Large herbivore populations in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, have been surveyed regu- larly for several decades by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), provid- ing long term indicators of population trends. Between 1996 and 2013, populations of large bodied African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) remained relatively stable. Populations of some medium bodied herbivores, such as blue wilde- beest (Connochaetes taurinus) and tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus lunatus), declined by 73% and 90%, respectively (Chase 2010, unpublished report; Statistics Botswana 2014, unpublished report), while others, such as plains zebra (Equus quagga), remained stable. Population trends for sympatric herbivores with similar body sizes can therefore vary substantially, indicating different levels of resilience and resistance. To identify possible causes for this variation, we deployed GPS-enabled collars onto three medium sized species of African herbivore in the Okavango Delta: plains zebra, tsessebe and blue wildebeest. We combined GPS data from col- lars and geographical information systems (GIS) information to identify key factors affecting spatial utilisation. We quantified habitat selection and compared life history traits among the three species to identify potential causes of divergent population trends. We hypothesised that (i) zebra would have larger home ranges than tsessebe and wildebeest, (ii) tsessebe and wilde- beest would be more sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances than zebra, and (iii) tsessebe and wildebeest would be more specialised in their habitat requirements than zebra. Our results
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The objective of this article is to analyze the possible sources of suffering in the work and its consequences, as specific objectives to evaluate the emotional state of the employees, to analyze the dissatisfaction in the work and its con- sequences. The methodology adopted was the descriptive, exploratory, quan- titative approach. The article is part of field research carried out in companies of the fashion sector of the Passos city—MG, Brazil. For data collection, a questionnaire elaborated by the researchers was used, addressing questions related to the research problem. The data collected indicated evidence of psychic suffering and stress situations, triggered by the prevalence of psy- chosocial symptoms, such as muscle tension, forgetfulness, anxiety, irritabili- ty, and sleep disturbances.
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Resolution of the apparent disparity between, on the one hand, Tosh et al.’s (2011) conclusion of the most likely cause of Methodist Hospital’s outbreak and, on the other, the conflation of, first, the medical literature’s lack of more reports like Tosh et al.’s (2011) documenting P. aeruginosa outbreaks associated with the traditional steam sterilization, or even the flash sterilization, of com- plex surgical and arthroscopic instruments, including those that may retain remnant tissue within their internal structures; and, second, a number of studies validating steam sterilization’s robustness and effectiveness for the prevention of disease transmission under the most chal- lenging testing conditions [19-21,33,34] on its face is difficult. Indeed, the solution could rest, however, with another of this review’s findings, which warrant reem- phasis (see: Table 2): the possibility that, not ineffective steam sterilization of the implicated arthroscopic instru- ments due to their inadequate cleaning, but rather one or more other (unrecognized) factors, considerations, or causes, unique to Methodist Hospital’s practices at the time of its outbreak in 2009, might have contributed to, or have been primarily responsible for, this hospital’s seven cases of P. aeruginosa infection. That the outbreak’s strain of bacteria could have been transmitted, not by a contami- nated arthroscopic instrument, but rather via another, undetermined mode is a possibility that Tosh et al.’s (2011) findings do not exclude (see: Table 1).
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There are of course hundreds of physiological events or processes that can influence weight regulation and ultimately impact on obesity. There are also well defined physiological risk factors for obesity including fat:CHO oxidation rate, insulin resistance, glycaemic profile and even the volume and distribution of adipose tissue itself. Although a person’s physio- logical profile has a certain influence on the susceptibility to weight gain, it is unlikely that such profiles are country-dependent. However, there is mounting evidence for the existence of metabolic phenotypes – clusters of metabolic functions that collectively constitute a higher risk of weight gain. Such phenotypes manifest an effect in interaction with particular dietary factors  . Indeed, it is hardly possible to separate physiological/metabolic influences from dietary influences; they should be considered together. The physiological phenotype is deter- mined by many factors like genetic profile, microbiome and lifestyle factors; thus it is the resultant of a complex of factors. There exists therefore the possibility that for specific coun- tries the dietary pattern could form a susceptibility factor in conjunction with a metabolic profile. In addition, metabolic flexibility is regarded as a meaningful influence. For example, the capacity to adapt to prevailing dietary conditions whilst avoiding the development of insulin resistance is of physiological benefit and leads to more healthy regulation  . The science of metabolomics is providing the possibility of molecular finger printing on a detailed scale using ‘big data’. The use of combinations of domains of physiological data to predict risk factors such as the glycaemic response  is clearly an important concept. Although important for defining the risk of obesity at the individual level (in the field of personalised nutrition), it is unlikely that this approach can be called up to explain differences at the national level. As with other risk factors, the heterogeneity within a nation is likely to be much greater than average differences between countries.
