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Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazzete of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk- based products) for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality pro- duced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the test- ed samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

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Chosen biotic factors influencing raw cow milk freezing point

Chosen biotic factors influencing raw cow milk freezing point

HANUŠ, O., ZHANG, Y., BJELKA, M., KUČERA, J., ROUBAL, P., JEDELSKÁ, R.: Chosen biotic factors infl uencing raw cow milk freezing point. Acta univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2011, LIX, No. 5, pp. 65–82 The milk freezing point depression (FPD) is important physical property. FPD is infl uenced by milk composition especially by components with osmotic pressure activity and by other physiological factors. There is possible to indicate a foreign (extraneous) water addition into milk by FPD. This is necessary to have a good estimated legislative FPD discrimination limit (FPD–L) for purpose of milk quality control. This paper was aimed at obtaining information to improve such estimation. Impacts factors as season variations, estimated state of dairy cow nutrition and some milk components and properties on milk FPD and their relations to FPD were quantifi ed (n 11 540 – 72 607 bulk raw cow milk samples). The highest FPD was in Spring (−0.52097 ± 0.004877 °C), the lowest in Autumn (−0.52516 ± 0.005725 °C; P < 0.001). Correlation between FPD and lactose was 0.35 (P < 0.001). 12% and 5.4% of FPD variability is explainable by lactose and casein variability. Relationship between FPD and urea (U) was 0.26 (P < 0.001) in March. The worst FPD was in group with presupposed (according to milk urea and protein combination) nitrogen matter (NM) and energy (E) insuffi ciency (−0.51855 ± 0.007288 °C). The best FPD was in group with presupposed NM and E surplus in feeding ration (−0.52536 ± 0.004785 °C; P < 0.001). The FPD was worse in suspicion on E defi ciency (on the basis of fat/crude protein ratio) as compared to presumption for balanced E nourishment of dairy herds (−0.52105 ± 0.006436 °C > −0.52244 ± 0.005367 °C; P < 0.001). Results can improve the estimation of objective FPD–L.

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Detection of Classic Enterotoxin Genes and Coagulase Gene Typing of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Raw Cow Milk in Isfahan

Detection of Classic Enterotoxin Genes and Coagulase Gene Typing of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Raw Cow Milk in Isfahan

From February 2016 to October 2017, a total of 232 raw cow milk samples were collected from different markets in Isfahan province in Iran. All of the raw cow milk samples were immediately transferred to the laboratory in cool packs. For S. aureus enumeration [22], 1 ml of each milk sample was inoculated on Baird Parker agar (Merck, Germany) with 5% egg yolk tellurite emulsion (Liofilchem, Italy) and incubated at 35˚C for 48 h. Characteristic colonies were tested for catalase, coagulase production and mannitol fermentation. The two species positive for clumping were submitted to the Voges-Proskauer test to discriminate S. aureus (positive) from S. intermedius (negative). The strains were further identified as Staph. aureus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 23S rDNA according to Straub et al. [23].

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Exploratory analysis of dynamics of frequency distribution of raw cow milk quality indicators in the Czech Republic

Exploratory analysis of dynamics of frequency distribution of raw cow milk quality indicators in the Czech Republic

is nearing the quality in the dairy developed coun- tries with small dairy cow herds (Hanuš et al., 2003). The relationships among occurrences of diff erent risky microorganism groups in the various organic materials (feed, raw milk, excrements) at the agricul- tural beginning of milk food chain were evaluated in other paper (Hanuš et al., 2004, a) including the good absolute results under average conditions of model farms in the CR. A reserve for the next improvement of the RMQ is particularly in the SCC in the CR. De- spite this fact it can be stated that the milk produc- tion and processing chain is probably the safest of those considered for comparison (Hanuš et al., 2004, b). It was confi rmed by a monitoring result in Ger- many as well. According to the offi cial survey re- sults it was stated (circular of AFEMA, Baumgart- ner and Schuster, 2005) that milk and milk products pertained to the safest food on the market. The gen- eral aspects of quality in market chains were defi ned by Titchener (1998). Kvapilík (1997, 2004, 2005 a, b), Wet (1998), Hamann (2002), Bossuyt (2003) and Kvapilík and Střeleček (2003) were concerned with questions of the payment of raw cow milk in accor- dance with its quality or economy. It means with a link of the purchase price to the values of the MQIs in diff erent point of views. E. g. in terms of the rules and links of the farmer price construction according to supplier-processor contracts, which are the main instruments for the RMQ growth. Some of the rules are in other publication (Dairy Crest, 2002). Some materials (Hanuš, 2000; Janů et al., 2005, 2007; Hanuš et al., 2007) were concerned with the problem of the possibility of creating a new, consistent, synthetic, relative quality indicator of raw cow milk for every change of its quality to be taken into account in the purchase price. For a further improvement of MQIs a consistent link of the RMQ to the farmer price is essential. This fact was o en underestimated in the CR during last time (Hanuš, 2000; Janů et al., 2005 and 2007; Hanuš et al., 2007).

