Let us unpack this with the concepts introduced in Section 2. As I men- tioned, the emerging paradigm in both the philosophy of cognition and the cognitive sciences takes cognitive processes to be constituted by the coupled mind-body-environment systems. In the context of this thesis, I stress the genuine epistemic role of technologies (broadly construed to include the tools of logic and mathematics) in those processes. In the case of the microscope, this technology is not seen as having solely an instrumental role in scientific research - as argued by Hacking. Instead, the microscope is actively involved in the epistemic processes going on in scientific research. Moreover, other technologies, namely concepts, are also involved in the same processes, as they influence the way agents approach and use the microscope to generate knowledge. Hence, the production of knowledge in microscopy is a result of the interplay between various kinds of technologies. So, the epistemic prod- ucts of the scientificpractice are not ‘things out there’, nor ‘things represent- ing something out there’. Instead, they are artifacts best fitting our current epistemic practices. Similarly to the way humans imposed norms for writ- ing systems to afford easier representation of economic practices, in the case of the microscope humans have imposed norms of conduct to afford easier representation of the practice of microscopy. Note the way I use ‘representa- tion’ here. To represent some practice means to make it more tangible and manageable for agents - no matter what the state of affairs ‘out there’ is. To illustrate, the concept of ‘GDP per capita’ is used to represent the economic practices of different countries so that it is easier to understand and manage economic practices. Nevertheless, a high GDP per capita does not mean a high living standard for the inhabitants of that country, as the actual state of affairs can be that of extreme inequality.
is the best approach philosophers should apply in their investigations of realities. This study also analyzed some instances of Karl Popper‟s application of such approach in philosophy of science. The researcher quite agrees with Popper that that the critical rationalism ought to be the right approach in philosophy of science. This agrees with the nature of philosophy in general which is basically a rational enterprise. It is in the nature of philosophy to be critical in approach, and such criticality has been very influential in improving human condition of existence in different domains of human life in the universe. Criticism leads to rational explanation of the phenomena in the universe as against mythological explanation prior to the emergence of formal philosophy. Philosophers apply critical attitude in one way or the other in their philosophical investigations. However, Karl Popper‟s application of such is quite remarkable, and this explains why he adopted critical rationalism as his distinctive approach in philosophy of science. As it is obvious in this study, Popper‟s critical attitude in philosophy of science has led to the improvement of human knowledge as well as scientificpractice. It might seem that Popper laid too much emphasis on the critical attitude as some would argue. Obviously, such approach is necessary for the improvement of human knowledge and scientificpractice as demonstrated in this study. However, it ought to be noted that critical attitude should not be focusless. It should always be focused and aimed at improving human condition of existence in the universe.
By observing the learning path of young University students, my aim is to show how scientificpractice is learned day by day. The idea is to examine the ex- perience of learning scientificpractice in the transition between lecture halls (where knowledge is codified and stable) and the laboratory (where knowledge is still hybrid, vulnerable and malleable). Through the narration of crucial events concerning learning and apprenticeship, the paper focuses specifically on some of the basic processes (typical of scientificpractice) directly involving the body: learning to stand at the bench; learning the gestures of practice day by day; learn- ing how to recognise and treat valuable objects such as cells; learning to look at cell cultures (embryonic, cerebral, human and animal cells) through the micro- scope; learning how to register practical knowledge (keeping laboratory note- books); learning to handle technological devices. All these processes require the construction of profound and tacit knowledge (Polanyi 1966), which is shared, processed, and embodied in bodies and objects. This corporeal knowledge will be observed while it is learned in practice, in personal, relational and material daily work.
Of course, scientists are unlikely to peruse Isis in search of new research hypotheses or to cite historians of science routinely in their literature reviews. Yet the core revelation of the practice turn, of the turn from identifying science as disembodied knowledge to science as an activity, was recognizing that all the features of that activity (such as pedagogy, instruments, experimental techniques, emotional dispositions, cognitive habits, self-professed goals, and so forth) were not the context for science; they constituted science in a given time and place. Precisely because that was not “the image of science by which we [were] now possessed,” it became a goal, one might even say an ethical goal, of historians of science to raise those issues to consciousness for both scientists and non-scientists alike. In that respect, just as feminists seek to highlight gender, just as postcolonialists attend to imperialism and marginalized voices, those persuaded by MacIntyre’s analyses will emphasize the struggles to define the norms and patterns of accountability of a practice, the transformations in its goods of excellence, their precarious balance with goods of efficiency (and perhaps their disappearance), the critical place of virtues in science (and their changing character), and the competing and shifting visions of an ethos that links the elements of scientificpractice into a meaningful life (or not). Nor is such an emphasis incompatible with many other ethical stances, including that of feminism or postcolonialism.
