. Zheng, Z.L. and Li, S.L. (2013) Thermodynamics Analysis of Hydrogen Production in Vehicle DME Steam ReformingReaction System. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 9. . Semelsberger, T.A. Borup, A.L., Michael, A . 2005. “Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of dimethyl ether steam reforming and dimethyl ether hydrolysis.” Journal of Power Soures,152: pp.87- 96.doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.01.056.
thermal reforming, steam reforming, partial oxidation reforming and so on. However, the study of kinetics mod- el about DME reformingreaction is still relatively lacking in the current. Weiqi Qian et al.  used the qua- si-steady method to establish a simplified chemical kinetic model for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, effec- tively reducing the reaction components. Solution variables and differential equations are reduced when it is calculated in the flow field, improving the efficiency of calculation. Yumin Chen et al.  conducted kinetic analysis to the process of methane auto-thermal reformingreaction. Wang Feng et al.  conducted kinetic analysis to the process of methanol steam reforming in the micro-reactor. Dongmei Feng et al.  made the Kinetic Study of the process about dimethyl ether steam reformingreaction using of a catalyst CuO − ZnO − Al 2 O 3 + ZSM − 5 . This article will use the catalyst C u − Ni / γ − Al O 2 3 to make kinetic studies of Dimethyl
Among the catalysts that present activity for the etha- nol steam reformingreaction, those based on cobalt stand out for their high hydrogen production . By analyzing some studies on cobalt catalysts supported on alumina, silica, magnesia, and carbon, it can be verified that the Co/Al catalyst presented the best results and hydrogen selectivity of approximately 67% . Thus, attention has been focused on the development of active and stable catalysts that are selective to ethanol steam reforming reactions. So far, the main problems to be faced are metal sintering and carbon formation.
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104022 2 Open Access Library Journal production not only extends the application fields of dimethyl ether in the fuel, but also benefits environmental protection, so this technology has the double meaning of energy development and environmental protection. Hydrogen pro- duction from steam reforming of DEM is a continuous reaction: The first step is DME hydrolysis into methanol on an acidic catalyst; the second step is to pro- duce hydrogen in the methanol reforming of the metal catalyst. The DME hy- dration of methanol is a thermodynamic equilibrium limit, but immediately produced methanol steam reformingreaction.
is effective for steam reforming of methane or natural gas fuels [6,7]. However, this catalyst frequently forms de- posits of carbon, which are harmful to the process, once they deactivate the metallic catalyst, thus decreasing its service time . Ionic oxides with perovskite structure, supported or not, are potential oxidation catalysts and promising candidates for the steam reformingreaction, because the Ni present in the perovskite structure can be reduced to its metallic state and highly dispersed in a solid oxide.
One possible way to liberate this reaction from the equilibrium limitation and thus attain a high methane conversion at lower temperatures is by the use of membrane reactors . Membrane reactors could be used in the process to overcome the equilibrium limitation by selectively removing hydrogen from the reaction zone . The membrane continuously removes the hydrogen produced in the catalytic reaction zone thus pushing the chemical equilibrium and allowing higher methane conversion at a lower temperature . The use of membrane reactors appears to be a possible way to improve hydrogen yield at lower temperatures because the removal of hydrogen from the reaction environment prevents the equilibrium to be achieved . The membranes used in catalytic reactors are generally characterized with a high permeability, a good selectivity of separation and are stable to the temperature of the reaction especially in the presence of gas. Among hydrogen selective membranes, Pd membranes remain the most promising. Pd-based membrane reactors were considered in most of the studies, because they would produce pure hydrogen thus simplifying the conventional operation which includes extensive hydrogen purification
For methane reforming reactions, catalysts based on noble metals exhibit high catalytic stability and great resistance to coke formation . However, high cost restricts industrial scale application. Inexpensive Ni based catalysts have been used in reformingreaction due to high activity comparable to noble metals, but suffered rapid deactivation because of Ni particle agglomeration and carbon deposition . MgO as basic support can enhance CO 2 chemisorption . Inclusion of Al 2 O 3 can increase
CH4/CO2 of 1. The catalyst supports were prepared by SACP method. Increase in temperature and Ru loading resulted in higher catalytic activity. Higher Ru content (3 wt%) increased the activity of the catalyst due to higher Ru surface area. Lower loading (0.5 wt%) resulted in a strong interaction between support and metal, leading to lower availability of Ru for the reaction, and hence lower activity. However the increase in Ru loading above 1.5 wt% affected the stability of the catalyst by decreasing the surface areas and pore volumes of the catalysts. Formations of hydroxides were reported to occur during the reformingreaction responsible for carbon elimination. Unlike noble metals supported on Ce – ZrO2, Ni based catalysts have exhibited higher catalytic activity. Potdar et al.  assessed the use of 15 wt% Ni supported Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst in DRM prepared by a CP/digestion method. The authors compared the performance of a catalyst prepared using the CP method with an impregnated one at 800 °C using CH4/CO2 of 1. The catalyst prepared by the CP method exhibited the best performance. The high activity of the catalyst was due to higher surface
This study involves the reforming of whole bio-oil using a chemical looping steam reforming (CLR) process, which differs from the conventional process by cycling between fuel-steam feed and oxidation by air steps in order to achieve autothermality without reliance on the oxygen feed for partial oxidation. CLR operates on the principle that an oxygen transfer material (OTM) can act as a steam reforming catalyst when in its reduced state. Carbonaceous deposits that form during the fuel feed cycle can oxidise during the air feed step, generating additional heat to that of the Ni oxidation reaction. This overcomes the issue of coking of the catalyst associated with bio-oils whilst also using the heat generated to support the steam reforming in the subsequent fuel feed cycle. It also allows the steam reformingreaction to be performed at a lower temperature than the conventional steam reforming process by the close coupling of the endothermic reformingreaction with the exothermic Ni and C oxidation. Lyon and Cole  have shown that H 2 rich syngas can be produced
The 15Ni catalyst was also tested at 500 o C and 700 o and we have concluded temperature is an important factor for the glycerol steam reformingreaction, since some reactions that take place in parallel with glycerol steam reforming are favored or do not depend on temperature. The catalyst shows better performance at 600 o C.
