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Change in Anterior Chamber Depth and Intraocular Pressure after Phacoemulsification Surgery of Senile Cataract Zulfahri Lubis , Masitha Dewi , Delfi

Change in Anterior Chamber Depth and Intraocular Pressure after Phacoemulsification Surgery of Senile Cataract Zulfahri Lubis , Masitha Dewi , Delfi

This study was conducted by Quasi Eksperimental method with One Group Pre and Post test design was performed in Medan Baru Eye Hospital. Eligible patient with cataract senilis were collected in March 2018. The inclusion criteria in this study was ≥ 40 years old cataract patients who were willing to undergo senile cataract surgery, and willing to be checked regularly of ACD and IOP changes before and after phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The examination were conducted on days 1 st , 3 rd and 14 th . The Exclusion criteria were patient with senile cataract with history of trauma oculi, corneal abnormalities, glaucoma, and eye infections.

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Risk factors which cause senile cataract evolvement: outline

Risk factors which cause senile cataract evolvement: outline

Examination of natural ageing processes including those caused by multiple external factors has been at- tracting researchers' attention over the last years. Senile cataract is a multi-factor disease. Expenditure on cata- ract surgery remain one of the greatest expenses items in public health care. Age is a basic factor which causes senile cataract. Morbidity with cataract doubles each 10 years of life. This outline considers some literature sources which describe research results on influence exerted on cataract evolvement by such risk factors as age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, pancreatic diabetes, intake of certain medications, a number of environmen- tal factors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. mane of these factors are shown to increase or reduce senile cataract risk; there are conflicting data on certain factors. The outline also contains quantitative charac- teristics of cataract risks which are given via odds relation and evolve due to age parameters impacts, alcohol intake, ionizing radiation, etc. The authors also state that still there is no answer to the question whether dose- effect relationship for cataract evolvement is a threshold or non-threshold.

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Original Article Senile cataract and genetic polymorphisms of APE1, XRCC1 and OGG1

Original Article Senile cataract and genetic polymorphisms of APE1, XRCC1 and OGG1

involved in cancer promotion and progression by regulating the expression of their target genes. Lu j discovered that this genetic poly- morphism may alter APE1/Ref-1 expression by affecting the binding affinity of Oct-1 to the pro- moter, thus playing a causal role in disease sus- ceptibility [36]. Association between neoplastic disease and APE1-141T/G has been studied frequently, showing that APE1 -141 G/G geno- type and G allele may reduce the risk of cancer, presenting a protective effect on resisting dis- eases [37, 38]. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study focusing on the association between APE1-141T/G and senile cataract before.

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Original Article Interventional nursing promotes visual recovery in senile cataract with glaucoma and reduces the incidence of postoperative complications

Original Article Interventional nursing promotes visual recovery in senile cataract with glaucoma and reduces the incidence of postoperative complications

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the effect of interventional nursing on the treatment of patients with senile cata- ract and glaucoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 135 patients with cataract and glaucoma. All patients underwent phacoemulsification and were divided into two groups according to different nursing care methods: the control group (n=59) and the intervention group (n=76). Patients in the control group were treated using routine nursing measures, and those in the intervention group were treated using targeted interventions together with routine care. The total incidence of complications and visual acuity were analyzed in the two groups. The Self- Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered before and after treatment, and a higher score indicated more severe depression and anxiety. The quality of life scale was used to assess and compare the patients’ quality of life (physical, emotional, cognitive, role, and social) between the two groups, and to obtain the satisfaction scores of the two groups. Results: After nursing intervention, visual acuity recovery was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure in the in- tervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). After nursing intervention, the SAS and SDS scores of the intervention group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05) (P<0.05). After nursing intervention, the total quality of life score was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.043). The patient satisfaction rate in the control group was significantly lower than that in the intervention group (P=0.014). Conclusion: Interventional nursing can improve visual acuity and intraocular pressure recovery, negative emotions, quality of life, postoperative complications, and satisfaction among patients with senile cataract and glaucoma, and could be promoted in the clinical setting.