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Raw Cow Milk Thermostability and Its Relations to Other Indicators

Raw Cow Milk Thermostability and Its Relations to Other Indicators

The samples were preserved with bronopol (0.03 %) and stored in a refrigerator. Then the samples were transported in cold conditions (< 8 °C) to an accredited dairy laboratory (LRM Buštěhrad, ČMSCH a.s.) and analyzed. Values for components (contents) and milk indicators were determined: fat (F); crude protein (CP, total N × 6.38); lactose monohydrate (L); solids non‑fat (SNF); urea (U); milk freezing point (MFP); somatic cell count (SCC); total count of mesophilic microorganisms (TCM); count of coli‑form bacteria (COLI); milk thermostability (TES); residues of inhibitory substances (RIS, for possible occurrence of antibiotica (drugs) residues and also for interference potential of possible phytoactive substances). In addition, energy (ketose) milk (cow) coefficients F / CP and F / L (Steen et al., 1996; Siebert and Pallauf, 2010; van Knegsel et al., 2010; Hanuš et al., 2013; Manzenreiter et al., 2013) were calculated. Milk analyzes were performed according to relevant methods with calibrated and controlled analytical techniques according to standard operating procedures. The milk components (F, CP, L, SNF, U) and indicators (MFP) were determined by the indirect method of MIR‑FT infrared spectroscopy (in mid range with interferometer and Fourier ’s transformation, in case of MFP with electrical conductivity measurement) CombiFoss FT+ (Foss Electric, Hilleröd, Denmark). The SCC was determined by flow cytometry on the same device. TCM was also determined by flow cytometry using IBC FC (Bentley Instruments, Chaska, Minnesota, USA). The COLI count was determined by plate cultivation method (VRBL agar, 37 ± 1 °C, abbreviated cultivation period 24 – 48 hours). The RIS (+ / –) were determined by a microbiological (Geobacillus stearothermophilus) inhibition assay (growth at 65 °C) with pH indicator Eclipse 50 (ZEU‑INMUNOTEC, Spain). The TES was determined in minutes in non‑preserved milk (Janštová and Navrátilová, 2014 a). The time was determined up to visual denaturation (flocculation) of milk proteins when heated in an oil bath at 135 °C. The procedure was carried out with 2.5 ml of milk in a relevant thick‑walled glass tube in the Bohemilk Opočno laboratory.

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Analysis of raw cow milk quality according to free fatty acid contents in the Czech Republic

Analysis of raw cow milk quality according to free fatty acid contents in the Czech Republic

tent and somatic cell count as an indicator of the mammary gland health state (Hanuš et al., 1992, 1993a), nevertheless lactose can also be reduced by a significant deficiency of cow nutrition energy (Kirst et al., 1983, 1985) parallelly with the decreas- ing milk yield. Similarly, deficiency in the supply of nitrogen matters to dairy cows can be accompanied by a slightly higher FFA c, which indicates the urea and FFA c relation very weakly, r = –0.08 and 0.11 resp. (Table 4; P < 0.05 and < 0.01 resp.; Figure 7). The urea c in milk was previously been associ- ated with the supply of nitrogen matters to dairy cows (Piatkowski et al., 1981; Hanuš et al., 1993; Homolka and Vencl, 1993; Jílek et al., 2006; Zhai et al., 2006). The fat content correlated with FFA c so weakly (Table 4) that it can be thought about a functional independence in tendencies and mu- tual physiological relations of these components, however so closely they may be to each other in chemical respect. MFP as a polyfactorial indicator was accompanied, in its better value, by an insig- nificant increase in FFA c (Table 4) (P > 0.05). The other significant negative correlations with FFAs were recorded for SNF (Table 4; Figure 8) and DM (Table 4). This means that FFA c can increase by 0.03 mmol/100 g with a simultaneous decrease in

