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Erosive Potential of Medicated Syrups on Primary Teeth: An In vitro Comparative Study

Erosive Potential of Medicated Syrups on Primary Teeth: An In vitro Comparative Study

Since self medication with over-the-counter medicines has increased in recent times, this could pose greater threat of detrimental effects to oral tissues. Usually, parents are not aware that several foods, beverages and pediatric medications in the form of syrups contain sugar. Many studies have confirmed that frequent ingestion of fruit juices, carbonated beverages and sports drinks cause enamel erosion [7-10]. Hence, this in vitro study was designed to investigate the exogenous erosive potential of some commonly used pediatric medicated syrups on primary teeth.
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The effect of premature extraction of primary teeth on the subsequent need for orthodontic treatment.

The effect of premature extraction of primary teeth on the subsequent need for orthodontic treatment.

A randomised trial with follow up until full permanent dentition or a long term prospective cohort study following children from primary dentition to full permanent dentition would provide more robust data to examine the impact of PEPT and subsequent orthodontic need. Long term follow up periods of approximately ten years makes these methodologies fraught with difficulty. For example follow up cohort studies of children receiving dental care under general anaesthesia showed less than 10% attending clinical appointment at three months following treatment [Jamjoom et al., 2001]. Innovative methodologies to maintain the cohort would be needed to ensure valid and generalisable results are achieved. This study, despite the limitations described, provides results that will help future estimations of sample size to investigate orthodontic need following extractions of primary teeth.
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Evaluation of a Novel Endodontic Paste for Primary Teeth with Necrotic Pulp

Evaluation of a Novel Endodontic Paste for Primary Teeth with Necrotic Pulp

similar inhibition zone diameters and were higher than ZOE paste (P < 0.05). All pastes inhibited the growth of tested micro-organisms in DCT. Bactericidal assessment test showed that only CZ and CTZ pastes had bactericidal effect. Conclusion: CZ paste could be an alternative for endodontic treatment of primary teeth with necrotic pulp.

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Evaluation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy for the endodontic treatment of primary teeth: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial

Evaluation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy for the endodontic treatment of primary teeth: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial

PDT may be a viable option for achieving a reduction in pathogenic microorganisms during endodontic treatment, as this method is painless, easy to administer, does not lead to microbial resistance and has no systemic effects [4, 7, 15, 16]. PDT has been widely tested for the endodontic treatment of permanent teeth, demonstrating positive results in com- parison to conventional treatment [13–16] (available from: www.consort-statement.org). However, few studies have evaluated the use of this type of therapy in primary teeth.

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Root length determination in primary teeth using Apex Locator and comparing with the Conventional method

Root length determination in primary teeth using Apex Locator and comparing with the Conventional method

coincide with our study in use of film speed and accuracy in working length determination. From the results obtained we can conclude that apex locator method of determining the root canal length in primary teeth can be considered reliable and safe in endodontic treatment of children.

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Effect of an erosive challenge on the enamel-composite resin interface in primary teeth: an in vitro study

Effect of an erosive challenge on the enamel-composite resin interface in primary teeth: an in vitro study

ABSTRACT' ' AIM:' The' aim' of' this' study' was' to' evaluate' whether' different' adhesive' systems' (etchXandXrinse' or' selfXetch)' render' enamelX composite' resin' interface' in' primary' teeth' more' susceptible' to' erosive' challenge.' MATERIAL' AND' METHODS:' Thirty' enamel' specimens' from' cariesXfree' primary' incisors' were' selected' and' cavities' were' prepared' for' restoration.' According' to' adhesive' protocols,' specimens' were' divided' into' groups:' G1' (Adper' Single' Bond'2),'G2'(Adper'SE'Plus),'and'G3'(35%'phosphoric'acid'+'Adper' SE'Plus).'After'restorative'procedures,'half'of'the'surface'of'enamel' and'restorative'material'was'protected'with'nail'varnish,'thus,'only' half'of'the'sample'was'subjected'to'the'erosive'challenge'(immersion' in' CocaXCola®,' 3' cycles' of' 5' minutes,' for' 5' days).' Samples' were' analysed' quantitatively' through' Knoop' microhardness,' the' indentations' were' made' on' enamelXcomposite' interface.' Data' were' submitted' to' statistical' analysis' (Student’s' t' test,' twoXway' ANOVA,' p<0.05).'RESULTS:'It'showed'that'different'adhesive'systems'did'not' significantly' affect' the' percentage' of' superficial' microhardness' change' after' an' erosive' challenge' (p=0.387).' However,' although' no' significant' difference' was' observed,' G2' (selfXetch' system)' showed' the' lowest' percentage' of' superficial' microhardness' change.' CONCLUSION:' The' use' of' different' adhesive' systems' did' not' influence' superficial' microhardness' of' enamelXcomposite' interface' after' an' erosive' challenge.' The' incomplete' removal' of' the' smear' layer,' though' selfXetch' systems,' suggests' a' greater' ability' to' withstand'the'erosive'challenge'on'the'enamelXresin'interface.'
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Thermal Changes of Root Surface of Anterior Primary Teeth in Pulpectomy with Er:YAG Laser

