Calibrate the three-year-old dummy according to the requirements of 49 CFR Part 572, Subpart P as described in Appendix D of this procedure. Calibrations are performed prior to the start of the compliance test program, after an apparent noncompliance (as described by the COTR), after 30 tests, or if the dummy has been in storage for thirty days or more during the testing program. Prior to testing, condition the three-year-old dummy at any ambient temperature from 20.6°C to 22.2°C and at any relative humidity from 10 percent to 70 percent, for at least 4 hours. When ATD will be used to test a rear-facing child restraint, remove lower leg at the ATD knee and tape lengthwise to the anterior surface of the ATD thigh/upper leg.
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The supplemental air bag system is designed to inflate in higher severity frontal collisions, although it may inflate if the forces in another type of collision are similar to those of a higher severity frontal impact. It may not inflate in certain frontal collisions. Vehicle damage (or lack of it) is not always an indication of proper supplemental air bag system operation. The front passenger supplemental air bag is equipped with an ON/OFF switch. Because no rear seat exists where a rear facing child restraint can be secured, the switch is de- signed to turn OFF the passenger supple- mental air bag so that a rear facing child restraint can be used in the front passenger seat. See ‘‘Passenger supplemental air bag ON/OFF switch and light’’ later in this section for details.
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If we take the front of the robot to be at 0 ◦ then the photocells are mounted at 45 ◦ , 135 ◦ , 225 ◦ , and 315 ◦ , such that the two forward facing photocells are mounted 45 ◦ either side of centre. The amount of light energy falling on a surface is proportional to the cosine of the angle of incidence. Photocells facing away from the light source receive little or no energy. Therefore, if the robot is rotated the signal from each sensor is a half-wave rectified sinewave. The photocells on opposite sides of the robot are then paired up such that the forward facing photocells provide the positive component of the signal, while rear facing photocells provide the negative component. The output from the rear facing photocells may be subtracted from the forward facing photocells resulting in a pair of sinewaves 90 ◦ out of phase with each other. In Figure 2 the robot was held at a fixed distance from the light source and the combined forward/rear facing outputs are plotted against each other as the robot is rotated through 360 ◦ .
Background: Use of appropriate child passenger safety restraints reduces injury in infants, with rear facing restraints favored over forward facing. In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) began recommending that infants and children under the age of 2 years be restrained in a rear-facing seat installed in the vehicle ’ s rear seat. This study examines the practice of rear-facing restraints pre- and post-AAP recommendations for children under 2 years. Methods: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) from 2008 to 2015 were used to examine restraint status and injuries in rear-seated infants and toddlers aged 0 to less than 2 years involved in fatal collisions (n = 4966). Subpopulation analyses were conducted on 1557 children with seat facing direction recorded.
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mation, cautions and warnings in this manual still apply and must be followed. The supplemental air bag system is designed to inflate in higher severity frontal collisions, although it may inflate if the forces in another type of collision are similar to those of a higher severity frontal impact. It may not inflate in certain frontal collisions. Vehicle damage (or lack of it) is not always an indication of proper supplemental air bag system operation. The front passenger supplemental air bag is equipped with an ON/OFF switch (except crew cab models which have a rear seat for child restraint installation). Because no rear seat exists where a rear facing child restraint can be secured in other models, the switch is designed to turn OFF the passenger supple- mental air bag so that a rear facing child restraint can be used in the front passenger seat. See ‘‘Passenger supplemental air bag ON/OFF switch and light’’ later in this section for details.
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The supplemental air bag system is designed to inflate in higher severity frontal collisions, although it may inflate if the forces in another type of collision are similar to those of a higher severity frontal impact. It may not inflate in certain frontal collisions. Vehicle damage (or lack of it) is not always an indication of proper supplemental air bag system operation. The front passenger supplemental air bag is equipped with an ON/OFF switch (except crew cab models which have a rear seat for child restraint installation). Because no rear seat exists where a rear facing child restraint can be secured in other models, the switch is designed to turn OFF the passenger supple- mental air bag so that a rear facing child restraint can be used in the front passenger seat. See ‘‘Passenger supplemental air bag ON/OFF switch and light’’ later in this section for details.