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Screening methods used for the detection of veterinary drug residues in raw cow milk – a review

Screening methods used for the detection of veterinary drug residues in raw cow milk – a review

beta-Star test (UCB Bioproducts, Belgium). The test involves a specific β-lactam receptor linked to gold particles. It is a dipstick test that detects penicillins and cephalosporins. The milk sample (0.2 ml) is added to a vial containing the test rea- gents (receptor protein linked to gold particles), mixed and incubated at 47.5°C in the incubator for 3 minutes. During incubation, the receptor will react with the free β-lactams contained in the sample. After 3 min of incubation, the dipstick is added and incubation is continued (2 min at 47.5°C). The mixture is transferred to a strip of immuno-chromatography paper where it migrates towards the test field. With milk samples free of β-lactam residues, the receptor protein will be captured by a biomolecule immobilised at the test field of the chromatography paper. Since the receptor protein is linked to gold particles, the captured protein-gold complex will appear as a pink-coloured band. With the sample where the receptor protein has interacted with free β-lac- tam molecules, the receptor protein will not be captured at the test field and no band will occur. The colour intensity of the test band is visually compared with that of the reference band: if the colour intensity of the test band is weaker than that of the reference band, the sample is classified as positive (Gustavsson 2003; Gustavsson and Sternesjö 2004).

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Microbial and Chemical Adulterants Assessment of Raw Cow Milk Collected from Dairy Farms of Hlabisa Villages, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

Microbial and Chemical Adulterants Assessment of Raw Cow Milk Collected from Dairy Farms of Hlabisa Villages, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

We reported the presence of coliform bacteria such as E. aerogenes and E. gergoviae in milk samples which are indicators of poor hygiene conditions. Our results were comparable with the studies carried out on microbial contamination of milk samples in Tanzania (Gwandu et al., 2018) and Eastern Ethiopia (Mesfine et al., 2015). Enterobacteriaceae family are prevalent residents of the intestinal tract of multiple domestic animals such as cow and might be a possible indication of contamination from the udder, milking utensils, water, or milk handler (Akabanda et al., 2010; Wanjala et al., 2017). K. oxytoca, the main pathogenic Klebsiella spp. causes pneumonia while M. morganii is mainly an opportunistic pathogen associated with soft tissue infection, respiratory tract infection, and urinary tract infections (Liu et al., 2016; Singh et al., 2016). Also, the species of Shigella identified from the raw milk of Hlabisa (South Africa) were Sh. sonnei and Sh. dysenteriae (Table 1).

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The analysis of relationships between chemical composition, physical, technological and health indicators and freezing point in raw cow milk

The analysis of relationships between chemical composition, physical, technological and health indicators and freezing point in raw cow milk

al., 2003). The effect was significant in H breed (Table 3, r = 0.40; P < 0.05). The dependence of MFP on DMY is probably valid within both herds and breeds and among breeds or regions as well. The explanation of this fact can be that while the breed effect could be expressed by the closeness (correla- tion coefficient value) and character (steepness) of relationships (under identical conditions, only with different DMY, it means with changed genetic bases for DMY within breed and herd, respectively), the absolute shift (drift, bias) in MFP values (H and B data files) could be caused by nutrition differences between herds. In general it is possible to state that the legislative discrimination limit of freezing point for the raw milk quality control should be up-dated in dependence on the genetic improvement of cow populations. The intervals should depend on the milk yield increase. There are consistent relation tendencies between MFP and the other composi- tional MIs (which depend on the cow nutrition) such as all forms of milk proteins, fat, urea etc. both within and between the breeds. Components are essential in terms of MFP depression crea- tion (Demott, 1969; Brouwer, 1981; Walstra and Jenness, 1984; Buchberger, 1994; Buchberger and Klostermeyer, 1995; Buchberger, 1997; Hanuš et al., 2003, 2006). Dependence of MFP on CP was deter- mined first of all in B (r = –0.32; P < 0.05). Chládek and Čejna (2005) found a closer relation also in B breed (r = –0.57) in comparison with H (r = –0.18). The dependences of MFPs on TP (P < 0.05 for B and P < 0.01 for H) were observed in both breeds (r = –0.33 and –0.43) on quite a high closeness level (Table 3). However, the dependence of MFP on CAS was observed surprisingly only on an insignificant level (P > 0.05). The dependence of MFP on WP was observe also in both breeds (P < 0.05 for B and P < 0.01 for H, where r = –0.35 and –0.47).