Thermal Changes of Root Surface of Anterior Primary Teeth in Pulpectomy with Er:YAG Laser

Among the adjustable laser parameters, the average power and irradiation time have important roles in safety of clinical application of laser [45]. Based on the studies by Takeda et al, [51-53] 1-2 W power is sufficient for removing the smear layer. Also, according to Cecchini et al, [54] 1.2 W power would be enough for canal decontamination. In order to examine the thermal effect of suitable powers for removing the smear layer and canal decontamination in primary teeth, among the different laser powers, 1 and 1.5 W powers were examined in this study. According to the results of this study, temperature increase was not higher than 7ºC in the samples. This shows the safety and applicability of Er:YAG laser for primary teeth in 1 and 1.5 W powers. About the duration of laser irradiation, based on the study by Soares et al, [21] increasing the duration of laser irradiation would not improve the cleaning efficacy. Determining the time required for canal decontamination in primary teeth is also important since longer duration of laser irradiation would result in higher temperature rise. More research is required on this field. Another way to prevent temperature increase in the PDL is to use laser periodically and not continuously [45]. In this study, laser irradiation was done in two 10-second cycles with a time interval of two seconds, which did not cause average temperature increase over the threshold of tissues. It should be mentioned that the temperature did not decrease in the time interval; however, different results may be obtained in the human body because of the blood vessels in the PDL [32]. Further studies are required to assess the suitable duration of laser irradiation.
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The management of dental caries in primary teeth - involving service providers and users in the design of a trial

The management of dental caries in primary teeth - involving service providers and users in the design of a trial

One area of clinical practice highlighted by the pilot trial which also had significant impact on recruitment of patients was the low number of radiographs prescribed by dentists. Fewer radiographs were taken by general practitioners than anticipated. It is thought that this contributed to the number of eligible participants (that is, those where caries was detected) being lower than expected. Previous research has also found practitioners to prescribe fewer radiographs for primary teeth than specialists [19,20]. The reasons for this appeared to be multi-factorial and changing practitioners’ behavior to increase the number of radiographs taken, in line with national guidelines [21] is likely to take time and be dif- ficult to achieve.
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An update on primary teeth pulpotomy medicaments

An update on primary teeth pulpotomy medicaments

The dental literature is replete with articles about primary teeth pulpotomy medicaments; however, it seems that up till now there is no evidence to identify one superior pulpotomy medicament clearly. Two medicaments may be preferable: MTA or ferric sulphate. The cost of MTA may prohibit its use in pediatric dentistry and therefore ferric sulphate could be a suitable alternative. Unlike other suggested pulpotomy medicaments, propolis is a natural, valid and inexpensive alternative for pulpotomy in primary teeth. However, further clinical studies with long term follow up are needed to confirm its efficiency as a pulpotomy medicament.
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The management of dental caries in primary teeth   involving service providers and users in the design of a trial

The management of dental caries in primary teeth involving service providers and users in the design of a trial

One area of clinical practice highlighted by the pilot trial which also had significant impact on recruitment of patients was the low number of radiographs prescribed by dentists. Fewer radiographs were taken by general practitioners than anticipated. It is thought that this contributed to the number of eligible participants (that is, those where caries was detected) being lower than expected. Previous research has also found practitioners to prescribe fewer radiographs for primary teeth than specialists [19,20]. The reasons for this appeared to be multi-factorial and changing practitioners’ behavior to increase the number of radiographs taken, in line with national guidelines [21] is likely to take time and be dif- ficult to achieve.
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An in vivo Evaluation of different Root Canal Filling
Materials used in Primary Teeth

An in vivo Evaluation of different Root Canal Filling Materials used in Primary Teeth

Resorption of obturating materials and resorption of primary tooth root at the same rate is the basic criteria of success of endodontic treatment of primary teeth, as in material known as Endoflas. It is a mixture of calcium hydroxide, ZOE and iodoform is said to have the advantage of resorption limited to the excess extruded exrtaradicularly, without washing out intraradicularly. In this study, Endoflas gave the highest success rate of 95.7% which was comparable with the results obtained by Ramar and Mungara 1 who reported a success rate of

