Electronic portfolios have been described as the next big thing in higher education computing. Many colleges (Abrami & Barrett, 2005, Attwel, 2005; Wade, Abrami, & Sclater, 2005) and universities have spent recent years establishing electronic portfolio systems. According to Barret (2006), schools will be more eager to implement electronic portfolios with the same enthusiasm as their counterparts in higher education if they know the effectiveness of electronic portfolios in language assessment and students’ progress in language learning. Stiggings (2002, as cited in Barrett, 2006) believed that portfolios have the possibility of supporting a deeper level of engagement and self-awareness. Regarding the effectiveness of electronic portfolios in language learning and assessment especially in the field of writing assessment, Collins (1992) believed that portfolioassessment changed the traditional scoring of writing and introduced a new scoring system whereby the teacher shares, controls, and works collaboratively with students. Based on Pourverdi Vangah, Jafarpur, and Mohammadi (2016), an electronic portfolio is an effective instructional and assessment technique which provides evidence of knowledge and skills. In addition, portfolioassessment can offer authentic information about the progress of students and can be used as a means of helping students to overcome their writing anxiety in foreign or second language learning.
The problem in this study is that teachers still have difficulty assessing children's creativity, so the aim of this study is to develop a computer- based assessment instrument for the creativity portfolio of kindergarten children. This research is a Research and Development (R&D) using the ADDIE development model through 5 stages, namely: analyze, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Subjects in this study consisted of 3 teachers in Group A TK ABA 05 Medan. Then 6 validation experts who have the appropriate knowledge of this development research, among others: a) 2 assessment experts, b) 2 computer experts, c) 2 early childhood experts. The determination of the feasibility level of the portfolioassessment instrument is based on the validation test of the experts, while the level of effectiveness of the portfolioassessment instrument is based on trials for teachers through teacher response questionnaires. Based on the results of the study, it was found that the assessment of the assessment expert validator I in this category was considered very valid with a percentage of 83% which means that it is very suitable for use and the second assessment expert in the category is considered very valid with a percentage of 83% which means very suitable for use. Then the computer expert I in the category is considered valid with a percentage of 81% which means it is suitable for use and the computer expert II in the category is considered very valid with a percentage of 86% which means very suitable for use. Furthermore, early childhood expert I in the very valid category with a percentage of 93% which means that it is very suitable for use and early childhood expert II in the category is considered valid with a percentage of 73% which means it is suitable for use. The results of the teacher response questionnaire on portfolioassessment using a gain score test with a value of 0.74 and can be categorized as high effectiveness, this indicates that the use of portfolioassessment instruments has been effectively used by TK ABA 05 Medan teachers.
gences perspectives (See Chatib, 2009). The students give firm support to the use of portfolioassessment in Academic Writing Classes. They indicate, through their reflections, various positive backwash effects of portfolioassessment on their learning. In accordance with what Harmer (2007: 340) states, the students in the re- search consider the portfolio a fairer assessment that gives them more time to read, to pre- pare, to write, to correct and to revise their compositions. It centers on the students and ena- bles them to be more autonomous, responsible, disciplined and confident in reading and es- pecially writing. The findings are in accordance with the statement that portfolios can be used to encourage students to write well with care (Harmer, 2007). They also clearly suggest that portfolioassessment supports the students’ reflection and gives them opportunities to edit their work before submitting it. This is in line with the idea that the portfolio is appropriate for self-assessment. The find- ings of this investigation also confirm and are in line with the application of hand writing mode to accomplish works and assignments in Academic Writing I Class (Syafei, 2010). Furthermore, they also suggest that portfolioassessment to measure students’ writing is more consistent than a single, timed test, usual- ly placed at the end of a writing course. This research therefore indicates that portfolioassessment can bring about positive changes in language teaching and learning by enhancing students’ learning, motivation and achievement (See ex- cerpts 2a to 2y).