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The authors of this manuscript are convinced that the launch of new technical innovations will continue to progress rapidly, and restoration of the respective tissue or organ func- tion by means of the organism itself (ie, tissue engineering or stem cell differentiation) might be possible. However, syn- thetic material, similar to HLA-identical organ transplantation does not exist (Table 3). Therefore, it is not comprehensible why foreign materials and devices are not implanted in to the human body with higher frequency, as long as the biological regeneration is not adequately able to restore the respective organ or tissue functions. The here-introduced new levels bet- ter address the general issues of biocompatibility in the human organism in general, and therefore simplify understanding of the term in ongoing material and transplantation research, as well as its application as a clinical marker for all involved individuals. Thus, this article might represent the basis for the ongoing discussion and also for a consensus finding in this field to reduce single-publication definitions and increase attempts to unify the scientific language.
In summary, our data suggest new concepts or reinforce pro- posed mechanisms that suggest a possible theory regarding the pathophysiology of PE. First, in vivo signals drive CTB gene dysregulation. Cells that were cultured from affected placentas normalized their gene expression patterns over 48 hours. These data also suggested the second concept, i.e., CTB phenotypic alterations in sPE are reversible and recovery is possible. Third, our data suggest that the autocrine actions of the dysregulated molecules contribute to the CTB functional defects that are the hallmarks of this syndrome — shallow invasion and apoptosis that are associated with deficits in particular signaling path- ways. In this context, we identified previously unknown rele- vant actions of molecules, including SEMA3B, an angiogenesis inhibitor. Fourth, unified CTB defects manifest as diverse signs in different patients. Thus, our data suggested that individual differences in maternal responses are driving the clinical presen- tation of the various forms of sPE. In this regard, we also noted disparate fetal responses in terms of growth effects. Together, our findings provide an important rationale and framework for pursuing treatments, a research area that is usually relegated to the back burner because of questions regarding feasibility, which our data support.
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Abstract Objectives: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information on the way of life and diet habits in Iceland and possibly other Nordic countries 1000 years ago is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological human skull material worldwide has been blamed on coarse diet. Near volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated from a graveyard. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in Icelanders 1000 years ago. Materials and methods: Available were 49 skulls for research. Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation. An attempt was made to determine main causes of tooth wear in the light of likely diet and beverage consumption according to a computer search on food and drink customs described in the Icelandic Sagas. Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score with no difference between sexes. It had all the similarities seen in wear from coarse diet. In some instances it had similar characteristics as seen in erosion in modern Icelanders consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and used for preservation of food in Iceland until recently. Conclusions: It is postulated that consumption of acidic drinks and food in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental erosion seen in ancient Icelanders.
It is worthwhile to think about why the adverse effects are relatively less when immunization of other types of virus vaccine compared with FMD vaccine, both of which are oil-emulsion inactivated vaccines and performed by the identical personnel? The production procedure of inactivated FMD vaccine is described as “cell culture - virus proliferation - virus inactivation - oil emulsion - vaccine packing”, and what kind of addition might result in the adverse effects? Though there is no absolute safety for any types of vaccine, and adverse effects will in- evitably occur with expected ratio; then thus what kind of countermeasures could be carried out before and after FMD vaccine immunization? The adverse effect might be able to significantly reduce and minimize with in-depth analysis of causes and timely application of remedial measures.
Induction pressure is directly proportional to pressure drop across complete air induction system or design of all air induction system components and specifically pressure drop in air filter causes reduction in induction pressure. Regular cleaning of air filter for removal of accumulated dust or any other solid particles, improvement of filter and engine air inlet flow area design is likely to make this practically feasible. It is necessary not just to adequately implement air induction system in new technology, but also older technology engines which are still on the road. Basic causes of reduction in induction pressure and remedial actions are suggested in this work. Regular cleaning of air filter particularly in C.I. engine air induction system devices specifically requires attention because of dust or any other solid particles accumulates in flow path.