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Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth - findings of a regional German birth cohort study

Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth - findings of a regional German birth cohort study

Currently, the aetiology of DDE is still not completely clear and the causes are controversial [14–16, 21]. De- velopment of the primary teeth starts during pregnancy and the amelogenesis completes around 12 months after birth [10]. During this tooth development time, a series of factors can interact, accumulate or combine to affect the ameloblasts, disrupt matrix formation or maturation and lead to DDE [10]. Several factors have been sug- gested as associated with the development of the defect, such as pre-, peri- and postnatal problems and local, sys- temic or genetic conditions [7, 14–17, 21]. They range from maternal factors, such as age at the birth of the child, social influences, diseases or infections during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia, diabetes, rubella), malnutrition, use of anti- allergic medicines or anti-asthmatic medicines, alcohol consumption or smoking during the prenatal period, di- oxins or Bisphenol A exposure, and prematurity to various child factors, including low birth weight, Apgar score, fever, infectious and other diseases, lack of breastfeeding or prolonged breastfeeding, nutritional problems, use of the antibiotic amoxicillin, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, among others [4, 7, 14–17, 21, 25–41].
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Using of MTAD and Sodium Hypochlorite in Irrigation of Necrotic Primary Teeth: A Systematic Review

Using of MTAD and Sodium Hypochlorite in Irrigation of Necrotic Primary Teeth: A Systematic Review

It was found that the clinical evaluation of the treated tooth hasn’t been investigated in the available studies, and there was no clinical or radiographic follow up for the treated cases.The included studies have investigated the antibacterial effect of the MTAD and sodium hypochlorite against the bacteria present in the root canals of necrotic primary teeth. Regarding the quality of the investigated studies, (Table 2), the quality assessment scores ranged from 7 to 9 out of 10 for all studies, suggesting being of moderate to high quality.

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Bactericidal effect of a diode laser on Enterococcus faecalis in human primary teeth—an in vitro study

Bactericidal effect of a diode laser on Enterococcus faecalis in human primary teeth—an in vitro study

Numerous studies have proven that the bactericidal effect of a diode laser (810 nm) is based on thermal properties; furthermore, bacteria cannot develop resistance to laser exposure [5, 6]. A diode laser has been used in several areas of dentistry with promising disinfection outcomes [7 – 9]. Studies on the efficacy of lasers in endodontic therapy have mostly focused on permanent teeth [10], while studies on primary teeth have been rarely reported. Meanwhile, because of the complicated anatomical structure of the pulpal chamber [11], choosing the most effective disinfec- tion protocol for pulp-infected primary teeth becomes particularly important.
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Effect of method of caries induction on aged resin-dentin bond of primary teeth

Effect of method of caries induction on aged resin-dentin bond of primary teeth

Methods: Flat dentin surfaces from 36 primary molars were assigned to three groups (n = 12) according to method to induce caries-affected dentin: (1) control (sound dentin); (2) pH-cycling; and (3) microbiological caries induction model. Teeth were submitted to caries induction for 14 days for both methods, and the sound dentin was stored in distilled water during the same period. Specimens from each experimental group were then randomly reassigned to two subgroups (n = 6) according to the adhesive system tested: two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 - SB) or two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond - CSEB). Composite buildups were constructed and sectioned to obtain bonded sticks to be subjected to microtensile ( μ TBS) testing immediately or after 12 months of water aging. The μ TBS means were analyzed by three-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey ’ s tests ( α = 0.05). Results: The μ TBS values obtained to artificially-created caries-affected dentin were lower compared with sound dentin, but were not affected by method of caries induction. Water storage for 12 months reduced bond strengths, except to CSEB bonded to sound dentin.
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ESTIMATION OF THREE MICROELEMENTS IN PRIMARY TEETH BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

ESTIMATION OF THREE MICROELEMENTS IN PRIMARY TEETH BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

! This! study! was! carried!out! to! estimate! the! concentrations! of! three! elements! namely,! Manganese,! Strontium! and!Zinc! in!the!enamel! of! deciduous! teeth! in! comparison! to! normal! and! carious! teeth! and! to! relate! the! element! concentration!to! the!sex!of!the!individual.! The! datas! obtained! for! each! elements! was! subjected!to!statistical!analysis!for!mean!value! and!standard! deviation.! The! differences! were!