As the aim of conduction the present study was to consider ESP teachers attitude towards implementing E-portfolioassessment in classroom sessions, the findings of survey questionnaires revealed that teachers still needed help in utilizing all steps of student portfolioassessment. That may be because in the first decade of educational reform teachers concentrated more on teaching methods rather than assessment methods (Wongwanich & Wiratchai, 2005). The findings of this study provide valuable guidelines and implications for educational authorities in universities in order to help ESP teachers meet their needs and develop their performance on the use of student portfolioassessment especially E-portfolioassessment. Workshop training sessions on the use of student portfolioassessment should be provided for teachers. The step of selecting products and reflecting on the selected products, the step of revising and evaluating products, as well as the step of utilizing portfolioassessment results should be incorporated and heavily emphasized in the training sessions. Besides, in order to make teachers understand the process of student portfolioassessment more clearly, the workshop sessions should be in hands-on format so that teachers will have opportunities to practice using student portfolioassessment step by step .
Three types of instruments were used in this study: (1) the structure section of TOEFL, (2) a questionnaire and (3) a framework for portfolioassessment. The structure section of TOEFL is mainly concerned with structure and written expressions and includes 40 multiple choice items which are designed to measure language learners’ ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. The questionnaire used for the purpose of this study was the goal-orientation questionnaire developed and revised by Midgley, Kaplan, Middleton, Maehr, Urdan, Anderman, Anderman, & Roeser (1998). To match Midgley and colleagues’ (1998) questionnaire to the needs and context of this study, the researchers adopted the 18 item questionnaire to writing assignment. Thus, the students were supposed to report on a scale of 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Notably, the reliability of the writing version of the Goal Orientation questionnaire was tested using Cronbach alpha, and a satisfactory reliability index was obtained (r=0.82). Besides, Delett, Barnhardt, and Kevorkian’s (2001) framework of portfolioassessment was used to fulfill the purpose of this study. The framework for portfolioassessment consisted of seven steps: (1) planning the assessment purpose, (2) determining portfolio outcomes, (3) matching classroom tasks to outcomes, (4) establishing criteria for assessment, (5) determining organization, (6) monitoring the portfolio, and (7) evaluating the portfolio process.
E-Portfolioassessment emphasises the importance of an individual taking a greater control in the choice of work to be presented, compiled using the e- Portfolio architecture for an agreed purpose and audience. Best practice advises that each participant is given the opportunity to take part in reflective cycles (after Dewey, Kolb and Schön), to improve the created artifacts over time. The possibilities of community participation to allow for deeper learning (Ehiyazaryan-White, 2012; Tosh, Werdmuller, Chen, Light, & Haywood, 2006), suggests increasing the use of feedback from both tutor and peers, a process that has been enabled by many manufacturers bolting social networking features into e-Portfolios implementations. E-Portfolio use has increased in the academy, but they are frequently used for little more than assessment and reflection (Schwier, 2001; Sherman, 2006). More recent analysis of the potential of e-Portfolios suggests that a better educational experience can result from the consideration and embedding of the roles of artifact creation and goal setting, with an acknowledgement of the advantages that would come from the promotion of improved interaction (Chang & Tseng, 2009; Jones & Peachey, 2005).
