Behavioural skills (knowing how to handle equipment) and low-level cognitive skills (e.g. the ability to learn and repeat definitions and laws, apply formulae, resolve standard problems) are accorded a lower priority partly as a result of developments in computing and automatic processing systems. Science education is thus changing to give more attention to those higher cognitive skills which cannot be acquired by methods based principally on learning by repetition and a transmission model of teaching. There is a need to consider research in science education in a wider social context and, in particular, a need to enable as many people as possible to play their full part as citizens in scientifically and technologically advanced societies. This requires an understanding not only of scientific knowledge and the associated technical developments, but also of the nature of science and its methods, together with an ability to deploy a range of scientific arguments in wide-ranging public debates that are likely to involve environmental, economic, social and ethical issues. Such a perspective is reflected in various science curricula and teaching standards that have been developed since 1990. It finds a particularly explicit expression in such projects as Science for All Americans (AAAS 1989, NRC 1996), Science in the New Zealand Curriculum (Ministry of Education 1993), the English National Science Curriculum (www.curriculumonline.gov.uk), the Pan Canadian Science Project (Council of Ministers of Education 1997) and PISA (OECD 2001).
teachers to fill empty classrooms, poor attitude, and interest of pupils among others (Anamuah-Mensah et al., 2017; Fredua-Kwarteng & Ahia, 2005; Ngman-wara 2015; Parker, 2004; Hill et al., 2005). However, the use of English language as a medium of instruction and inadequate instructional resources has been reported as important challenge to scienceteaching and learning in Ghanaian schools as observed by the researchers. This is because students have to comprehend scientific concepts taught and engage in hands-on activities, critical thinking, and problem-solving in the teaching and learning of the subject. Ghana is a multilingual country with English, a colonial legacy as the official language for its citizen. English language is the medium of instruction for teaching and learning all subjects including Integrated Science from Primary Four in the school system (MoESS, 2007). This means that success in education at all levels depends, to a very large extent, on the individual’s proficiency in the English language (MoESS, 2007). The use of the English language could unintentionally impair teaching and learning of Integrated Science, especially to the secondary speaker. In the teaching and learning of science, pupils are encouraged to express their ideas and question evidence in scientific investigations as they develop their concepts in science. Thus, for a learner to understand scientific concepts and express themselves effectively using the concept that learner must have a high level of proficiency in the language used to present the concept. Tan and Tan (2008) and Ferreira (2011) stated that learning in a second language is considered challenging when learners experience difficulty in deducing the meaning of Mathematics The study investigated challenges affecting the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in rural Junior High Schools (JHSs) in the Effutu Municipality in the central region of Ghana. A qualitative approach was employed. Purposive sampling was employed to select six rural JHSs from the municipality. A closed-structured interview was used to collect data from head teachers, teachers, and pupils, and then analyzed. The study revealed that inadequate instructional materials and poor proficiency of pupils in the English language affected the teaching and learning of Integrated Science. The study concluded that if these challenges were addressed, teaching and learning of Integrated Science would be improved in rural JHSs. It is recommended that Integrated Science teachers should be trained to improvise instructional material using materials in the environment to teach the subject. This would help pupils to conceptualize scientific concepts as they interact with the materials. Again, pupils should be encouraged to build their English vocabulary to express and make informed contributions to the teaching and learning of integrated science.
Metaphorically speaking, the voyage from nature exploration to sciencelearning and environmental awareness is like hiking on a virgin mountain. You start to climb, explore, sweat, discover, choose a path and get stuck, come back, explore some more and finally reach the top. From up there you contemplate the entire route and you see it differently. You are very fond of this path because it is your path and you have worked hard for it. And you would like to help others to come up and have a different look as well. With such picture in mind we initiated a research project the aim of which is to support primary teachers in rural areas to discover new ideas for scienceteaching, i.e. to make a better use of that time when children are curious and highly creative and to gradually change their mindsets' focus from what is learned to why something is learned.
Laboratories developers have focused to take advantage of computer applications to create safe/active interactive learning environment that simulates lifelike e-laboratory. This lab is “one where the student interacts with an experiment or activity which is intrinsically remote from the student or which has no immediate physical reality” (Hatherly, n. d.). It can be defined as “a tool consists of interactive computerized software linked with sensitive connector endings called sensors, where the components of practical sciences experiments are integrated with computers as a measurement instrument to collect and analyze data.” (Al-Shaiey, 2006).