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Effect of organic farming on selected raw cow milk components and properties

Effect of organic farming on selected raw cow milk components and properties

along decrease of C farming altitude from higher to lower position (r = −0.39). Also Worthington (2001) pointed on lower concentration of nitrates in O plant products. The O farming improvement is visible mainly in the way of animal housing where better welfare is recorded. There is limited use of chemicals in animal diet and partly also their antibiotic treatment (Kégl et al., 1995; Spranger et al., 2000; Walkenhorst, 2001; Klocke et al., 2003 a, b; Klocke, 2004; Walkenhorst et al., 2004; Stöger, 2007). Furthermore, ruminants have to have freedom and be grazed and their feedstuff s have to be produced in organic way without chemical fertilization and treatment of plants. Hamilton et al. (2002) reported that there can be achieved good standards of health and welfare of animals in organic herds. They did not fi nd any clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders in dairy cows in twenty–six O farms. Milk acetone exceeded the high level (0.6 mmol.l −1 )

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The effects of sample fat value manipulation on raw cow milk composition and indicators

The effects of sample fat value manipulation on raw cow milk composition and indicators

Values of milk indicators (MIs) can be infl uenced by sampling errors and milk manipulation. This paper estimated the freezing point depression (FPD) and other MIs dri s which can cause fat move- ment. That is important for: – preparation of reference milk samples (MSs) for profi ciency testing and instrument calibrations; – estimation of the impact of milk treatment as centrifugation in dairy plants on FPD. Five MSs (A = original milk; milk with modifi ed fat (F) content; B = less F, C = low F, D = more F, E = high F) were created (gravitation F separation at 4 °C for 12 hours) with the same milk matrix 12× per year. F averages increased by 4.80% (122.1%) from 1.68 to 6.48% due to manipulation. It increased variability of MIs especially for SNF (solids non fat), L (lactose) and CP (crude protein). SCC (somatic cell count) averages increased by 803 (196.8%) from 9 to 812 thousand.ml −l . Correlation (r) F × SCC was

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Technologically difficult, pathogenic and food risky bacterial contamination of raw milk and other materials from dairy cow herds

Technologically difficult, pathogenic and food risky bacterial contamination of raw milk and other materials from dairy cow herds

General conditions of important hygienic contami- nation occurrence in raw cow milk. The knowledge of prevalence of the occurrence of mentioned micro- organisms in farm practice conditions is very im- portant for special processing technologies. While the total counts of mesophilic microorganisms in milk are linked first of all with the hygiene of the milking process, the TRB occurrence would usually be connected with the spectrum of breeder tech- nologies, for instance with the hygiene at harvest and preservation of rough fodder. Petersen (1985) and Andersen and Jensen (1987 – cit. Kratochvíl, 1991) pointed to the fact that microbial spores could penetrate into milk from excrements in the proximity of mammary gland. They come to this space by the digestive tract of dairy cows from con- taminated preserved rough fodders of low quality, especially from grass silages that were harvested and preserved in a wrong way. The correlations of sporulate occurrence between materials such as feed × excrements, excrements × milk and feed × milk were unusually close and or else 0.80, 0.73 and 0.69. In the similar continuity Vyletělová (2001) reported the values of less close correlations (0.35 – P < 0.01, 0.28 – P < 0.05 and 0.23 – P > 0.05) for the relationships feed × excrements, excrements × milk and feed × milk. Nevertheless, the feed impact was confirmed as well.

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Antimicrobial Activity of a Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus Plantarum 29V and Strain’S Viability in Palm Kernel Oil

Antimicrobial Activity of a Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus Plantarum 29V and Strain’S Viability in Palm Kernel Oil

Abstract: The present investigation reports the characterization of the bacteriocin produced by the probiotic strain Lac- tobacillus plantarum 29V isolated from raw cow milk in the Western’s highlands of Cameroon, as well as the viability of this strain in the palm kernel oil. The antimicrobial compound synthesized by Lactobacillus plantarum 29V was sensitive to some proteolytic enzymes. It showed remarkable stability at high temperatures and in the presence of organic solvents, detergents and surfactants. It was also active in pH 2.0–10 and NaCl range of 1-7%. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of this bac- terium inhibited the growth of several Lactobacillus spp., pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. The results of this study showed that palm kernel oil maintains the viable cell numbers of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 29V, without any changes of peroxide and acid indexes of palm kernel oil.