Procedures for investigating allegations of scientific misconduct complement codes of good scientificpractice. Such investigations are commonly carried out at local (institutional) level, with gui- dance and oversight by national bodies. Some countries, however, prefer to carry out investigations at national level. To achieve full compliance, and thus demonstrate effective self-regulation, the various players – national academies and research funding agencies, universities and research institutions employing scientists and the scientists themselves, each has distinctive advisory, managerial or regulatory responsibilities.
Scientists often construct simplified and idealized models in order to study complex phenomena. Yet they do not model a phenomenon in its entirety but target only the aspects of the phenomenon which they consider relevant. Hence, the model is said to describe the target system and not the whole phenomenon. The term `target system' has become popular in the philosophy of science, yet most authors do not provide a definition or analysis of the concept. The result is that the term is used ambiguously, which has undermined its potential value and usefulness for scientificpractice. The aim of this dissertation is to provide a cogent account of target systems and their importance in science, with examples taken from case studies in ecology. The central issue I explore in my dissertation concerns the nature of target systems. What are target systems? How are they specified? How can they be evaluated? In my dissertation I give an account of target systems as real parts of systems in the world, which are specified through a process of partitioning and abstraction. I also provide a tentative theory of target system evaluation based on the notion of aptness for a particular scientific purpose. A deep understanding of nature and function of targets can resolve problems in science. I use the term `target system analysis', to denote the specification of target systems of one enquiry and the comparison of targets across enquiries. The last part of the dissertation is devoted to the application of the theory of target system specification and evaluation to a case study from actual scientificpractice, invasion biology. Target system reveals that a scientist constructing a unificatory framework in invasion biology faces a tradeoff between generality and predictability. A truly unified framework must incorporate a multitude of different causes of invasion, yet the causes of each invasion are unique. Hence, invasion biology can have a unified theory, based on the process of invasion, yet this theory will be of little use to predicting particular invasions.
At the end of the action, there was an ignorance of the systematization of nursing care as a scientificpractice by other professionals of the FHT, not only in prenatal care, but in the general basic care setting. In addition, the educational action was very efficient in the prism of ratifying the scientific base of the NCS. In this perspective, the failure and invisibility of the NCS generate unsatisfactory products not only for assistance, but also regarding the recognition of the nursing attributions in the vision of the other professionals of the team and the population to which this professional provides services. In view of this, the continuous action within the services proves to be very important in that it involves the team to carry out an evaluation about their assistance practices, knowledge about the performance of each member of the team in order to potentiate improvement of actions. The result presented by IRAMUTEQ from the similitude analysis showed a satisfactory result about the verification of the knowledge obtained by participants after the action, that the care practices used in nursing care are intrinsically related to scientific bases, the organizational process of its actions and commitment of the team with the intention of offering humanized assistance prioritizing the well-being of its clients. Nursing actions are fundamental in the promotion of health and articulation of its organizational processes among its various axes of action, and understand that the systematization of nursing assistance and places the nursing profession as a science, and undoubtedly crucial to the nurse's conduct at all levels of complexity. Therefore, through SAE, it is possible to plan, perform and evaluate their actions, so as to use instruments such as nursing theories, to include the team members in the work process, thus enhancing a more systematic and cohesive process within their attributions.
Scientific honesty and the observance of the principles of good scientificpractice are essential in all scientific work which seeks to expand our knowledge and which is in- tended to earn respect from the public. The principles of good scientificpractice can be violated in many ways – from a lack of care in the application of scientific methods or in documenting data, to serious scientific misconduct through deliberate falsification or deceit. All such violations are irreconcilable with the essence of science itself as a me- thodical, systematic process of research aimed at gaining knowledge based on verifi- able results. Moreover they destroy public trust in the reliability of scientific results and they destroy the trust of scientists among themselves, which is an important re- quirement for scientific work today where cooperation and division of labor are the norm.
Good ScientificPractice represents standards and values that apply throughout an individual’s career in healthcare science at any level of practice. The standards will be contextualised by the role within Healthcare Science that an individual undertakes. This means that the standards must be interpreted based on the role that an individual performs. For example, in supervised roles where individuals work within defined procedures, rather than autonomously, some standards will need to be interpreted appropriately for the context of the specific role. There will, however, always be a requirement for an individual to work within the limits of their scope of practice and competence.