This study was carried out in an attempt to identify the problems hindering the effective teaching and learning of sciences in secondary schools in Delta State of Nigeria. The teaching and learning of sciences have standards to be followed by science teachers if effective learning by students is to be achieved. Literature in this area appears very scanty and as a result, our knowledge of what science teachers do in the classrooms is very limited. This therefore calls for more research efforts directed towards this very important aspect of scienceteaching. Literature in this area also indicates that no research efforts were directed at comparing our standard of scienceteaching with recommended standards world wide. It is very important to compare our standard in scienceteaching as presently constituted with the international standards to enable us improve in scienceteaching. The statement of the problem therefore is, will the evaluation of how science teachers teach sciences in the classrooms and their comparison with international standards generate ideas on how to improve scienceteaching in secondary schools in Delta State?
The situation in many science classrooms in Nigeria is nothing to write home about. In many schools there are no laboratories. Some schools merely have empty rooms labeled laboratories. Students rarely have hands-on, minds-on experiences. Few days to science practical examinations, most schools acquire science equipments for teacher demonstration to students. This cannot make for effective learning and eventually results in poor achievement (Omoifo, 2012). To worsen the problem of lack of or inadequate resources, the few available ones are not properly maintained, protected and cared for. Ogunmade (2006) stated that “Majority of students do not have textbooks and most of the schools do not have libraries and where they have one, the textbooks in the libraries are outdated.
the obvious need for change clearly demonstrated results of international research, revealing poor lithuanian students’ achievements. lack of lithuanian students on natural science literacy testify studies in pisa (2006, 2009), timss (2007), The Usage of General Programmes and Education Standards (2008). international project rose can also be mentioned (the relevance of science education) (http://www.roseproject.no/), the results of which showed that students often have a negative attitude towards natural scienceteaching in schools. at the same time they understand that science and technology are important for future life. therefore, it is necessary to search for new forms and ways to really interest students in a particular field of knowledge.
It was also found out that numerous challenges hinder effective scienceteaching by Basic school science teachers. The most serious challenge that hinders effective teaching of science was lack of TLMs. This means that teachers cannot organise activity-oriented lessons effectively for the pupils due to lack TLMs. Other challenges identified by the science teachers include but not limited to lack of science laboratories/practical rooms, overcrowded classrooms, presence of students’ misconceptions about science, lack of in-service training, influence of superstitions towards science and insecure teaching environments.
The implementation of Teaching and LearningScience and Mathematics in English (PPSMI) should be stopped immediately because it will take away Bahasa Melayu as one of the languages used in assimilating knowledge and information in the world. PPSMI had violated the sanctity of the Federal Constitution which clearly stated the position of Bahasa Melayu as a language for the main subjects in the primary schools. PPSMI has also reduced the dominance of Bahasa Melayu as the national language and also has weakened the ability of the students from other races to master the language. The Government should review the policy of the use of English as the language of Science and Mathematics in the primary and secondary schools and the learning must be continued to be in Bahasa Melayu again. The teachers and students in Malaysia will have no difficulties in grabbing the concepts and skills of Mathematics and Science in Bahasa Melayu as Bahasa Melayu is our national language. This will result in a better achievement and understanding in the subjects which eventually allow them to further learn Mathematics and Science in depth. The Ministry should determine which subject (i.e. English or Mathematics and Science) is more important than the other and should focus more to the important ones. Learning Mathematics and Science in English will be very difficult and frustrating especially for those who are weak in the language. As a result, they will not perform well in both English and Mathematics and Science. It is suggested that the Government should review thoroughly upon this matter.
Teachers need to play an important role in planning, sup- porting and guiding children to learn about maths and science concepts through the use of various teaching strategies and techniques such as asking open-ended questions of what/how/ why; modelling; giving feedback; and cognitive structuring, in an environment that encourages learning through social rela- tionships (Fu, 2010). Teaching strategies need to be, thus inno- vative and ground-breaking, that not only warrants novelty, but also facilitates early understanding and interest, and enables mastery of concepts. The instructors also need to take chil- dren’s prior knowledge into consideration in order to under- stand children’s experiences and use that as a point of departure (Glasserfeld, 1989; Resnick, 1987). The pedagogical orienta- tion of Te Whaariki requires the teacher to share understand- ings in the role of active participator with children. Smith, Grima, Gaffney, and Powell (2000) in Garbett (2003) clarify
They (McDermott & Shaffer, 2000) argued further that, although the content of the high school physics curriculum is closely matched to the introductory university course, the latter does not provide adequate preparation for teaching the same material in high schools. The authors emphasize that the breadth of topics covered and the laboratory courses offered by most physics departments also do not address the needs of students, in that most of the time the equipment used in universities is/are not available in high schools, and no provision is made for showing teachers how to plan laboratory experiences that utilize simple apparatus. In discussing the implications of the study, the authors noted that separation of instruction in science (which takes place in science courses) from instruction in methodology (which takes place in education courses) decreases the value of both for teachers. They emphasized that effective use of a particular instructional strategy is often content specific, hence if teaching methods are not studied in the context in which they are to be implemented, teachers may be unable to identify the elements that are critical. Thus they may not be able to adapt an instructional strategy that has been presented in general terms to specific subject matter or to new situations.