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Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from normal raw and Mastitic cow’s milk in Baghdad

Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from normal raw and Mastitic cow’s milk in Baghdad

opportunistic food borne pathogen that contaminate food and causing serious problems in man, animals and food processing-manufacturing cycles. This from normal raw and mastitic cow’s milk from some regions in Baghdad. Study design including collection and processing of sixty milk samples (thirty samples Fudhaliyah and Al-Sadrya (twenty samples from ach type) during period December (2016) to February (2017), in which they collected and processed according to modified dairy microbiological methodology in veterinary public health laboratory Electronic RapID™ ONE (4 hours) biochemical tubes strep identification system compendium with reference colors chart and online confirmation microcodes data base software and gold standard double staining technique, Microtiter Plate Assay for biofilm formation with methylene blue and safranin dyes. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern by Kirby-Bauer technique or disk diffusion method was done according to instructions of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI) or ical laboratory standards (NCCLS) by using a Muller-Hinton agar and McFarland opacity tubes for checking resistance profile of isolates. Data were analyzed for significant differences by statistical square was used. The results revealed isolation out of sixty samples (15%): three strains from Abu-Ghraib (5%): two from mastitic (3.33%) and one from normal raw milk (1.66%), two strain from Al-Fudhaliyah (3.33%): one from mastitic (1.66%) and one from normal raw milk (1.66%), and four strains from Al-Sadrya (6.66%): three from mastitic (5%) and one from normal raw milk (1.66%). In conclusion: data revealed contamination of raw milk from some regions in Baghdad, thus we recommend monitoring of milk producing animals and their environment with milk production, transportation and storage hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP)

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Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared  Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

The demand for dairy products is increasing in Saudi Arabia, due to improved living status, nutritional awareness and availability of milk and milk product sources. These products are varying in composition, texture and taste. Milk consumption varies, worldwide from about 180 kg yearly per capita in Finland to less than 50 kg in Japan and China 1 . In addition to cow milk as a main source

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Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

A significant difference in study physician- versus parent- assessed opinion of formula intolerance was noted for all infants randomized to either formula. The results are con- sistent with reports that parents often discontinue use of a particular formula for reasons other than pediatrician- assessed symptoms associated with formula intolerance. The statistical methods used in this study, including the large number of participants and multi-center design, were adequate to detect this small but significant differ- ence in formula tolerance assessment. Results of this study were similar to previous reports of infant feeding toler- ance and formula changes in early infancy [5-7]. In one survey, formulas were changed in over 30% of infants with parent-reported feeding-related issues such as colic, excessive crying, or belief that an infant had a cow milk allergy [7]. In another, parental decision to discontinue a particular formula, rather than a physician or other health care provider, occurred in 47% of infants [6]. Pediatri- cians were involved in only 4% of decisions to switch for- mulas in another study where 47% of infants underwent discontinuation of at least one formula within the first 6 months of life [5].

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Donkey’s Milk in the Management of Children with Cow’s Milk protein allergy: nutritional and hygienic aspects

Donkey’s Milk in the Management of Children with Cow’s Milk protein allergy: nutritional and hygienic aspects

The therapeutic strategy for children with IgE-CMPA or CM-FPIES consists of the total elimination of cow ’ s milk protein (CMP) from their diet [4, 5, 7]. During the first years of life, milk represents an important source of nutrients, so it ’ s difficult to eliminate from the everyday diet. Therefore, one of the major objectives of paediatric allergists is to find an appropriate alternative with a pleasant taste, good nutritional values, and hypoaller- genic properties that will not induce cross-reactivity with CM [6]. The current guidelines [2, 8 – 13] recommend extensively hydrolyzed formulas (eHFs) as the first choice with IgE-CMPA treatment except for the more severe reactions where free amino acid formulas (FAAFs) are preferable. Unfortunately, eHFs and FAAFs are hampered by their unpleasant taste not only related

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Cow’s Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet

Cow’s Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet

An abstraction form was used to record information conveyed in each advertisement. The items recorded included whether any claims about the quality of the milk were made, price per ounce, and reasons for selling milk. Health behaviors that were mentioned, including any hygiene or handling practices adopted; information about infectious disease status; use of illegal and legal substances and pharmaceuticals; and exercise and dietary habits were also recorded. Because sellers rarely included demographic information, readability was measured by calculating the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, which served as a proxy for education (Microsoft Word; Microsoft, Redmond, WA). Most sellers quanti fi ed the amount of milk available, but others used general descriptors, which we corresponded to approximate quantitative