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The rear axle casing dictates the method that must be used to remove the final drive assembly. Today the casing used will be either a banjo or carrier type. In the past a type known as a split (trumpet) casing was occasionally used. In the banjo axle the tubular axle section is built up of steel pressings welded together and suitably strengthened to resist the bending load. The centre of the casing, combined with the axle tube on one side, resembles a banjo, hence its name. The final drive assembly, which is mounted in detachable malleable iron housing, is secured by a ring of bolts to the axle casing. When this assembly is position, the axle shafts are slid in from the road wheel end of the casing. The casing domed plate is bolted to the rear face of the casing. Removal of this plate allows the final drive gears to be inspected and in case wheel the axle shaft is secured to the differential, the access point enables the axle shaft to be unlocked from the sun gear. The carrier type of axle casing is more rigid than the banjo type casing and is often used to support a hypoid gear final drive unit. The carrier type of axle is therefore fitted to vehicles carrying heavy loads, such as commercial vehicles. The final drive assembly is mounted directly in a rigid, malleable cast iron carrier, into which the axle tubes are pressed and welded. Extra rigidity is obtained by using reinforcing ribs that extend from the pinion nose to the main carrier casting (Fig.16). Access to the final drive gear is by means of a domed plat at the rear of the casing. If repair of the final drive assembly is necessary the use of specialized tools may be required to remove and refit the assembly.
All Marines share a common warfighting belief. The essence of this belief is captured by a simple yet powerful credo: “ Every Marine a rifleman.” In other words, every Marine, regardless of specialty, has a fundamental purpose. All Marines are forged from a common experience, share a common set of values, and are trained as members of an expeditionary force in readiness. There are no “rear area” Marines. The range, mobility, and lethality of modern weapons ensure that no one is too far from potentially life threatening situations when Marines respond to a crisis. The Marine rifleman of the next conflict will be, as in the past, among the first to confront the enemy and last to hang his weapon on the rack after hostilities cease.
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The DVD player plays DVD videos, video CDs and audio CDs. To play a DVD, begin by turning the ignition to ACC or ON and pressing the POwEr button. Insert the disc into the slot. The disc is automatically drawn in. The player can be operated by using the control panel buttons or the remote control. Depending on what DVD system you have the DVD player can be operated by pressing the CD/DVD or CD•DVD button or by pressing the rEar aV or rEar ON•Off button on the instrument panel for 2 seconds. If you press the rEar aV or rEar ON•Off button quickly, you will toggle between rear audio control on and off. Press the CD/DVD or CD•DVD button to toggle between the CD and DVD operation.
This paper describes the design and development of a family of surrogate child restraints that are intended for use in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. Detailed measurements were made of the geometry and mass distribution characteristics of 34 commercial child restraints, including infant restraints, convertibles, combination restraints, and boosters. The restraints were installed in three test seats with appropriately sized crash dummies to obtain data on seat-surface pressure patterns and the position and orientation of the restraint with belt loading. The data were used to construct two surrogates with removable components. The convertible surrogate can be used to represent a rear-facing infant restraint with or without a base, a rear-facing convertible, or a forward- facing convertible. The booster surrogate can represent a high-back belt-positioning booster, a backless booster, or a forward-facing-only restraint with a five-point harness. The surrogates were designed to meet geometric and mass targets obtained by taking the mean values for analogous dimensions in each of the restraint categories. Data analyses showed that the dimensions and performance of the surrogates are quantitatively representative of the commercial restraints.
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Hence, this work deals with the rear wing optimization of the SAE formula, and its effect on the downforce of the formula. Such an approach requires the existence of a full-scale numerical model of a formula as opposed to only a rear wing model. The model therefore comprises a front, as well as rear wing, undertray with rear diffusor, monocoque including safety cage, side pods, driver, and rotating wheels. Marn and Iljaž  have shown that rotating wheels contribute significantly to suction pressure behind the truck trailer, and the same conclusions are (even more) applicable in this case as the wheels for the SAE formula show no enclosure.