As ([Nam16]) state that, the empirical research provided a new approach in teaching applied to mathematics and opened new ways of thinking about integrating real world situations in the process of learning and teaching school mathematics; ([HN16]), suggest, there is a positive relationship between science integration and academic achievement and participation. That is, students who are taught through science integration tend to be more actively involved in the process of learning and tend to score higher on various levels of assessment. Creating an environment that uses cross- curricular teaching to harness student skills creates a unique and engaging classroom environment.
By and large computers play a major role in improving teaching and learning. They offer opportunities for enhancing intellectual growth and help students to connect the curriculum with their personal experiences and abilities to learn. Computers can enable students to do online learning on their own with little guidance from the teacher. Computers can also enable learners and teachers in effective presentation of information. Teachers and learners can also improve themselves by accessing information from the internet. Computers can also assist in writing information through use of word processing; spread sheets can also be used for doing calculations faster in subjects such as mathematics and science. Computers also assist teachers and learners to communicate educative information through electronic mails. Learners with disabilities and slow learners can also benefit through use of drilling and practice programmes. Computer assisted instruction and learning can also be used to assist even students who are not disabled when teachers create their own websites. However computers can also have negative effects in the teaching and learning process. The introduction of computer technology at a school and training of teachers may be expensive. Computers will also cause interaction between teachers and students to disappear. Computers may also have a health risk such as eyestrain. Students may also visit porn site and hate sites pretending to be researching on the internet. Although use of computers has its own problems it seems as if computing technology will be a large part of the future, so it is worth to involve computers in the teaching and learning. The skills that will be gained by learners during the learning process will be essential in their future.
Seeking informed consent involved making participants understand the research and the type of participation sought from them. It involved enabling them to make a voluntary choice to participate and feel free to withdraw at any point during the study. I kept participants acquainted of these important aspects of the inquiry both on an ongoing basis, and most crucially at the beginning of the research as part of informed consent agreement (Lincoln and Guba, 2013). In keeping with this, I described my research to science teachers during my initial visit to schools. I explained its purpose, methods, intended uses, and the kind of participation I was seeking from teachers. I engaged them in brainstorming the potentials risks for their involvement. For example, the ways in which my presence during the lesson could disrupt teaching and learning. Eventually, I gave them information sheets (appendix IX and X) where they could read the details about the research and consent forms (appendix VII and VIII) which they had to sign and return to me just before I began the research. To negotiate informed consent on a regular basis, I asked participants to provide feedback about any aspect of research design and process during the interviews and observations. In this way, I respected participants’ freedom and right to withdraw at any point during the study.
Table 2 above shows that the teachers’ perceptions on teachers factors responsible for problems of teaching and learning of Science and Technology are; (6) Science and Technology teachers do not relate topics in Science and Technology to real life situations has an agreed respondents percentage score of 65% as against the disagreed respondents percentage score of 35%, (7) teachers do not entertain questions from students has an agreed respondents percentage score of 65% as against the disagreed respondents percentage score of 35%, (8) there are insufficient Science and Technology teachers in schools both in number and quality has an agreed respondents percentage score of 85% as against the disagreed respondents percentage score of 15%, (9) teachers teaching methods are poor has an agreed percentage respondents score of 15% against the disagreed respondents percentage score of 75% and (10) they also agreed with percentage scores of 60% that teachers do not plan moderately for the Science and Technology class as a result of much work load as against the disagreed respondents percentage score of 40%. From these finding, it was observed that all the problems itemized are problems affecting effective teaching and learning of Science and Technology except number nine (9) i.e. poor teaching method used by Science and Technology teachers, as perceived by science and technology teacher.
