The problems of making another five year interim period to face out the non-organic feed in animal production raised some of the same ideological debate as previously among the actors within the organic porkchain. Especially, the question of having a first mover position in relation to a 100 per cent organic feed came into debate. The producers argued against a first mover position, because of the economic costs they had to carry in their competition with other organic pig producers in EU. Secondly, the problems of high quality protein supply as well as the animal welfare problems concerning diarrhoea among piglets was again put forward (Organic Farming, [Dan- ish: Økologisk Jordbrug], December 2005).
Supply chain management is a cross‐function that includes the bidirectional flow of products (materials and services) and information, and the associated managerial and operational activities from producer to consumer (Cooper et al. 1997). The ultimate goal of SCM is accurate information and a smooth, continual high quality product flow between partners to maximize buyers’ satisfaction (Van der Vorst, 2000). In other words, SCM manages both visible raw material flow and invisible flow such as information flow and cash flow, which in our case is adopted to manage the flow of pork between Spain and China that goes through the whole chain (see Figure 1). Stakeholders, include all the socioeconomic agents which participate directly or indirectly in the food chain performance. Their interaction and the way they react to market challenges will influence the chain performance. Using SCM to identify the problems in these invisible flows and manage them is supposed to promote the movement of pork in the Spanish‐Chinese porkchain.
If the chain involves significant amount of interruptions in the flow scheduling, the efficiency of the network could be improved with a contract where finishing farms are committed to purchase certain, predetermined amount of weaners to maximize the returns for the whole supply chain. Producers who give away the option to suspend production and commit to produce at full capacity, even if meat prices plunge, should demand a compensation for the commitment. Coordination contracts which have the power to decrease price volatility and which affect the optimal investment thresholds can help to improve the competitiveness of the pork supply networks particularly through the structural development of the pork sector. If a coordination contract is successful in decreasing the risk, it narrows the wedge required between the input and output prices and triggers new investments along the contract-specific production and marketing systems (Pietola and Uusitalo 2001, 2002). The contract is important also as to ensure the continuous availability of meat to be processed and to increase the usage rate of production capacity. Various combinations of procurement arrangements have been found to improve short-term processor plant performance relative to the situations in which the plant uses only cash/spot markets to purchase all of its slaugter pigs (Vukina et al. 2009). The use of contracts can vary by situation. Zheng et al. (2008) found that producers using production contracts were more risk averse than those using the spot markets or marketing contracts. Moreover, Dubois and Vukina (2009) found that producers with higher risk aversion had lower outside opportunities and hence lower reservation utilities.
The quality of pork and pork products consists of numerous, interlinked and dynamic factors. They affect meat quality all along the pork pro- duction chain from the farm to the consumer and therefore make quality assessment a complex and expensive exercise. For several years a need to develop non-invasive, reliable, quick and easy to handle prediction tools has been expressed. In Q-PorkChains, tools for prediction of eating qua- lity characteristics (e.g. tenderness) and techno- logical quality (i.e. water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, meat/fat colour and total fat content) along the porkchain have been explored. In addition, interactive web-based models predicting tech- nological and sensory pork quality, based on genetic background, production characteristics, animal treatment and slaughter technology were developed (QPC-models, page 32).
Trade-offs in pork and dairy chains are reported for a wide range of food safety measures (van der Gaag, 2004a; Valeeva et al., 2006). At present, however, pork supply chains in most European countries have neither a formal control system that spans the entire chain nor payment differentials based on Salmonella contamination. A mandatory Salmonella control program has already been in place in Denmark since 1995. Its main focus is on Salmonella control in the primairy production. The Dutch porkchain has no differentiation in payments to producers with respect to the contamination of the product with Salmonella, so there is no direct incentive for producers to reduce the Salmonella prevalence.
Over the past decade food-borne diseases such as listerosis, Escherichia coli infections and salmonellosis have caused a decrease in the consumers’ confidence in the safety of meat. In industrialised countries it is estimated that 5 to 30% of all cases of food-borne salmonellosis has pork as the actual source (Berends et al. 1998) and the occurrence of human salmonellosis seems to follow the presence of Salmonella in farm animals (Van Pelt et al., 1998). Prevention and control measures accompanied by improved organisation, management and information flow in the supply chain contribute to the reduction of the incidence of food-borne diseases (e.g. Van der Wolf, 1999). Up to now, decontamination of the carcasses is prohibited in the EU, so the objective is to reduce contamination in the porkchain to an acceptable level. Newly introduced regulations and prevention strategies should be based on a risk assessment to avoid too expensive or less effective measures.
