Salvage Value

Top PDF Salvage Value:

An Ordering Policy for Deteriorating Items  with Time Dependent Quadratic Demand  and Salvage Value under Permissible  Delay in Payment

An Ordering Policy for Deteriorating Items with Time Dependent Quadratic Demand and Salvage Value under Permissible Delay in Payment

DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2019.95013 203 American Journal of Operations Research EOQ model in the present paper is to introduce salvage value into the deteri- orated units. Quadratic demand rate depicts different phases of market demand including accelerated rise or fall in demand. Shortages in this system are not al- lowed to occur. The model is useful for the demand of items such as state-of- the-art aircrafts, super computers, laptops, android mobiles, seasonal items and machines and their spare parts and also newly launched fashion goods, seasonal items, cosmetics etc. for which the demand rate accelerates as they are launched into the market and declines when the season ends. The objective of the pro- posed model is to minimize the total cost by obtaining the optimal cycle time. In addition, the value of optimal ordering quantity of the inventory system is cal- culated. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the optimal solutions of the model are provided. It is observed that the optimal solution not only exists but also unique. At the end, numerical examples are given to illustrate the results obtained and sensitivity analysis of the effect of the parameters on the decision variables and the total inventory cost is carried out.

18 Read more

An Optimal Policy with Quadratic Demand, Three Parameter Weibull Distribution  Deterioration Rate, Shortages and Salvage Value

An Optimal Policy with Quadratic Demand, Three Parameter Weibull Distribution Deterioration Rate, Shortages and Salvage Value

The present paper focuses an optimal policy of an inventory model for deteriorating items with generalized demand rate and deterioration rate. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The salvage value is included into deteriorated units. The main objective of the model is to mi- nimize the total cost by optimizing the value of the shortage point, cycle length and order quantity. A numerical example is carried out to illustrate the model and sensitivity analyses of major para- meters are discussed.

12 Read more

EOQ Inventory Model for Time Varying Deteriorating Products with Quadratic time varying demand, Weibull Deterioration and Salvage Value

EOQ Inventory Model for Time Varying Deteriorating Products with Quadratic time varying demand, Weibull Deterioration and Salvage Value

In the present paper, an inventory model for deteriorating products is developed in which the demand rate is time varying and follows the quadratic pattern and deterioration having a two- parameter Weibull distribution deterioration rate. The salvage value is incorporated in the model and shortages are not allowed. The mathematical formulation of the model has been done to obtain the optimal solution of the problem. The result is demonstrated with the help of mathematical example and the sensitivity study is carried out with respect to the change in the major parameters.

8 Read more

EOQ Inventory Model for Time Varying Deteriorating Products with Quadratic time varying demand, Weibull Deterioration and Salvage Value

EOQ Inventory Model for Time Varying Deteriorating Products with Quadratic time varying demand, Weibull Deterioration and Salvage Value

In the present paper, an inventory model for deteriorating products is developed in which the demand rate is time varying and follows the quadratic pattern and deterioration having a two- parameter Weibull distribution deterioration rate. The salvage value is incorporated in the model and shortages are not allowed. The mathematical formulation of the model has been done to obtain the optimal solution of the problem. The result is demonstrated with the help of mathematical example and the sensitivity study is carried out with respect to the change in the major parameters.

8 Read more

Inventory Control Model with Time Linked Holding Cost, Salvage Value and Probabilistic Deterioration following Various Distributions

Inventory Control Model with Time Linked Holding Cost, Salvage Value and Probabilistic Deterioration following Various Distributions

In this study, we discussed an optimum inventory management problem with time linked holding cost and salvage value. The decay of items is a continuous random number following two distributions – uniform distribution and triangular distribution. Shortage is permitted and partially backlogged. Demand rate is time dependent. An expression for average total cost is derived as an economic order quantity problem. Thereafter, the average total cost function is transformed into two models - Model-I, and Model-II. The procedure to solve both the models is explained numerically by the demonstration of the hypothetical data. The convex nature of the concerned objective function is justified by drawing graphs in three dimensions. We obtained that the inventory with deterioration following triangular distribution is more expensive. A comparative study has also been presented to explain which model is more economical. As a result of nature of demand rate function, the proposed approach may be applied in production and optimal stock level problems for various products like crackers, seasonal fruits, etc. There is a lot of scope to extend this paper. One direction to extend the proposed work is to consider some other forms of demand function as − inventory level sensitive as well as power function type demand. One may also do the generalization of the proposed model for stochastic demand by considering the inflation and promotional periods.