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The mirror image represents the bilaterally symmetric image just like the picture you look in the rear view mirror or door mirror of a vehicle. The picture that you directly look at with your eyes is referred to as the normal image. • Note that the picture taken by the rear camera
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This procedure is normally used to measure the movement of subjects in a clinical environment where there is little obstruction between the subject and the cameras. This is not the case for the current study as the subject had to enter and exit the vehicle and place objects on the rear seat during which the vehicle could cause many of the markers on the subject to become unsighted by the cameras. For the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the location of a marker it is necessary for at least 2 cameras to simultaneously sight each marker. To maximise the visibility of the markers to the cameras, the 12 cameras
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ABSTRACT- This paper explicitly report on computer aided assembly animation of a tricycle for paraplegics who have difficulty in the use of lower limbs for mobility or driving.The development started with studying of existing tricycle and a case study of the recommended design standard for the features of vehicular cabs was taken. Analysis of the design requirements was made to determine all that would be required for the development. Draft was developed and transformed into a more precise design with results from anthropometric data taken into consideration by the use of high level languages such as AutoCad/Rivet, 3D Studio max, Adope Premiere pro, Adope flash, Adope dream weaver, Adope fireworks and photoshop. The tricycle comprises body layout, front and rear longitudinal members, main floor unit, engine position, wheel base, luggage space, the rear seat panel, boot floor, rear bumper, electrical and lighting system, chassis, ignition system, handle bar, fuel tank, brake and gear selector, adjustable seat, engine access booth, two side mirrors, back and front tyres, exhaust pipe and adjustable seat engine. Through the collection of design data and well defined textural representations of parts of the tricycle, it can easily be produced locally for paraplegics.
between the number of manual infrared beam breaks and their recording. At the beginning of the activity test, the animals were individually placed into covered Plexiglas cages (38 × 24 × 21 cm international stan- dards) inside a darkened enclosure containing 8 cages. Each cage was equipped with 4 infrared photocell units: 2 at each end of the cage and 3 cm above the bottom in order to assess movements within the horizontal plane, namely front and rear activities and back and forth shuttles, the sum of them being the horizontal activity. Then 10 additional photocell units placed 20 cm above the cage bottom at regular intervals allowed assessment of the vertical activity (rearing behaviour). The sum of these (total) was calculated. Each cage is connected to silent electronic counters (actimeters) and both hori- zontal and vertical activities were recorded by com- puter over a 30-min period at night.
“The place you’re taking me to is not home, it’s not anybody’s home. My dad would probably be at some slut’s place and my mom would be at her boyfriend’s. The place you’re taking me to is a mess. It’s a black hole. It’s a war- zone” By this last sentence, his eyes become morbid, loosing any sense of playfulness. I observe him from the rear-view mirror. Something in his eyes influence me. He isn’t lying. Behind the fancy carelessness and indifference, I now see an extremely scared and lonely kid.
Copies of the patients’ pertinent radiologic studies were obtained. In each case, radiologic studies reviewed included one or more of the following: plain film examinations of the cervical spine, CT scans of the brain or upper cervical spine, MR examinations of the brain or cervical spine, nuclear med- icine brain death studies, or postmortem radiographs. One pediatric radiologist and two pediatric neuroradiologists retro- spectively reviewed the radiologic studies blinded to the initial interpretation rendered at the originating institutions. In each case, the observed radiographic abnormalities were docu- mented. Patients were then stratified by age and type of re- straint used at time of collision into two groups: the infant traveling in the rear-facing child safety seat and the older child facing forward in the vehicle’s passenger seat. Each patient was then compared with other patients within the subgroup to ascertain any commonality of injury patterns.
Quarter circle breakwaters (QBW) are new type breakwaters first proposed by Xie et al. (2006) on the basis of SBW concept. The superstructure of QBW consists of a quarter circular surfaces facing incoming wave, a horizontal bottom and a rear vertical wall mounted on rubble mound foundation (Refer Fig. 1).Quarter circle breakwater with perforations possess merits of caisson as well as perforated breakwaters such as low weight, requires less materials, suited for poor soil conditions, easily transported, handled and placed at the site, aesthetically pleasing, cost effective, eco- friendly and stable. The most important benefit of QBW is the reduction in the volume of concrete as well as rubble mound foundation, because of the smaller bottom width (HanbinGu et al. 2008).
In rare instances, some passengers are exposed to serious injury risks from inflating air bags, especially if not properly re- strained. The U.S. and Canadian federal governments recognize other limited circum- stances in which an air bag could reduce safety. The passenger air bag ON/OFF switch is, therefore, allowed in models with- out full rear seats. Because the overall ben- efits of air bags are great, in most situations air bags should not be switched off unless special government criteria exist.
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