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EFFECT OF METABOLIC SIZE OF CROSS BRED COW ON COMPOSITIONAL QUALITY OF RAW MILK PRODUCED AT SHIATS DAIRY FARM ALLAHABAD

EFFECT OF METABOLIC SIZE OF CROSS BRED COW ON COMPOSITIONAL QUALITY OF RAW MILK PRODUCED AT SHIATS DAIRY FARM ALLAHABAD

The entire crossbred cow Milch herd of the SHIATS Dairy farm Allahabad were subjected to Californian mastitis test (Schalm and Noorlanders, 1957) crossbred cows which showed negative CMT were selected for the experiment. All experimental animals were fed & managed under tail to tail system of housing at SHIATS Dairy farm. Milk quality is most important factor in dairying today. Quality is a result of totally integrated approach, from farm dairy environment, to the training and quality of staff, to the factory on plant hygiene and maintenance, to the quality of cooling and storage of milk at the farm. The long term prosperity of dairying depends on the quality commitment of all individual involved in taking milk from crossbred cow and delivering it to the table. There is great deal of variation in the composition of milk, even with the same animal it is not always the same. Among the constituents the fat content of the milk is most variable. The other constituents vary in the order- Protein, Lactose and Ash. The factors responsible for such variations in the composition are species of animal, breed, stage of lactation individually, variation fro m milking to milking length of interval between milking , first and last milk, type of feed, physical condition of the animal, environment, disturbance at milking time etc. Whether these milk ingredients are influenced by the metabolic size of crossbred cow is not yet ascertained. Metabolic size of Dairy crossbred Cows was determined by the following formula. Metabolic size: Body weight x 0.75 because size of an animal is proportional to its metabolic rate (Prasad and Neeraj, 2008). Only twenty healthy crossbred cow free from mastitis and other noticeable injuries were selected and divided into 3 groups of un equal no. of cross bred cows in each these three groups treatments of metabolic size viz. 202 to 243 (M 1 ), 244 to 285 (M 2 ),

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Science of Camel and Yak Milks: Human Nutrition and Health Perspectives

Science of Camel and Yak Milks: Human Nutrition and Health Perspectives

niens. Yak is able to survive in extremely cold and hypo-oxygen environments at as low as −40˚C and at- mospheric pressure of 550 hPa. The estimated total world yak population is approximately 14.2 million [29]. Do- mestic yaks graze throughout highlands of the Hindu Kush and Karakoram in Afghanistan and Pakistan, the Himalayas in India, Nepal and Bhutan, the Tibetan Pla- teau and Tian Shan Mountains of Northern China, West- ern and Northern Mongolia, and also some areas of Rus- sia and other independent states. China has the largest number of yaks in the world with approximately 13 mil- lion that comprises > 90% of all planet yaks [30]. Per lactation yak milk yield of 147 - 487 kg has been re- ported [30]. Yak dairy products milk in such high-alti- tude regions are popular foods. Yak milk has about 16.9% - 17.7% solids, 4.9% - 5.3% protein, 5.5% - 7.2% fat, 4.5% - 5.0% lactose, and 0.8% - 0.9% minerals. Ne- pal has initiated to make “yak cheese production” a commercial enterprise. Yak cheese contains 47% butter- fat on a dry matter basis [31,32]. As such, yak milk is often used for making cheese, named as “chhurpi” in Tibetan and Nepali languages, and byaslag in Mongolia. Yak milk butter is used to make “butter tea” that is con- sumed by Tibetans. It is also used in lamps and made into butter sculptures during religious festivities. Al- though not widely available in North America, yak dairy products and particularly yak cheese are becoming more accessible in some dairy stores. Yak cheese contains about 4 times more CLA than Canadian cheddar, which shows its potential role in preventing cancer, heart dis- ease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Yak milk is rich in protein, casein and fat compared to cow milk (Table 2). High contents of colloidal and soluble calcium and phosphorus are additional advantages, making yak milk very suitable for cheese making. Milk fat of yak at very high altitudes is richer in PUFA, namely CLA. As such, the resulting cheese and dairy products will have value-added nutraceutical functions.

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