency maps using multi-scale fusion. Lastly, both saliency maps were integrated using Bayesian integration. Experimental results show that our proposed model can process stereoscopic images from different stereoscopic capture devices to achieve the best performance on two eye- tracking databases compared to existing methods.

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Concept of Self in Avant-Pop Literature

Concept of Self in Avant-Pop Literature

On the one hand, I have chosen the examples of first-person autobiographical narration to elicit the characteristics of the “subject” in works commonly labelled Avant-Pop since they most clearly depict the attitude Avant-Pop authors have towards character creation and subjectivity in general, on the other hand, the above examples most evidently reveal the new – we could say hypertext – attitude of authors to their authorial status. In other words: the author, too, is just one literary (or let us say media) personae; an identity forming a more or less stable system in co-dependence with arbitrary elements of reality (information). That system is totally fluid and as such open to being placed into other systems as well as to the absorption of other systems into its own structure. 4 The stability of those systems depends

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Saliency maps for finding changes in visual scenes?

Saliency maps for finding changes in visual scenes?

Sudden changes in the environment reliably summon attention. This rapid change detection appears to operate in a similar fashion as pop-out in visual search, the phenomenon that very salient stimuli are directly attended, independently of the number of distracting objects. Pop- out is usually explained by the workings of saliency maps, i.e., map-like representations that code for the conspicuity at each location of the visual field. While past research emphasized similarities between pop-out search and change detection, our study highlights differences between the saliency computations in the two tasks: in contrast to pop-out search, saliency computation in change detection (i) operates independently across different stimulus properties (e.g., color and orientation), and (ii) is little influenced by trial history. These deviations from pop-out search are not due to idiosyncrasies of the stimuli or task design, as evidenced by a replication of standard findings in a comparable visual-search design. To explain these results, we outline a model of change detection involving the computation of feature-difference maps, which explains the known similarities and differences with visual search.

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Prolyl oligopeptidase is inhibited in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

Prolyl oligopeptidase is inhibited in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

levels of this activity are lower in different stages of depression and higher in mania [7]. Furthermore, the effect of the mood-stabilizing drugs, lithium, carbam- azepine and valproic acid, can be reversed by POP inhibi- tion [8]. Additionally, POP inhibitors can reverse memory loss in rodents under several experimental con- ditions, such as scopolamine administration [9] or brain ischemia [10]. A POP endogenous inhibitor has been described [11] and proposed as a regulator of POP activ- ity in cells, tissues and fluids [1]. Moreover, myelin basic protein has been suggested as a substrate for POP [12].

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K-Pop and Critical Multicultural Art Education

K-Pop and Critical Multicultural Art Education

The other side of the gender binary is the role of female-identifying individuals. If Confucian notions of men present them to be strong leaders to be revered, then females are understood to be delicate and subordinate (Hwang, 2010). Perpetuating that perspective are the ste- reotyped female-identifying individuals in K-pop who either “[ride] the line between sexualized innocence” or “more recently, sexualized aggressiveness” (Lee, 2014, p. 617). Examples of these stereotypes are especially visible in multi-member bands where each member embod- ies a different persona that aligns within these constraints; each mem- ber plays a role in order to appeal to a wide audience of consumers. Western stereotypes of Asians are also complicated. For a long time, “the main option available to Korean Americans seeking professional success as popular musicians was to relocate to Korea” (Jung, 2014, p. 54). Media representations of Asians and Asian Americans in the United States have been scant and stereotyped by gender:

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Cognitive Marketing and Purchase Decision With Reference to Pop Up and Banner Advertisements

Cognitive Marketing and Purchase Decision With Reference to Pop Up and Banner Advertisements

by the e-commerce platforms in frequent intervals says (Bakshi and Gupta, 2013); (Campbell and Wright, 2008); (Applegate, 2006); (Stone, 2002). Until now little importance has been given to the repetitive online ads made to the consumer that influence them to buy the product for which they had no intention. The controversy is when consumers search for a product just to get product related information but with no intention to get involved with the final purchase has been raged for many years. But somewhere down the lane, there are few consumers who might end up buying the product though it might not be a necessity for them. This might happen because of various motivating factors such as nature of the online medium, pricing strategy, nature of the ad, promotions; credit offers and also provides a good comparative platform. The researchers are looking forward to determine the most influencing factors of the banner and pop up ads which impel the consumers to make a better buying decision that have recently grown in importance. This study would give a better perspective and contribution of the existing trends in banner and pop-up ads. Ethan Zuckerman was closely working with Tripod Technologies for building brand reputation using a new medium of advertisements. Unfortunately, a scandalous problem occurred which was called pop up advertisements. To get rid of pop up ads, Ethan Zuckerman placed his apology to the management of Tripod to replace the scenario with the birth of banner ads. One of the company owned by sears and IBM is called prodigy communications corporations, a telecommunication firm which has its root in the United States of America was the first firm to introduce a clickable web advertisement which was later on coined to be banner ads. This paid advertisement had a rapid growth in leaps and bounds on the internet

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Gossip Pop : A Performative Investigation of the Role of Pop in Contemporary Art Practice

Gossip Pop : A Performative Investigation of the Role of Pop in Contemporary Art Practice

The appearance of belonging that this burgeoning community offered Warhol must have been particularly imperative for an artist who was not generally accepted by the “high” art world but, at the same time, desperately longed for social recognition and success. It calls to mind an anecdote I read about Warhol at Max’s Kansas City, where he hung out with the silver factory crowd and notable members of the flourishing rock and roll music scene, from 1965 when it opened until 1968, when he was shot. Max’s was an artist’s bar where a who’s who among the plethora of art movements that thrived in the late sixties, including Robert Smithson, Richard Serra, Donald Judd, Lawrence Weiner and John Baldessari, conducted lengthy discussions about art. Warhol was a pariah amongst these artists and intellectuals in the front bar, who nicknamed him “Wendy Airhole,” and he would “run the gauntlet” to reach the back room where all the “freaks” hung out and where he was king—sitting at the “Captain’s Table.” In the art world social context, Warhol was, indeed, a “freak” but a “freak” with an alternative social context. 26 The back room at Max’s quickly became a VIP area and, like the Factory, a very “performative” space. Midnight until closing time was known as “showtime” and apparently improvised stripteases by guests standing on tables were part of the ambience. 27 The proprietor of Max’s, Mickey                                                                                                                

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