Cole, d. j., Ryan, c. w., & Kick, f. (1995). "... the assessmentportfolio has been predominantly used in educational settings to document the progress and achievements it has the potential to be a valuable tool for program assessment as well. Portfolioassessment has become widely used in educational settings ". The portfolio is an instrument to collect data or information from different sources, the data can be identified and can provide extensive information. Salvia and Ysseldyke (Cole at.al. 1997) suggests that "The goals and objectives of the portfolio also must be identified. For writing portfolio such goals might include "to write more complex ‟ sentences. Goals and objectives are critical to the development of a portfolio to keep it from becoming an unfocused collection of odds and ends ". Through portfolioassessment, can be found close to the program's goals and objectives of the institution. The portfolio can encapsulate all the program so that it becomes a potential evaluation tool a program well. In philosophy and concept, the portfolio was applied to evaluate the community. As disclosed Meg Sewell, Mary Marczak, & Melanie Horn (2013), the ".". However, the concepts and philosophy behind portfolios can apply to community evaluation, where portfolios can provide windows into community practices, procedures, and achievements, perhaps better than more traditional measures ". Meg Sewell, Mary Marczak, & Melanie Horn (2013) describes:
The academic staff of the osteopathy program at VU have developed the Graduate Capabilities for Osteopathic Practice (GCOP). These capabilities provide a foundation for the knowledge, skill sets, and professional values, that students graduating from the program will be able to display. There are seven domains within the GCOP (Table 1) and each of these domains has a number of corresponding elements and criteria. The portfolioassessment has been blueprinted against the domains and elements in the GCOP. 6, 9
just be about grading but about assisting the process of learning itself. Accordingly, assessment should be developed and refined in order to assist student to learn effectively and efficiently . From a pedagogical point of view, e-learning demands greater customization and efficiency to leading learners. Then, it requires identify how and when to assess and considering which outfit to be used. Even though portfolios are used in e-learning as tool to keep track of student progress, when its main objective is to assess, it is known as portfolioassessment . In previous work it has been presented a conceptual framework consist of an ontology network, called AONet, which is a semantic tool that implements different kind of assessment used in e-learning . Following with this activity, this work presents an e-portfolioassessment
Therefore, in order Integral Calculus concepts can be understood correctly, it must be through a continuous process. This means that to master high-level math, then the underlying concepts must be mastered by students. The hierarchical mathematical sciences fit the characteristics of a sustainable portfolioassessment, and students have the opportunity to assess their work through self-evaluation. Students also have the opportunity at least twice in the tasks given, So if there is a mistake the concept can be improved immediately and the student's retention of the concept is getting stronger, As revealed by Rose and Nicholl  that the more a person can see, hear, write or do something, the easier something is learned, so the results are also optimal.
Thus, this review is limited to foreign research which seems to provide empirical evidence that portfolio-based writing assessment and scaffolding writing instruction do significantly contribute to the improvement of EFL students’ writing performance. Apple and Shimo (2004) concluded that Japanese EFL university students’ believed that portfolios helped them improve their expressive and compositional writing ability. Marefat (2004) reported that the portfolio was a positive opportunity for Iranian EFL learners’ writing performance, not to mention for developing a personal understanding of their leaning process. Similarly, Caner (2010) explored opinions of Turkish EFL university prep- school students towards portfolioassessment in their writing courses. He reported that the subjects generally prefer to be evaluated by traditional paper and pencil tests and they also believed that portfolioassessment contributes to their English learning processes. Khodadady and Khodabakhshzade (2012) explored the effect of portfolio and self-assessment on writing tasks and self- regulation ability of Iranian EFL freshmen students. The results showed that the use of portfolio and self-assessment was beneficial to students in terms of both writing tasks and self-regulation. Fahim and Jalili (2013) concluded that portfolios can be beneficial in training Iranian EFL learners on editing their own writing.
The present study set out to address the issue as to whether the implementation of portfolioassessment would give rise to Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners’ autonomy. Participants comprised 60 pre-intermediate female learners within the age range of 16 to 28 studying English in a private language institute, a Cambridge Open Centre (IR056). They were randomly divided into two groups each consisting of 30 participants. An independent sample t-test confirmed their homogeneity in terms of language proficiency at the outset of the study. Moreover, they were homogenized in terms of autonomy through employing a validated questionnaire. The portfolioassessment was integrated into the experimental group while traditional assessment was assigned to the control group. The study adopted a mixed-method approach for the purposes of data collection and analysis. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and participants’ portfolios. Quantitative data were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed inductively through
Erdogan's (2009). They investigated the portfolioassessment on three of the four main skills including reading, listening and writing of a group of secondary school students in Turkey. The results showed that portfolioassessment had a significant positive effect on students' writing skills. The mean score of writing in the portfolioassessment group was significantly higher than that the one of the control group. Therefore, this finding confirms the results of this study as well. The research findings are also the same as the study of Elahinia (2004) who investigated the effect of portfolioassessment on Iranian EFL learner's writing achievement. She found that portfolioassessment had a significant positive effect on writing performance of the subjects in her study. The students in experimental group performed much better than those in control group on writing test given at the end of the experiment. So, the findings are also in line with this study. Furthermore, this study found that portfolioassessment has a significant positive effect on EFL learners' writing sub-skills. In other words, using portfolio not only has a positive effect on the improvement of students’ writing skill, but it also has such an effect on some of the sub skills discussed in the study. Based on the study it can be easily noticed that the greatest effect was on the subskill of focus and the least influence was on the subskill of vocabulary. The students in experimental (portfolio) group showed a satisfactory improvement with reference to each of the writing sub-skills i.e., Focus, Elaboration, Organization, Conventions, and Vocabulary. The results of this study is completely in line with the study of Krigere and Sardeiko (2000) which indicated that portfolio assessments were an effective tool for developing language skills in general and writing skills in particular. This results are in agreement with the study of Aly (2000) that the students in experimental group could realize their weak points (skills) in writing and develop as writers. Writing portfolios can be useful in EFL classes as a perfect technique for teaching, learning, and assessment. They also suggest authentic information about students' progress and help them to promote their writing ability in general and its sub-skills in particular. As the limitation, it can be claimed that age, gender, affective factors and background knowledge can moderate the effect of portfolioassessment technique on writing and its sub-skills and they are left untouched in the current study. So, further studies require in EFL context to investigate in these areas.