Standardization is considered a key strategic instrument, which because of its contribution to obtaining market access of the livestock. They application in increasing Romanian pigs exploitations will have a social impact on health protection, food safety and environmental Standards also provides technical solutions to problems of exploitations and facilitate production activities through their associations with marketing in order to take over, processing, transport and marketing of pig meat. In this way, is the concept of development cooperation and achievement porkchain (joining a solid management - marketing). Integration into European structures determining a number of changes on a production increase in the pigs (size and structure, the food system maintenance). They relate not only to large farms, characterized by applying scientific management, but also to individual exploitations, which grows a small number of pigs, where decisions are not scientifically, it recourse to tradition, skills of producers.
China´s porkchain is changing in several aspects. Although the small scale (backyard) pig pro- duction still dominates the production mode in China, specialized and commercial productions are gaining importance. A similar situation takes place in slaughtering and processing industry. Slaughtering and processing industries are core companies in China´s porkchain, and they con- duct various governance structure forms to integrate with their downstream chain agents. Small slaughterhouses continue the transactions with pig producers in spot market relationships, while big pork slaughtering and processing companies (called dragon-head companies) are actively exploring and advancing different forms of integration. They collaborate with pig producers us- ing mechanisms such as long-term contract, “company-cooperatives-pig farmers” and vertical integration.
FarmingNet was launched in 2005 by Vion. It is a web-based information system providing farmers with on-line access to data about the pigs they have supplied. Analysis of the data is performed by Vion, which shows the farmers the quality level and (lack of) uniformity of their pigs influencing their net profit. Cost savings are the result of lower failure costs. In other countries and chains inter- company information systems for the porkchain have been developed, in particular in the Western part of Europe, including France and Spain. Although most of these systems focus on the relation slaughterhouse – farmer, we see also chain-wide information systems emerging, including the breeding and feed supply stage. These systems not only focus on better planning and control of operational processes in the porkchain, but also on mid- and long-term optimisation of various production and distribution processes. A recent study (van den Hazel, 2007) into the economic value of using these kinds of systems found two advantages for the slaughterhouse-farmer link: 1. An overview of body and carcass deviations per batch, and thus per stable, possibly provides better insight into climate control per stable. This information could lead to additional returns (increased pig growth and reduced throughput and cycle times), reduced costs (decreased deviations), and increased resource usage. 2. Using such a system could also contribute to improved accuracy of weight partitioning of pigs at delivery time related to pig pay-off. This information could result in additional returns (reduced throughput and cycle times), reduced costs (increased optimisation of weight at delivery) and increased harmonisation of market quality concepts.
in spite of the fact of the significance of pork meat in the czech meat market, there were published only a few studies focused on this kind of meat in the recent time period (Čechura and Šobrová 2008; Lechanová 2006). The mentioned studies analyzed especially the transmission process in czech porkchain without the analysis of the production proc- ess, therefore, the main aim of the presented paper was a partial analysis of the production potential in
Trade barriers for pig meat are set up in countries like Japan, Russia, and China where national governments commonly use tariffs, quotas and antidumping rules to protect the domestic firms from foreign competition. Other governmental restrictions may include controls on health and safety of pork traded, all these are entry barriers because they raise the capital and therefore costs needed to enter in foreign markets. Although the barriers listed till now may sound extremely restrictive, and somehow new entrants could overcome them, they would anyway face the reaction and competition of well established firms. To understand whether is strong or weak the threat from potential entrants, we should asses if the production and trade of pork could give high profits for the future and if the whole pork industry may sound attractive enough to induce additional entry. If we assume so, then the threat from new producers is real and the several barriers can delay but not stop this process (D’Aveni, Richard 1994).
supermarkets/grocery stores. This result is unexpected because warehouse/super center stores are promoted as selling products at discounts. Huang et al. found that during the first few months following the opening of a Wal-Mart Supercenter in Athens Georgia Wal-Mart sold red meat for roughly 18% lower than six supermarkets. Whether this would persist in the long run once the new store matured is unknown. Our results suggest that on a national basis Supercenter type stores did not sell pork products more cheaply than grocery stores. An additional interesting result is that local deli, butcher shops, and cooperative stores do not significantly price pork differently from supermarket/grocery stores.