Results: The underlying causes for the delay of medical treatment were varied, including psychological reasons (fear of surgery, being worried about adverse effects of the medicine, making troubles to the other people, afraid of losing breast, or losing husband); lack of knowledge about cancer (unfamiliar with the symptoms of cancer, possible cancer cure by nutritious food, more trust in alternative medicine, myth, participant’s husband did not approve her surgery, only rely on prayer, forgot if she was sick); factors deriving from health service system (limited facilities, a false diagnosis, queue rooms/radiotherapy/for hospitalization, the radiotherapy equipment was out of service, patient unable to walk, high out-of-pocket cost, and doctors were not communicative). During time delay, some patients have also sought non-medical treatment with herbal medicines, non-herbal medicines, and non-conventional treatment (laser, reiki, acupuncture, and vest treatments).
A large part of any road network undergoes instability due to poor construction, lack of adequate maintenance or the underlying geology. Although the underlying geology is good and the materials used in the construction of the road possess’ good geotechnical properties, there are still avoidable defects such as potholes, alligator cracks and longitudinal cracks. These defects are possibly caused by deterioration of water pipes passing through the pavement gushing water on the road, indiscriminate breaking of the road by telecommunication companies thereby providing leeway for water to further deteriorate the road. Increase in traffic and overloading beyond the carrying capacity of the road by heavy duty vehicles is another possible factor responsible for the failure of the road. The effects of these defects include accidents, time wastage and rapid wear and tear of vehicles and its attendant loss of financial resources maintaining these cars. It is hoped that in any future construction, however little, special consideration will be given to the future expansion of the city.
The Faculty of Production Technology and Management is often asked by companies with a request to solve a specific technical task. One of these tasks was the analysis of aluminum alloy worsened machinability when the rods from this alloy exhibited against assumption significantly worse (longer) chips during machining. The alloy was complaint and, of course, it created economic damage. Obviously, the company was interested in the causes of this alloy behavior change that could possibly generate future complaints procedures to defend itself better, or to avoid mistakes in the pro- duction of the material. At the faculty analysis that could contribute to identifying the cause of the worsened machinability were done.
the low level of their output most times is low level of agricultural mechanization resulting from poor financial background of the farmers to procure farm machineries and poor maintenance practices. Agricultural mechanization according to  is the process of development and introduction of mechanized assistance of all forms and at any level of sophistication in agricultural production in order to reduce human drudgery, improve timeless and efficiency of various farm operations, bring more lands under cultivation, provide better rural living conditions and markedly advance the economic growth of the rural sectors. A sustainable agricultural mechanization among other things involves the application of Engineering principles and technology in selecting, testing, operating and maintenance of farm machineries in order to ensure maximum availability and reliability of those machineries. The objectives of this research work are to investigate the status of the available machines and the extent of their operation for agricultural activities in Ebonyi State. Also to carry out a comprehensive survey of operators’ knowledge of operation and maintenance of farm machinery and the possible causes of failures and maintenance practices applicable in the area with a view to recommend the ways that will enhance the farm machinery operation and maintenance for sustainable farm mechanization in Ebonyi State and other areas with similar cases.
Winteridge (1989:5) and Tishler (1980) state that teachers may be prevented by mathematics anxiety from learning what is needed to become effective teachers of mathematics themselves. Williams (1988) suggests that teachers pass on their negative attitudes to students, and Wood (1988) that their own teaching may be affected. Tobias (1978) fi nds some choosing to teach younger children assuming that the mathematics required is easier. In order to teach, mathematical understanding is needed and Tobias (1991) claims that self- belief in the ability to do mathematics is needed alongside a resolve to do something about being afraid of it. The purpose of this review of literature was to establish the existence and manifestation of mathematics anxiety, together with possible causes, to generate questions for use in research with primary teaching students, the intention being to carry out quantitative research to fi nd out whether the issues arising from theory are substantiated in current practice.
findings. Williams syndrome is also associated with hypercalcemia, usually occurring in infancy and resolving by 2 to 4 years of age. This syndrome is associated with distinct facial features and congenital heart disease, usually supravalvular aortic stenosis. Our patient did not have any dysmorphic facial features. Other possible causes include hypophosphatasia, metabolic acidosis, and disaccharidase
Abstract: Introduction: KRAS mutations are the most common somatic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) pa- tients. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody therapies are effective in 50% of the CRC patients with wild-type KRAS. To confirm the possible causes of the therapeutic failure, we examined KRAS mutations and ana- lyzed their intratumoral heterogeneity in different areas of the primary tumors and the metastatic liver lesions. Methods: The sequences of exon 2 of KRAS were evaluated by direct sequencing of samples from 26 CRC patients, including 2 patients with colorectal liver metastasis. Tumor tissues were macrodissected from five different areas in primary CRC tumors and two different areas of metastatic liver lesions. Results: KRAS mutations were detected in 26.9% of the primary tumors. By comparing the different areas of primary tumors and liver metastasis, the in- tratumoral heterogeneity of KRAS mutations was observed in 11.5% of the primary tumors, but not in patients with liver metastasis. This study is the first to report the intratumoral heterogeneity of KRAS mutations in CRC patients from Southwest China, although our relatively small sample size might not provide sufficient statistical power. Con- clusions: The failure of EGFR antibody therapies in CRC patients with wild-type KRAS might be attributed to the false-negative sequencing results caused by intratumoral heterogeneity. Considering the high rates of heterogene- ity among primary tumors, the different parts of tumors should be tested to correctly predict the KRAS mutations.