Even though some positive aspects of implementing portfolioassessment were observed, the research revealed also some important problems that need to be attended to. One of the most serious pitfalls was the fact that self-assessment was sorely neglected by the learners. Although both open- and closed-ended instruments were offered, they were not completed and attached to the portfolios by the learners. It might reflect the importance of grading as the major factor motivating learners to work – self-assessment tools were not graded, so the learners did not submit them. On the other hand, such a situation may have resulted from the fact that learners were not accustomed to self-assessment of any type as the ability to reflect on one’s learning process is not promoted in the traditional system of education in which the research took place. Even though the subjects were provided with introductory explanation when a self-assessment instrument was used for the first time, they might not have understood the aim of such a procedure and, being left without the teacher’s assistance, they simply were not able to interpret their language performance and, consequently, abandoned the unfamiliar task.
. In the category of high, medium and low learning interest, TPS learning strategies based on portfolio valuation apply as well as TPS learning strategies while TPS learning strategies based on portfolioassessment and TPS learning strategies are better than expository learning. Strategy learning and interest in learning shows that there is no interaction between learning strategy and the level of interest of learners towards learning outcomes due to several factors, both internal and external factors. Internal factors such as individual physical, psychological and maturity [9,13]. While external factors such as family, school and community factors These factors both separately and together give a certain influence on the learning outcomes achieved by learners [13,15]. In addition, due to the limited time of the study so that researchers cannot reach various factors that influence the learning outcomes of mathematics.
To assist students to practice AaL in portfolio-based classrooms, teachers can encourage them to self-monitor their writing development regularly, persistently and systematically through semi- structured self-assessment forms. Once students get used to self-monitoring their learning, teachers can use more open-ended self-assessment forms, journal entries with prompts, and double-entry writing logs which record both learning events and reflective moments simultaneously. Second, teachers may consider adopting rubric-referenced assessment tasks, which simulate those of school-based or large-scale writing assessments. By so doing, students are likely to cultivate an increased awareness of what and how they are assessed after having a close study of related assessment rubrics. With these rubrics, students can put assessment expectations in perspective and accordingly, develop sound evaluative judgments to close the learning gaps. Third, teachers may attempt to give students dialogic feedback using annotations in student journal entries or providing verbal feedback during face-to-face or online student-teacher conferences (Lam 2018b). The use of dialogic feedback in AaL enables students to uptake constructive feedback information for text revision, which could possibly bring about writing improvement in the long run. Fourth, teachers can require students to compile their portfolios with multimodal artifacts and permit them to choose their preferred portfolio contents and modes of presentation (i.e., paper portfolios or e-portfolios) by mutual agreement. Having followed these AaL practices, students are prone to acquiring those critical thinking and self- monitoring skills, given that they frequently review and rework on what best represents their profiles, efforts and achievements in learning writing. The next section reveals three emerging critical issues arising from portfolio-based scholarship in both L1 and L2 writing environments. Critical Issues of PortfolioAssessment
information from various English content courses is applied and perhaps even how information from other disciplines is integrated into writings. Reflecting the nature of learning as a nonlinear and fluctuating process, the portfolio is flexible, and this flexibility also enables the strengthening of any weak areas identified in the program. Most importantly, the nature of language and thinking demands that we move beyond standardized testing to assess these skills. Portfolioassessment enables “ showcasing” language and thinking abilities to address complex issues and problems. An important part of the portfolio will be reflective pieces intended to help extend and transform these writing experiences into personal