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The geospatial relationship of pterygium and senile cataract to ambient solar ultraviolet in tropical Ecuador

The geospatial relationship of pterygium and senile cataract to ambient solar ultraviolet in tropical Ecuador

are likely to be exposed to significant periods of reflected ambient UV radiation. In wet tropical Ecuador however, UV surface reflectively from well vegetated surfaces may not be as significant a factor as it may be in arid or semi-arid environments. This may go some way toward explaining the generally lower rates of both pterygium and senile cataract presented in the current study which reached maximum incidence rates in UV Zone 5 for residents aged 60+ years of 66.99 per 100 000 (0.07%) and 172.8 per 100 000 (0.17%) respectively. This compares with much higher incidence rates for pterygium reported in Lima, Peru of 31.06% 23 and rates reported for a Tibetan population in rural China 24 of 14.49%. High rates of both

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Catalase Activity and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Lens Epithelial Cells of different morphological types of senile Cataract Patients

Catalase Activity and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Lens Epithelial Cells of different morphological types of senile Cataract Patients

LECs gives rise to all the cells of lens and metabolically active. AIM: To study oxidative stress as etiology of cataract formation. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a) Catalase activity and b)Total Antioxidant Capacity in LECs of different morphological types of senile cataract patients just after cataract surgery. METHODS: Antioxidant status was assessed in cytoplasmic contents of capsulorhexis by measuring catalase activity by Beer method and total antioxidant capacity with Benzie & Strain method in terms of Protein by Bradford method. RESULTS AND OBSERVATION: Catalase activity in LECs was significantly decreased in senile cataract as compared to normal healthy control cases (P < 0.0005), but there was no significant difference of catalase activity in all morphological types of cataract. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in LECs was significantly decreased in senile cataract (P < 0.0005) and there was significant difference (P < 0.05) of TAC in Cortical with Nuclear and Posterior subcapsular cataracts but here was no significant difference of TAC in LEC of Nuclear and Posterior subcapsular cataract. CONCLUSION: Genesis of senile cataract is most likely due to oxidative stress but level of oxidative stress was different for different morphological types of senile Cataract.

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ESTIMATION OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES (NA+ AND K+) AND SERUM CALCIUM LEVELS IN SENILE CATARACT PATIENTS AND ITS COMPARISON WITH NON CATARACT PATIENTS

ESTIMATION OF SERUM ELECTROLYTES (NA+ AND K+) AND SERUM CALCIUM LEVELS IN SENILE CATARACT PATIENTS AND ITS COMPARISON WITH NON CATARACT PATIENTS

Cataract is the opacification of crystalline lens in the human eye. Age is considered as one of the strongest known risk factor for cataract formation. One of the most important risk factors for cataract formation is serum sodium and serum calcium, although serum potassium is inconclusive. Though ageing cannot be prevented, any physiological changes that occur in electrolytes can be modified. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the changes in the levels of serum electrolytes and serum calcium in senile cataract patients and its comparison with non cataract patients. Material and Methods: Sixty patients (60) with senile cataract within the age of 55 years to 75 years as study group and 60 healthy subjects without cataract within the age of 55 years to 75 years as control group visiting the ophthalmic OPD of Ananta Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS), Udaipur (Raj.) and were selected for the study. This is the case-control hospital based study. Blood samples collected were estimated for serum sodium, serum potassium, serum calcium and serum glucose. Comparison between both the groups was done by Student’s t-test. Study group includes 37 females and 23 males patients. In the control group, there were 42 females and 18 males. The levels of serum glucose, urea and creatinine were also measured in order to rule out diabetes and kidney malfunction in both study and control groups. Results: The level of serum sodium was elevated with highly significant difference (p<0.001) in senile cataract patients as compared to control group. The level of serum potassium though elevated in study group as compared to the control group but the difference was not significant (p<0.05). Serum calcium was elevated in senile cataract group with highly significant difference (p<0.001) as compared to control group. Conclusions: Our study concluded that the increased levels of serum sodium and serum calcium may be considered as markers of senile cataract formation. The salt restricted diet is advisable in cataract patients so as to maintain normal electrolyte balance which may prevent further progression of disease.