Multiple genotypes of mycobacteria have been identified in MWF since the introduction of water-mix MWF (Kapoor and Yadav, 2012; Falkinham et al, 2003). Following this, within the literature MWF associated mycobacteria have been implicated in the development of OHP. These were subsequently identified as rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) belonging to the M.chelonae-M.abscessus complex (M.chelonae complex / MCC) (Khan et al, 2005; Khan, Selvaraju and Yadav, 2005). The MCC comprised of a subset of mycobacteria that share 100% sequence similarity in the 16S rRNA gene (Figure 1.7). However, they showed differences in phenotypic and genetic characteristics (Odell et al, 2005). Recent advances in molecular techniques have now led to the further identification of a mycobacteria that was highly similar to the MCC but without speciation (Wilson et al, 2001). Therefore, re-examination of MWF that were previously identified as containing the MCC showed that M.immunogenum sp. was in fact the mycobacteria present (Khan et al, 2005). Furthermore, M.immunogenum was consistently identified in MWF in studies from the USA, and parts of Europe and thus implicated as a possible causative factor (Veilette et al, 2004; Thorne et al, 2006).
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Abstract: Bangladesh is a densely populated developing country. Landslide is a regular geologic hazard in Bangladesh, specially urbanized hilly areas in Chittagong. Generally, the hills consist of unconsolidated sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, siltstone, shale and conglomerate. it is observed that soil characteristic of Chittagong Hill Tracts is alluvial, silty clay which is vulnerable to landslides. At least 141 people, were killed in separate series of landslides triggered by heavy rains in Rangamati, Bandar ban, and Chittagong on June 13, 2017. The losses have been monumental, and officials fear that the death toll may rise even further in the worst landslide since 2007, when a landslide resulted in the death of around 130 people and affected 1.5 million people in the region. It is disheartening that despite the occurrence of such disasters in the past, we have learnt little from our experiences. This paper mainly discusses the causes and impact of landslides and possible measures that can be taken to prevent future landslides. Southwest monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal, heading towards northeast India and Bangladesh picking up more moisture from the Bay from June through September. The winds arrive at the Eastern Himalayas with large amounts of rain. Bangladesh and certain regions of India frequently experience heavy rains during this season, and most landslides occur after heavy rainfall. The main reasons identified for landslide were hill cutting ,weak soil structure and devegetation The major impacts of landslide on the local communities, as reported by the respondents were loss of natural scenic beauty economic loss destruction of lives and environmental problems . It is suggested to implement some new and modified structural measures such as vegetation with jute geo-textile can significantly improve the stability of hill slopes .
The principal diseases vary by age; the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012 (ENSANUT by its initials in Spanish) states that the main causes of child- hood morbidity are acute respiratory infections (ARI), followed by diarrheal diseases and urinary tract infec- tions (UTI) . ARIs are presented as the most preva- lent in adolescents but the prevalence is modified, as UTIs are listed in second place and diarrheal disease in third. Finally, coupled with these conditions, adulthood hypertension is reported to appear from the age of 20 and diabetes from 40, as shown in Table 1.
The amino acid tyrosine, found in large amounts in cheeses, has an amazing effect on depression. A number of studies have found that it can succeed where antidepressant drugs fail. In the brain, tyrosine is converted into the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which has been described as the brain's version of adrenaline. You can appreciate the power of norepinephrine when you realize that the effect produced by cocaine comes from the drug's ability to activate norepinephrine while inhibiting serotonin. This chemical reaction causes the brain to race until the supply of norepinephrine is depleted. The crash leaves addicts exhausted, depressed, extremely irritable, and craving more cocaine. Large doses of tyrosine can reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent serious depression among cocaine addicts. We have used tyrosine at the Health Recovery Center for the past few years with no adverse effects. The usual dose is three to six grams per day, taken on an empty stomach. You must take vitamins B6 and C to facilitate conversion of tyrosine to norepinephrine (see table below).
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