The restaurant industry has been trying to produce a better hamburger utilizing different formulations and grind treatments to affect flavor and texture attributes in ground beef patties. With each hamburger chain claiming their hamburger is the best because of a premium type of meat or processing characteristic they use, this research will help determine the legitimacy of their marketing claims by understanding how different meat sources, grind methods, form methods, patty thickness, cooking methods, and holding temperatures affect the flavor, texture, and consumer perception of the final hamburger. Hamburger production and consumption in America is a huge industry and all processing measures impact the flavor and texture of ground beef patties. From this study, the positive and negative flavor and texture attributes of different ground beef patty processing were found. In the second study, 16 treatments were utilized, including four meat sources, two fat percentages, and two grind treatments to better understand consumer attitudes and preferences of ground beef in a home use test. Consumers were recruited from 4 cities and given ground beef samples in chubs and patty forms. In this home-use study, when consumers prepared the meat themselves, they preferred patties or chubs that were 10% fat, chuck or sirloin meat source, and traditionally ground to 6.4 mm plate size.
The impact of transport on animal welfare must be seen as a multiple challenge, for which a combination of stress factors is responsible for the welfare of animals. Stress caused by transport can result in pig fatigue, injury, poor meat quality and ultimately death . The factors during transport that may compromise pig welfare are loading and unloading, journey duration and ambient temperature, placement on the transporter, stocking density, vibrations, floor type and bedding, mixing animals from different groups and food and water deprivation . The interaction of these factors, plus the time spent in lairage and handling of pigs, makes it difficult to assess the impact of transport on pork quality. The relationship between journey length and transport stress does not appear to be linear [10,12]. However, short transport (<2 h) can cause acute stress when the level of glycogen is still high, and therefore the occurrence of PSE meat, while longer transport (>2 h) can exhaust glycogen depots in the muscles, causing the occurrence of DFD meat .
mean risk of salmonellosis 19.88 times higher than under the current infusion prevalence. The moisture infusion proportion had the third largest correlation in the uncertainty sensitivity analysis (see Figure 6.2). This increase would have a large impact on the mean risk and may require interventions to minimise the impact of increasing moisture infusion prevalence. One potential intervention to reduce risk is for consumers to cook moisture-infused pork as they would pork burgers. This intervention was explored in Scenario 4, where the mean probability of illness was reduced by 10.89% through changes in cooking practice. In Scenario 3, the effect on mean risk of illness from a shift in cooking temperature by Australian consumers to match those used by US consumers was considered. The mean risk was 28.96 times higher than that estimated for the baseline Australian scenario. Cooking temperatures also had the largest correlation in the sensitivity analysis (see Figure 6.1). It is clear that the cooking preferences of Australian consumers contribute greatly towards the relatively lower estimated risk of illness. From Scenarios 3 and 4, we can conclude that interventions based on influencing consumers to cook moisture- infused pork products similar to how they currently cook pork burgers would have a limited impact on the risk of illness from consumption of moisture-infused pork steaks. It would appear that the high cooking temperatures of pork currently common in Australia adequately protect Australian consumers from the risk of salmonellosis posed by moisture-infused pork. Moisture- infused pork, however, poses a greater risk of illness compared to intact pork and industry risk managers will need to balance the organoleptic benefits of moisture-infused pork against the increased risk, especially if consumer preference for pork shifts towards less thoroughly cooked pork.
Qualifications for Minnesota Pork Industry Ambassador ………………………………………………………… Page 11 Minnesota Pork Industry Ambassador Application Process …………………………………………………….. Page 12 Awards …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 13 Responsibilities of Minnesota Pork Industry Ambassadors ……………………………………………………. Page 14 Calendar of Events for Minnesota Pork Industry Ambassadors ……………………………………………… Page 15
Moeller et al. (2010a, b) evaluated consumer and trained sensory panelist responses and their perceptions of pork eating quality as affected by pork quality and end-point cooked temperature. In those studies, loins were selected from three commercial U.S. pork packing facilities. In both studies, consumers and trained panelists only saw the cooked product. These were blind taste panels so the panelists were not able to assess the visual quality of the fresh product. They were only able to see the final cooked product under red incandescent lighting, to minimize sample color variation due to different cooked temperatures. In their results, Moeller et al., (2010a) reported that eating quality would be optimized in a fresh pork loin with greater pH and IMF, lower cooked WBSF, and a chop that is cooked to a lesser degree of doneness. Furthermore, Moeller et al., (2010b) reported that pork chop WBSF and pH were very important indicators of palatability. This research allows other investigators to understand what
The paper adds detail to the organizational structure of the “umbrella model” designed by the National Pork Producers Council Cooperative Task Force. More concretely, it outlines, evaluates, and compares alternative activities and processes to implement operations within that structure. It identifies strengths and weakness of each alternative, needs for internal and external competencies, potential business models, management scenarios, and financing options for the alternative approaches considered by Pork America. This approach supported the development of Pork America’s master business plan. Governance and operational structures to allow Pork America to function successfully; incorporating local, state and regional groups as members; and be responsive to the restructuring occurring in the pork industry were described.