DME steam reforming catalyst active component generally consists of two parts: solid acid catalyst and metal or metal oxide, wherein the solid acid catalyst to help DME hydrolysis reaction, and metal or metal oxide contributes to the me- thanol reformingreaction. The study shows that the hydrolysis rate of DME is the speed control step of the whole reforming process. Therefore, scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of research on the effect of acid carrier in the process of hydrolysis of DME. According to the micro reversibility principle of chemical reaction, a solid acid catalyst with good activity in the process of me- thanol dehydration to produce DME is proposed. Feng et al .  developed a one-dimensional isotherm plug flow model to simulate DME-SR in a fixed bed reactor with bifunctional catalyst CuO/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 /+ZSM-5. Other catalysts,
A catalyst and sorbent is disclosed which comprises pellets with an absorbent core and a protective shell with a catalyst in the shell. Such material is especially well suited for steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen since a reforming catalyst can be incorporated in the shell and a sorbent for the by-product carbon dioxide can be used for the core. It is also well suited for producing hydrogen from carbon monoxide by means of the water gas shift reaction. The shell can be made sufficiently strong and durable for moving bed applications as well as fixed bed applications.
[105–108], ligand-free Au nanoparticles with < 2 nm , inverse opal Au or Ag thin films [110, 111], ultra- thin Au nanowires , Au nanoneedles with sharp tips [113, 114], concave rhombic dodecahedral Au nano- particles with high-index facets , TiC-supported Au nanoparticles , hexagonal Zn particles , elec- trodeposited Zn dendrites , anodized Zn foil , small sized Pd nanoparticles with rich edge sites [120, 121], Au electrode with adsorbed CN − or Cl − ions , Ag nanoparticles with surface-bonded oxygen , amine-capped Ag nanoparticles . Although it is hard to compare their performance because of their different reaction conditions, the conversion of CO 2 to
According to Galarneau et al., one of the best methods for producing meso sized pores in silica powders along with preservation of particle morpholohy is pseudomorphic reaction. In this procedure, silica based materials are dissolved in alkaline solution and subsequently reprecipitated in presence of surfactants, that results in porous structure without changing the original morphology. The key parameter for preserving the morphology in pseudomorphism reaction is then associated with balance of dissolution and precipitation rate of silica. This can be fulfilled by controlling alkalinity, dilution, the type and amount of surfactant in
Reforming Management: Managing Reform One of the basic requirements of a well-managed reform process is, paradoxically, a good understanding of the status quo. Without knowing the point of departure, reforms may be based on false assumptions. Proposals for change may provoke disagreements and mis- understandings that compromise the credibility of reformers if they are seen to be ill-informed about the actual situation. It is useful, therefore, that in October 1997 the Santer Commission decided on a review of the Commission’s organisation and operations to provide an up-to-date picture of its activities, resources and methods. This exercise known as DECODE (Dessiner la Commission de Demain) began in November 1997 and was completed in May 1999 after the resignation of the Commission. The DECODE review is a more or less comprehensive fact-finding investigation of the Commission’s work, resources and working methods. An explanation of its coverage and methodology is contained in the report “Designing Tomorrow’s Commission”, published in July by the Inspectorate General which managed the review. Twelve teams of officials were assigned the task of investigating what work was being done, why it was being done, who was doing it and how it was being carried out. Each team was led by a Director from outside the areas under investigation. The general approach was to work from the bottom up to create a detailed picture of what the Commission does and how it does it. The results provided both factual information about the current situation and preliminary ideas about where the problems were.
showin in Fig.8(b). This might be the effect of graphene in the catalyst. Also in this case, all the methan are consumed throughout the length of the catalyst bed. Figs.8(f) shows the conversion of each species along the entire length of reformed catalyst. As the exhaust gas travels further along the catalyst bed, the deposition of hydrogen is increased because of faster reaction rate. In the plot for mass fractions, it can be seen that the entire reactor length is active in converting methane. Hydrogen concentration increased as the species goes into the entire reactor. However, the deposited mass fraction of hydrogen is less compared to CO 2 and H 2 O due to the
Reforming the Federal Judiciary SMU Law Review Volume 46 | Issue 3 Article 7 1993 Reforming the Federal Judiciary Stanley Sporkin Follow this and additional works at https //scholar smu edu/smulr This[.]
The purpose of this paper has been to analyze from a legal perspective a number of proposals for reforming the EMU. In recent months numerous reports — by the EU institutions, national governments, and European think-tanks — have advanced blueprints for deepening and completing Europe’s EMU, outlining a roadmap to repair and prepare the euro after Brexit. As the paper has pointed out, EU treaties already allow for the adoption of a wide variety of reforms in the field of EMU — both on the stability-side and on the solidarity-side. While further steps to enhance multilateral fiscal surveillance remain possible, the EU treaties also allow the completion of Banking Union, the creation of a Capital Markets Union and the establishment of a EUIS. In addition, the current EU constitutional regime provides a solid basis to re-launch public investments, and complete the single market. Finally, the existing treaty framework would permit also steps toward an EU fiscal capacity — based on real own resources. Given the emphasis on Euro- pean public goods by the High Level Group on Own Resources chaired by Mario Monti, 59 a fiscal capacity would be a valuable instrument to restore a degree of output legitimacy in the EU.