Supporting epistemological sophistication through argumentation and collaborative debate Scaffolding student’s scientific argumentation and collaborative debate also leads to other educational design principles associated with important epistemological outcomes. 4 First, by introducing argumentation through an exploration of a historical debate between scientists this allows students understand fundamental aspects of scientific argumentation—the creativity involved with theorizing and coordinating ideas and evidence, as well as how the ideas of an individual can shape their interpretations of evidence and constructed arguments. Second, it helps students realize they need to consider an entire corpus of scientific evidence—including related everyday life experiences, results from their experiments and fieldwork, and data and
Abstract: The fabric under study is one of the exquisite songket shawl dated around 19 th century housed in National Museum of Malaysia. This study aims to identify the materials, techniques and analyze the texture, motifs and dyes through historical and artistic review as well as scientific analysis, identification of deterioration factors and examining the different causes of damages. In order to conserve and restore the samples, identification of the material technology on natural and metal threads, weaving as well as dye and motifs were carried out. Natural fibers were detected by using chemical analysis, FTIR and FESEM-EDS were used for examination of metallic threads. The condition survey was carried out and analyzed through the original historic samples to identify its feature and behavior against physical and chemical agencies. Examination results showed the fibers are delicate cotton and natural pigments used in dying process. Also according to the FESEM results, metal threads was identified as gilt-silver which is deteriorated in some parts and covered with layer of corrosion. A series of internal and external destructive factors as well as improper past repairs caused several damages to the fabric. It became evident that by exposing fabrics to improper storage and display technique had caused considerable physical, chemical and mechanical harm to the parts of sample. Based on the current condition of the fabric proper method of preservation treatment was applied and a specific method of displaying of songket shawl textiles was designed as a guideline for Malaysia’s museums.
Students must be supported in their learning if they are to grow into independent thinkers capable of supporting their thoughts with evidence and scientific reasoning. The passage of the NGSS has placed renewed emphasis on the science practices that support inquiry in the K-12 classroom. Among these practices is argumentation, a practice based on Toulmin’s argumentation model. Argumentation, which can take both oral and written forms, often requires scaffolding by the teacher for successful implementation. The use of mobile devices may be a valuable tool capable of assisting students in developing science arguments; however, little is known about how students learn with mobile devices (Sha et al., 2012). One possible tool for engaging students in the argumentation process is that of screencasting, in which the user interacts with the device in a manner similar to that of an interactive whiteboard. Screencasts have the added advantage of being able to capture student thinking.
A positive answer would rule out any BSS / Real-RAM models from capturing facts about algorithms. Such models are not bound with any way of representing the entities on which the operations are applied. We again face the same dilemma; whether algorithms are meant as operating on abstract entities (types), or on concrete ones (tokens). Most cases from practice do not have enough shape to definitively suggest for one or the other; this is the phenomenon of open texture. Surely, we have methods, clearly concrete: abacus algorithms, for example. But we do have methods that clearly fall under the abstract side too: geometric constructions. The latter are purely conceptual and not about representations, for they operate on lines, circles, etc. as abstract entities. So again, are we to accept them as algorithms, within certain computation models, describing precise step-by-step calculations, closed under compositions and iterations of few primitives (e.g., compass only, scale and ruler, etc.)? Or we should reject them, since they are arguably not e ff ective, in the sense defined above? Gurevich’s axiomatisation seems able to accommodate geometric constructions, if we think of Tarski’s (1959) first-order axiomatisation of Euclidean geometry. But, again, the intuitive notion has too much open texture to help us determine. It is by finally choosing in either way, that the community will end up sharpening the proto-theoretic notion further, and get rid of the openness. - Contrary to ‘algorithm’, the notion of ‘e ff ectivity’, as defined above, is quite clear without
While online learning is now a recognised teaching method, there are still various limitations in the types of activities that can be effectively conducted in this environment. Scientific laboratory based activities have traditionally been offered in face-to-face classrooms where techniques and skills are a required learning outcome. However, the student cohorts within this trial come from non-biology majors and do not have skill development as a learning outcome. McConnell and Schoenfeld-Tachner (2001) suggests that course objectives may still be met in non-biology majors where the development of the skills needed to manipulate laboratory equipment are not as important as developing an understanding of the process undertaken along with the outcome of the experiment.
Similarly, Roth and McGinn (1997, 1998) identify science and technology studies as a potential partner in a cross-disciplinary collaboration with science education. Science educators could draw on science and technology studies in four main ways. First, works from science studies could be used to teach students a more accurate image of the nature of science and scientificpractice. Second, science studies have revealed the central importance of visual representations or inscriptions in the practice of professional scientists. The previously described insight is a potential boon to those science educators charged with designing curricula or learning environments. Science studies also utilize an array of research methods to examine the work of scientists which science education researchers might consider applying to the examination of science learning. Finally, science studies illuminate the relationship between a range of research reporting techniques and the theories that undergird them, a possible avenue for expanding the ways in which science learners might consider and report their own research. While these insights might improve classroom practice by
Teaching is an important aspect of scientificpractice. However, as Lorraine Daston has recently remarked, “we have only the barest beginnings of a history of scientific pedagogy and not even the rudiments of a philosophy” (Daston 2008, 106). Daston refers to some historical studies on scientific education, including the collection of studies edited by David Kaiser (Kaiser 2005). In the concluding chapter, Kaiser and Andrew Warwick provide some general reflections on the usefulness of the works of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault for a philosophy of scientific education (Kaiser and Warwick 2005). Kaiser and Warwick refer to Joseph Rouse, who incorporated insights from both philosophers in his philosophy of scientificpractice. However, Kaiser and Warwick merely refer to Rouse as a reader and interpreter of Kuhn and Foucault. In this paper, I will argue that Rouse’s philosophy of scientificpractice deserves to be studied in its own right and that his conceptualisation of scientific practices has important implications for the study of scientific education.