6 Read more

Optimization of Fuzzy Inventory Model with Trended Deterioration and Salvage

Optimization of Fuzzy Inventory Model with Trended Deterioration and Salvage

In this paper it has presented an inventory model with time dependent trended deterioration and salvage value is incorporated to the cost of deteriorated items,in which the major costs are considered as fuzzy numbers. The trapezoidal type fuzzy number is used for representing fuzzy numbers and defuzzification is done using both Graded Mean Integration Method and Signed Distance Method. The optimal costs are discussed in crisp as well as fuzzy model. The results obtained by two methods are compared with discussing with numerical examples and sensitivity analysis.

9 Read more

CHZ-IJPE-ThirdRevision

CHZ-IJPE-ThirdRevision

The main takeaways from this paper are as follows: (i) In the absence of fixed cost, the incumbent cannot deter entry, and therefore the problem becomes one of how to accommo- date/combat the competitor; (ii) The entrant will indeed enter the market at the first possible opportunity, that is, as soon as the know-how and logistics for copying and producing the imitation are in place; (iii) The impact of brand imitation is felt before and after entry. That is, entry affects the incumbent’s pricing and advertising strategies over time, which in turn influences the salvage value of the brand, implying an impact well beyond the selling season; (iv) The before-entry strategies depend on all parameter values, and not only, as one could expect, on how entrant’s demand affects the reputation of the incumbent’s brand. The later entry occurs, the less it affects before-entry decisions, which is intuitive.

35 Read more

Refunds as a Metering Device

Refunds as a Metering Device

cally di¤erentiated …rms, as in Shaked and Sutton (1982), compete through o¤ering prices and refund terms. Our main positive prediction is that the low-quality …rm o¤ers a lower refund, though the salvage value is the same across products and even though product quality is observable to consumers ("no signaling"). We showed that this result is robust to a di¤erent source of consumer heterogeneity, where consumers di¤er in the precision of information that they obtain from experimenting with the product or service. Our results may thus o¤er an explanation for the wide variety of contractual terms that have been observed in empirical work (cf. the Introduction).

24 Read more

Salvage surgery for neck residue or recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma after primary radiotherapy: options of surgical methods and regions

Salvage surgery for neck residue or recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma after primary radiotherapy: options of surgical methods and regions

The study protocol was approved by Ethics Committee of Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. This retrospective study included 153 patients, who had previously undergone RT with or without chemotherapy, had untreated neck residue or recurrence of NPC with no evidence of local disease and distant metastases, and then were treated with salvage surgery. All patients underwent neck dissec- tion at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, from January 2001 to December 2011. There were 128 males and 25 females. The median age was 49 years (ranged from 18 to 76 years) at the time of treating for neck regional recurrence or residue.

6 Read more

The Composition and Downward Vertical Transport of Particulate Phosphorus in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

The Composition and Downward Vertical Transport of Particulate Phosphorus in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

MBG policy, forward shipping charges vary widely, from free to as high as 50% of the total price paid. Therefore, our data collected from eBay captures large variations in both the existence and the leniency of a retailer’s MBG policy, which lays the foundation for identifying the value of an MBG and uncovering how forward ship- ping fees affect this value. In addition, the heterogeneous reputation of eBay sellers also allows us to study the relationship between e-reputation and MBG value. Our approach enables us to explore whether the on-line reputation of a retailer is used by consumers to infer the smoothness of its return handling process and hence influence the value of its MBG policy. One key econometric challenge in our study involves accounting for a seller’s endogenous choice of whether or not to offer an MBG policy. Intuitively, the sellers who are more likely to offer MBGs should also be the ones who expect to yield a better payoff from doing so. In Section 5 we discuss why the commonly used instrumental variable approach fails to correct for this endogeneity and propose the use of a Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) estimator. We show that failure to account for this endogeneity issue results in an estimate of average MBG value that is substantially higher (36%) than our FIML estimates.

124 Read more

Diagnostic Accuracy of Ga-68-HBED-CC-PSMA-Ligand-PET/CT before Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

Diagnostic Accuracy of Ga-68-HBED-CC-PSMA-Ligand-PET/CT before Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

The estimates of diagnostic accuracy presented in this paper are biased by the fact that positive PET-findings were used to decide on whether the pelvic and/or retroperitoneal regions were covered. This implies that some false-negative (sub)-regions could not be identified as such. The impact on the sensitivity can be judged, if we assume that the observed negative predictive values apply also to the (sub)regions not covered. Consequently, among the 22 main regions, which were not covered, we have to expect about 2.4 with a LNM, according the negative predictive value of 88.9 at the main region level. This would decrease sensitivity to 41/46.4 = 88.4%. Among the 420-289 = 131 subregions not covered, we have to expect about 9.5 with a LNM, according to the negative predictive value of 92.7%. This would decrease sensitivity to 69/94.5 = 73.0%. Our corrected sensitivity values come very close to findings from Herlemann et al. (for main regions) and Maurer et al. (for subregions).