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Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia

Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia

mation was affected. They also showed that mineraliza- tion of dentin is less likely to be under the influence of the inhibitory action of inorganic pyrophosphates (one of the substrates of TNAP) than mineralization of cementum. This may suggest that different regulatory mechanisms operate for mineralization in these two tissues [25]. More than 190 mutations are currently described world- wide in HP patients. This diversity of mutations results in variable clinical expressions even among the severe or moderate types [9]. This may explain the heterogeneity of the phenotype and the overlap of the clinical subtypes: for instance, infantile and childhood HP share some clinical symptoms, and patients with adult HP often recall child- hood rickets or premature exfoliation of primary teeth [5,15,26]. Depending upon the impact of the mutation on enzyme function, the clinical manifestations are highly variable, which is reflected by the age of onset [27]. Here patients 1, 2 and 3 carry two heterozygous muta- tions, one moderate (c.571G>A or c.526G>A), the other one severe (c.1361A>G, c.550C>T or c.648+1G>A) [18]. This is a common situation in non-lethal forms of HP, the moderate allele allowing the production of AP activity from which depends the severity of the disease. The most midly affected patients of our series were found heterozy- gotes for the missense mutation c.1250A>G and c.212G>A. These mutations have a dominant negative effect that could explain the mild expression of the disease at the heterozygous state. Indeed, by site-directed muta- genesis we found that cells transfected with the mutations R71H and N417S, and co-transfected with the wild type allele, exhibit 30.5% and 26.5% of wild type alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively, [Fauvert et al. manu- script in preparation].
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PRIMARY TOOTH ERUPTION - AN AYURVEDIC OVERVIEW   .......

PRIMARY TOOTH ERUPTION - AN AYURVEDIC OVERVIEW .......

begin in the eighth month of life10. The dhathus which are involved in the eruption of teeth are Asthi and Majja 11 . The dhathus get localised in the root of gums and along with doshas results in tooth eruption. The Dhatubija or tooth buds consists of localised prolifera- tion of cells in the dental lamina. These buds grows into mesenchyme and develops into primary teeth. As per various studies, on an average, the eruption of primary teeth begins at about the age of 8 months with the man- dibular central incisors, and ends at the age of about 30 months with the maxillary second molars. Thus, in most children the total period of eruption of primary teeth ex- tends for about 2 years. The eruption phase has been classified into the following stages: pre-eruptive; in- traosseous; mucosal penetration; pre-occlusal; and post- occlusal. In the pre-eruptive stage, the tooth crown is formed and the position of the tooth within the jaw bone is relatively stable. In the intraosseous stage the root be- gins to form and the tooth starts by much slower move- ment, moving inside the jaw bone towards the oral cav- ity. The mucosal penetration stage occurs, in general, when half to three-fourths of the root of the erupting tooth has been formed. The pre-occlusal stage is rela- tively short, whereas the post-occlusal stage is much longer and it is characterized by much slower tooth movement. Although the movement of teeth during eruption primarily occurs in the axial direction, the teeth actually move in all the three planes of space 12 .
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Novel caries loci in children and adults implicated by genome-wide analysis of families

Novel caries loci in children and adults implicated by genome-wide analysis of families

permanent teeth excluding white spot lesions; dbGaP: The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes; dft: Count of decayed and/or filled primary teeth (dft) score; DRDR: University of Pittsburgh Dental Registry and DNA Repository; GENEVA: Gene Environment Association Studies Initiative; GMI: Genetic Map Interpolator; HP: Heritability Parameter; HWE: Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium; IBD: Identical-By-Descent; IFS: Iowa Fluoride Study; IHS: Iowa Head Start; LD: Linkage Disequilibrium; LOD: Logarithm of the odds of linkage; MARDD: Myopathy, areflexia, respiratory distress, and dysphagia; Mb: 10 6 (or 1 million) bp; NPL: Non-Parametric Linkage; PRIM: New binary
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The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) strategy in Mexico: two-years follow up of ART sealants and restorations

The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) strategy in Mexico: two-years follow up of ART sealants and restorations

However, it is necessary to note that the survival rates of ART restorations are to a certain extent influenced by the restoration assessment criteria used. These are stricter than the commonly used United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria, so the criteria used for assessing ART restorations fail restorations earlier/faster than the USPHS criteria do [14]. The survival of ART restorations in the present study might further be influenced by the handling of the glass-ionomer by the dentists. Some remote areas were situated at high altitude, others at sea level. As a high temperature influ- ences the setting speed of glass-ionomer [17], the geo- graphic location might have interfered with the quality of the mixed glass-ionomer and consequently, with the survival of ART restorations. The dental skills of the par- ticipating dentists also need to be taken into account, as operator effects have been reported in ART studies [18]. The fact that all ART restorations in primary teeth in one region survived, while in one of the five remaining regions significantly worse survival rates were observed, shows that the human hand and mind may have influenced the production of quality ART restorations and sealants. Post- Table 5 Effects of independent variables on the
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