EFL educators have embraced portfolioassessment owing to its potential benefits for learning: Portfolios provide a portrait of what students know and what they can do (Hamp-Lyons & Condon, 2000); encourage self- reflection, participation, reflective, and critical thinking (Zubizarreta & Mills, 2009); and increase self-directed learning and learner autonomy (Hamp-Lyons & Condon, 2000). Furthermore, self-assessment and reflection, inherent in writing-based portfolios, allows learners to treat themselves as others, be reflexive, and see themselves through new self- critical eyes (Qualley, 1997). In Bruner’s (1979) view, such reflexive thinking that fosters one’s dialogue with the self increases intellectual potency or critical thinking skills, intrinsic motivation, willingness to take risks, and memory management though experience-based learning. Therefore, the reflective part in portfolioassessment encourages students to use their reasoning skills to reexamine their previously held beliefs and so it opens the doors to creating individual meaning and critical thinking in a learner-centered constructivist environment.
Teachers should create a professional support so as to sustain innovative pedagogical attempts. Experiments in any innovation contain moments of success and failure, especially at the beginning. Sustaining collaborative support is indispensable. Over the course of this study, the collaborative support system made possible the investigation of portfolio use in the context where traditional testing culture was dominated. Explicit criteria and procedures for peer assessment are needed. Students may be concerned about peer assessment affected by friendship marking or their incapability for the task. Portfolioassessment technique is a promising authentic assessment technique for EFL writing classes. Through proper application, portfolioassessment technique has the potential to increase instructor professionalism through active and meaningful involvement in student assessment. It can be a perfect assessment tool as well as instructional instrument in EFL educational setting.
Health care curricula have been evolving to emphasize per- sonal and professional development. These changes are ac- companied by recent evolving “new” curriculum outcomes coupled with the goal of increased ‘student-centered’ teaching and learning. Assessment goals no longer seek to evaluate just knowledge but rather ongoing performance and competency (Elango, Jutti, & Lee, 2005). Unlike “grades” which may be considered an achievement, competency is an ongoing habit of learning and improvement; therefore assessment in higher edu- cation such as medicine must include student performance and capacity to adapt to change, find and generate new knowledge and improve overall performance (Epstein, 2007). Such a mul- tifaceted, ambitious goal cannot be met by the traditional means of assessment, thereby necessitating alternative teaching strate- gies with valid and reliable assessment tools. Portfolio-based learning adheres to such teaching goals, and is grounded in the cyclical process of recording, reviewing, reflecting, and learn- ing (Elango, Jutti, & Lee, 2005). The learning portfolio’s ability to richly evidence students’ development and achievements separates this tool from other methods of assessment (Driessen, Overeem, van Tartwijk, van der Vleuten, & Muijtjens, 2006). Unlike traditional educational tools that evaluate the students’ possession of knowledge, portfolioassessment is a judgement of knowledge application and is therefore a complex task. Tra- ditionally, difficult to evaluate qualities such as one’s attitude, personal growth, reflective ability, professionalism, self-di- rected learning, and aptitude for self-development as required in health professional curricula are additional potential targets in portfolioassessment (David, Davis, Harden, Howie, Ker, & Pippard, 2001; Davis, Ben-David, Harden, Howie, Ker, McGhee et al., 14). The personalized nature of the portfolio creates dif- ficulty in assessment, as each is unique in content, size, and structure. Reliance on the personal judgements of the assessor is thus advocated as a detailed checklist trivializes the character of the assignment (Driessen, Overeem, van Tartwijk, van der Vleuten, & Muijtjens, 2006).