11 Read more

Uterine salvage management for atonic postpartum hemorrhage using “modified lynch suture”

Uterine salvage management for atonic postpartum hemorrhage using “modified lynch suture”

Primary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) refers to the bleeding from the genital tract that is more than 500 ml after vaginal delivery or more than 1000 ml following cesarean section during the first 24 h following delivery of the fetus [1]. However, intraoperative blood loss estimation is inaccurate in most cases; therefore, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology has de- fined it as a drop of hematocrit value of more than 10 % from the predelivery value [2]. PPH accounts for most cases of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing

5 Read more

FACTORS INFLUENCING MUSCLE PURINE NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM

FACTORS INFLUENCING MUSCLE PURINE NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM

Intense sprint exercise can produce transient 30-40% reductions in skeletal muscle ATP content (Jansson et al. 1987; Stathis et al. 1994) virtually matched by a concomitant increase in muscle IMP levels (Jansson et al. 1987; Stathis et al. 1994). Most of the IMP, which cannot efflux the muscle, is resynthesised to ATP during recovery upon cessation of exercise (Sahlin et al. 1978). However, a small proportion can be further degraded to inosine and Hx (Fig 2.1; Stathis et al. 1994; Tullson et al. 1995), which may leave the muscle and accumulate in the plasma or be converted to uric acid (Stathis et al. 1994; Hellsten et al 1999). The extent of purine efflux amounts to between 5-9% of the resting ATP pool (Bangsbo et al. 1992; Hellsten et al. 1999) or 46% of the magnitude of ATP reduction during exercise (Hellsten et al. 1999). Studies measuring uptake and release across muscle beds have indicated that skeletal muscle does not take up purines from the plasma (Hellsten et al. 1998; Hellsten 1999). Thus inosine, Hx and uric acid are ultimately excreted via the kidney or gut (Chapter 4; Sorensen and Levison, 1975). Purine salvage occurs within the muscle cell (section 2.3.3.3), thus restoration of ATP, lost from the muscle due to purine base efflux must occur via de novo synthesis.

158 Read more

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with limb salvage surgery in patients with limb osteosarcoma of Enneking stage II: a retrospective study

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with limb salvage surgery in patients with limb osteosarcoma of Enneking stage II: a retrospective study

patients with limb osteosarcoma were mainly treated with amputation, which would lead to loss of limb function and reduced the quality of life of the patients. In the treatment of patients with limb osteosarcoma, physicians and patients not only wish to extend the survival time of patients but also aim to retain the diseased limb and save its function, and thereby improve patients’ quality of life. With the advent of bone graft with blood vessels, artificial prosthesis replacement and resection and inactivation and replantation of tumor bone, amputation surgery has been gradually replaced by limb salvage surgery, which has now become the standard procedure for limb osteosarcoma. 11,12

6 Read more

Ultra-early versus early salvage androgen deprivation therapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical recurrence in pT2-4N0M0 prostate cancer

Ultra-early versus early salvage androgen deprivation therapy for post-prostatectomy biochemical recurrence in pT2-4N0M0 prostate cancer

United States, ADT still plays an important role as salvage treatment in Asia. The Asia Consensus Statement 2013 in the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Prostate Cancer states that androgen deprivation is a candidate treat- ment option for post-radical prostatectomy recurrence in Asian patients negative for distant metastasis [12]. Indeed, radical prostatectomy and immediate adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy achieved excellent re- sults, including a 10-year cancer-specific survival rate of 96.3% and 10-year estimated overall survival rate of 85.7% in Japanese patients with pT3N0 prostate cancer after a median follow-up period of 8.2 years [13]. Never- theless, studies concerning the optimal timing of salvage ADT in the era of ultrasensitive PSA assays are lacking.

6 Read more

Original Article Mutations and reduced expression of p53 gene are involved in HPV-independent oncogenesis of cervical cancer

Original Article Mutations and reduced expression of p53 gene are involved in HPV-independent oncogenesis of cervical cancer

Nucleotide salvage pathways have been shown to be involved in cancer growth and invasion [15, 16] and were regulated by both tumor sup- pressors (e. g. pRB and p53) and oncoproteins (e.g., c-myc) [16-19]. Gain-of-function mutant p53 proteins could promote the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by circumventing normal metabolic processes [16, 20, 21]. Overexpressing p53Arg273His in Rat-1 cells caused significant reduction of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and thymi- dide kinase (TK) activities whereas it increased the activities of adenosine deaminase and uri- dine kinase [17]. Mutant p53 protein regulated many nucleotide metabolism genes at tran- scriptional level [16], which was in support of our current findings that nucleotide salvage pathway genes were differentially expressed in cervical cancer cell lines with different p53 mutations and/or protein levels.