In what follows, the focus will be upon developments since the beginning of the twentieth century. Since that time, the rationale, form and content of the education of young children have been shaped by many factors. In some countries and at different times, as in Germany in the 1930s (Weiss 1994), China after 1949 (Jenkins 2004) or the former Soviet Union (Wrinch 1951), political ideology was paramount in governing the work of schools and of education more generally. In other cases, religion, sometimes allied to nationalistic, imperial, ethnic or linguistic concerns, has also been a powerful influence, often serving to promote a number of unique features or to limit or exclude some aspects of the elementary curriculum commonly found elsewhere. 1 These factors require more detailed attention than is possible in this short chapter. Equally it is not possible to do more than simply acknowledge here that any wide- ranging historical narrative would need to take account of the important differences that stem from concepts such as Didaktic and Bildung that have no direct counterpart in the
Educational technology plays an important part in the growth of education in the 21 st century. Yet the absence of infusion between technology and education in schools, has led to the de-motivation among many students and teachers with the current education system. Therefore with the evolution in technology, especially with the arrival of android devices, interaction with games has been on the rise; making it a daily routine and addictive part of people‟s lives. By using the game design elements in non-game contexts, gamification is created. These elements are points, badges and leader board. In the corporate world, gamification has been used as a motivational pull in achieving goals. These qualities relate to the instigators of motivation; purpose, autonomy and mastery. So we can deduce that the capabilities of game in causing a change in human lives go beyond its intended purpose of fun. As students are familiar with the usage of technology, infusing gamification to improve teaching and learning in schools may reap favourable results. Yet there has been lacking research in the effectiveness of gamification in learning and teaching. This creates an opening for a research to be carried out in this field. The aim of this paper is to explore the potentials as well as challenges of using gamification to enhance the teaching and learning in Malaysia schools.
Abstract:- This study investigated the factors inhibiting the effective teaching and learning of integrated science at the junior secondary school level in Sierra Leone. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of junior secondary school pupils, integrated science teachers and integrated science Heads of Department. A random sampling technique was employed in the study to determine the selected junior secondary school .and a purposive sampling technique to select the subjects for the study. A sample size of 1,300 participant were administered questionnaires .This comprised of 1,000 JSS pupils, 200 integrated science teachers and 100 integrated science HODs from the selected schools. One thousand two hundred and nine (1,209) fully completed questionnaires were returned, making a response rate of (93.0%).The main instrument employed for the study for data collection was Self-Administered Integrated Science Questionnaire (SAISQ) and analysed using frequency counts and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that there are untrained and unqualified teachers teaching integrated science. Some of the teachers are trained and qualified but are not professionally qualified in integrated science as a subject. The study further revealed that there are teachers in the profession that serve as heads of integrated science department that are untrained and unqualified. The instructional materials used in the schools are mainly textbooks, blackboard chalk. Most of the schools lack laboratory and library facilities. The few schools with laboratory facilities lack equipment. Teachers use wrong pedagogical strategy to teach integrated science. The time allocated for integrated science is not enough; bribery and corruption in admission and promotion of pupils. It was therefore recommended that only trained and qualified teachers in integrated science should be employed by the Teaching Service Commission to handle integrated science at the junior secondary school level. Government should build more schools reduce congestion in classes. Workshops, seminars and conferences should be organized for integrated science teachers to expose them to new pedagogical skills and assessment procedures for their professional development. There is the need for the government to provide adequate learning materials and
categorised under four main areas namely: i) Bachelor of Science with Education (Sciences), ii) Bachelor of Science and Computer with Education (Sciences), iii) Bachelor of Science with Education (Social Sciences) and iv) Bachelor of Technology with Education (Technical and Vocational). Each category has its specific programme objectives, programme learning outcomes as well as classification of subjects (Faculty of Education Academic Guidelines, 2006/2007) Thus, in view of this information, it is prudent to select one category from the four. As the study intends to investigate the use of English in the L2 science classroom, the natural choice would be to select the Bachelor of Science with Education (Sciences) programme. This programme can be further subdivided into four programmes with students majoring in Science, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. Further scrutiny of the subjects’ curriculum specification revealed that Chemistry and Physics teachers are required to imbue learners with the same scientific and thinking skills (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2006a, 2006b). The similarities in terms of input received by the teacher trainees as well as the output required of them in the L2 science classrooms make them the obvious choice for the study. Thus, for this study, the subject content area to be observed will be Physics and Chemistry. However, they are not regarded as separate entities. Instead, these two subjects are treated as one entity under the umbrella term of science subjects.