Some might see extended evaluation as a threat to the “free- dom of research”, but it might equally well be asked whether the established hierarchical and discipline-based evaluation system really serves that freedom. From our point of view, evaluation with regard to scientific excellence and societal benefits opens up free- dom in terms of the plurality of research (cf. Frodeman et al. 2012), and strengthens the democratisation of public research funding as called for by the Federation of German Scientists (VDW 2010). We would like to thank the Federal Organic Farming Programme (BÖLN)of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) for its financial support – and all those actively involved in the study as well as the audiences for their constructive discussion and advice.
The primary focus of neurological rehabilitation is the reacquisition of lost motor skills to improve independence in activities of daily liv- ing and quality of life. To achieve this, rehabilitation takes advantage of central nervous system neuroplasticity through motor learning mechanisms . The purpose of this presentation is to describe how motor learning mechanisms can be addressed by creating enriched training environments using virtual reality (VR) based simulations. Motor control and motor learning principles related to the reacquisi- tion of upper limb movement skills will be discussed in relation to how they can be exploited by VR training environments . Virtual reality can address dynamical motor learning approaches that emphasize the dynamics of change in a movement sequence and its outcome over practice. This approach draws on the general idea of Bernstein (1967) that skill learning is reflected in redundant degrees of freedom. According to the dynamic approach, learning is a problem-solving system that uses available constraints and possibil- ities to discover solutions to a movement problem. In this scheme, acquiring coordination is not hampered by the many interacting vari- ables (i.e., joint degrees of freedom), but simplified by them. This ap- proach allows exploitation of the natural properties of the system. It is an emergent rather than reductive approach and gives rise to adaptability based on task demands and constraints . Types of motor learning are reviewed and the advantages of using virtual real- ity to create enriched environments for task practice that incorporate different types and delivery schedules of feedback is discussed. Vir- tual reality environments for rehabilitation ( ‘ virtual rehabilitation ’ ) offer rich, controllable multi-modal stimulation, salient intrinsic (task- related) feedback that is programmable, the opportunity for learning by problem-solving that engages both motor and cognitive pro- cesses, motivation and arousal for the learner, and the opportunity to individualize activities and manipulate their level of difficulty. Dif- ferent types of VR platforms include those that offer teacher- animation activities, problem-solving scenarios, game-like activity and those that have different levels of immersion. Key outcome mea- sures are identified, and examples of how motor control and motor learning principles can be incorporated into different VR simulations (for improving upper limb motor function) are discussed. Finally, the limitations of current VR technologies with respect to their effective- ness are discussed, together with summaries of effectiveness evi- dence, client suitability for the use of different learning approaches, and transfer of learning to daily life tasks.
Given the complexity of workflows with thousands of computational steps executing across multiple distributed resources, it is infeasible for users to directly define the executable workflow. Often, researchers use “workflow compilers” such as Pegasus [6, 7] to generate the executable workflow from a high-level, resource-independent description of the end-to-end computation (an abstract workflow). However, the additional workflow mapping also increases the gap between what the user defines and what is executed by the system and so complicates interpretation of results: the connection between scientific results and the original experiment is lost.
According to Redman and Mory (1923), research as "a systematic attempt to acquire new knowledge." Some consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. Research is like a cruise of discovery. We all have a vital instinct of curiosity when something unknown will confront us, we wonder and based on our curiosity that makes us investigate and reach a fuller and more complete understanding of what is unknown. This curiosity is the mother of all knowledge and methods used by humans to gain knowledge of any unknown, this can be called research. Meanwhile, John W. Creswell (2008) says, "research is the process steps used to collect and analyze information to improve our understanding of a topic or issue." Creswell's definition consists of three steps: asking a question, collecting data for answer questions, and provide answers to these questions. Finally, according to Ranjit (2011), research is "creative and systematic work done to increase the availability of knowledge, including knowledge of people, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to design new applications." The conclusion of the above description is that research work must be based on ―scientific methods‖, this understanding to convince us that there are also researches that are not based on the scientific method.