7 Read more

Functional and oncological outcomes of salvage external beam radiotherapy following robot assisted radical prostatectomy in a Canadian cohort

Functional and oncological outcomes of salvage external beam radiotherapy following robot assisted radical prostatectomy in a Canadian cohort

Tables 2 and 3 assess the urinary and sexual functional outcome respectively of men undertaking radiotherapy. Table 2 demonstrates that 78.5% (55) of men were continent at the time of radiotherapy. Through out the follow-up of these 55 men, continence was maintained in 37 men with a follow-up to 24 months. Only 5 out of these 55 patients started to use 1 pad 24 months after RT. With respect to possible detrusor impact of SRT, the IPSS was also studied. The mean value was 3.6 after radiotherapy compared to 3.38 before radiotherapy (all p-values NS). Table 2 also demonstrates that there is no significant relationship between radiotherapy and the quality of life of the patients (p-value = 0.98).

12 Read more

Quantity Competition under Resale Price Maintenance when Most Favored Customers are Strategic

Quantity Competition under Resale Price Maintenance when Most Favored Customers are Strategic

A key challenge in the theoretical study of markets with strategic customers is the identification and characterization of stable market outcomes (or equilibria in game-theoretic terms). To this end, one must pay careful attention to the assumptions regarding the information available to the decision makers: the customers and the resellers. For instance, in mature markets, where manufac- turers regularly launch new versions of similar products, the resellers are typically able to conduct comprehensive customer behavior studies. An empirical analysis in Fisher and Raman (1996) shows that demand uncertainty in the fashion apparel industry can be significantly reduced by analyzing preliminary sales of the product. Our research questions are not connected directly to demand uncertainty. In this vein, for clarity of exposition and to avoid excessive generality, we assume that the resellers know demand with certainty and can determine how MFC decisions affect the first- period demand. Uncertain demand is an important element, e.g., in Cachon and Swinney (2009), who study the value of quick inventory response after demand realization. Another example is Lai, Debo, and Sycara (2010), who managed to shows that in their model posterior price-matching (MFC) may benefit consumers only when the market uncertainty is high. The deterministic ap- proach allows us to confirm the robustness of this finding in a different setting as well as provide a detailed closed-form analysis, which otherwise is not possible.

62 Read more

A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of intraoperative cell salvage during caesarean section in women at risk of haemorrhage: the SALVO (cell SALVage in Obstetrics) trial

A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of intraoperative cell salvage during caesarean section in women at risk of haemorrhage: the SALVO (cell SALVage in Obstetrics) trial

For all women undergoing elective caesarean section, information about the study was provided at least 1 day before the surgery, usually at the time of booking the caesarean section; written informed consent for the study was then obtained before the surgery. For women undergoing emergency caesarean section, either written informed consent was obtained before the surgery, if there was sufficient time for discussion and reflection, or otherwise verbal consent was taken immediately before the surgery with written consent obtained after the operation, usually on the postnatal ward. In either case, in order for consent to be properly informed, the woman either (1) had to have received information antenatally before the onset of labour and previously stated her willingness to take part in the study or (2) following a substantial amendment to the protocol, had sufficient time and was not too distressed to receive study information after admission to the labour ward (this was deemed to be the case if the woman was comfortable with effective epidural analgesia in situ, or not yet in established first stage of labour, and had at least 1 hour to come to a decision after receiving the information and prior to giving verbal consent). Participating women were randomised by entry into an online system to either caesarean section with cell salvage, with cell-saver set-up and collection of shed blood from the outset of surgery and return of any processed blood obtained (intervention group), or to caesarean section without cell salvage, with transfusion of donor blood according to local guidelines (control group).

115 Read more

Techno Financial Analysis of Energy Access through Hybrid System with Solar PV under the Various Rural Community Models for State of Uttarakhand, India

Techno Financial Analysis of Energy Access through Hybrid System with Solar PV under the Various Rural Community Models for State of Uttarakhand, India

energy use typically involves high use of wood, biomass, kerosene, dung and straw where urban population uses only one third of population uses. In rural household, lighting is the major use of electricity, but in urban house- hold, electricity use more than lighting including wide range of appliance i.e. TV, refrigerator, radio, iron, and AC. For rural households, fuel wood constitutes the highest share of total energy expenditure, at 40 percent. This expenditure may not represent what households actually paid. Since biomass is mostly collected without direct cost, the local market price has been used to impute the value of biomass use in rural areas. As per a survey conducted by IITD & World Bank in 2008 (residential consumption of electricity in India, documentation of data and methodology), it estimated total power consumption of appliances, i.e. lighting, refrigeration, enter- tainment and heating & cooling (Figure 5).

20 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...