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Clinical and biochemical studies on senile cataract

Clinical and biochemical studies on senile cataract

The results of the present study suggest that both SICS and phacoemulsification yield satisfactorily similar visual outcomes. Females undergoing phacoemulsification may achieve better visual outcomes than males. Aside from this, there are no other obvious factors (grade of cataract, associated ocular and systemic comorbid conditions, combined surgery) that would favour choosing one procedure rather than the other. Other considerations such as cost, may influence the final decision. But a study of these influences was outside the scope of the present study. Additional studies are needed on a larger cohort of patients over a longer time duration to identify possible factors that may favour one procedure over the other. Additional biochemical studies on various grades of human cataract may help in identifying factors triggering cataractogenesis; an understanding of these biochemical factors may pave the way for medical management of cataract.

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Time series analysis of age related cataract hospitalizations and phacoemulsification

Time series analysis of age related cataract hospitalizations and phacoemulsification

All records with a principal discharge diagnosis of senile cataract (n = 70,281; male: 35%, female: 65%) and phacoemulsification (n = 556,431; male: 39%, female: 61%) were selected. The total number of discharges by gender were assessed for each month. Annual census data for each age group for residents of Ontario were provided by Statistics Canada. Monthly population estimates were derived through linear interpolation. Using this data, monthly hospitalization rates per 100,000 population were calculated and normalized for length of month. All transfers from one acute care hospital to another within this study group were excluded from the analysis. Analysis of the data involved several statistical techniques in order to assess the statistical significance of seasonal patterns and the consistency and magnitude of seasonal effects. Spectral analysis was conducted to test for season- ality, detecting periodicity in time series, by plotting spec- tral density against period [13]. The data was detrended using moving averages of order 13 prior to conducting spectral analysis. Seasonality was tested using Fisher's κ (FK) and Bartlett Kolmogorov Smirnov (BKS) [14]. The autocorrelation function (ACF) was then used to measure the correlation between observations at different time lags [15]. A strong correlation between the observations at 12 time lags indicates a strong seasonality of the period 12. Finally, R-squared autoregression coefficients (R 2

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Biological Association and Expressions of NOS3 & SOD2 in Non Diabetic Senile Cataractogenesis

Biological Association and Expressions of NOS3 & SOD2 in Non Diabetic Senile Cataractogenesis

Aim: To evaluate the functional relationship between the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes in the pathogenesis of human senile cataract lenses of non-diabetic patients. Methods: Total solubilized proteins from human cata- ract lens were compared with normal lens (control) by 2-Dimenstional gel electropho- resis (2-DE). Proteins with different abundances were identified by matrix-assisted la- ser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Western blot analysis was used to verify the changes in expression of NOS3 and SOD2. A further functional association of NOS3 with SOD2 and other proteins was seen by STRING 8.3 databases. Results: In the 2-DE maps, the cataract and normal lens proteins migrated in the region of pH 3 - 10 with a relative molecular weight of 20 - 130 kDa. Approximately two protein spots with differential intensity were de- tected as NOS3 and SOD2 using MALDI-TOF-MS. Western blot analysis showed high expression of NOS3 in cataract and SOD2 in normal lens samples. String interaction network revealed strong interactions between NOS3 and SOD2 at high confidence score, which is helpful in characterization of functional abnormalities that may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of cataract. Conclusion: This study will offer new avenues for mechanistic evaluation and future prevention of cataractogensis. How- ever, large scale studies will be required to evaluate the effect of this interaction on the clinical outcome in human cataract.

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PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND SUTURELESS LARGE-INCISION MANUAL CATARACT EXTRACTION CHANGE CORNEAL SENSIBILITY

PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND SUTURELESS LARGE-INCISION MANUAL CATARACT EXTRACTION CHANGE CORNEAL SENSIBILITY

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated there are 45 million people with blindness in the world. The most common cataract is senile cataract (90%) that occurs because of the degenerative process, from the age of 50 years. 1,2,3,4 Definitive treatment of patients with senile cataract is cataract surgery. Currently developing cataract surgery with phacoemulsification technique that allows lens extraction with bimanual technique with smaller incision and does not require stitches so that healing process could be faster. 5-7

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Hepcidin Prohormone Levels in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Hepcidin Prohormone Levels in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Aims: To assess the levels of hepcidin prohormone (Hep) in aqueous humor and plasma of human eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and to correlate their concentrations with the severity of glaucoma. Methods: Sixty patients with POAG and forty five patients with senile cataract (control group) were enrolled in the study prospectively. Aqueous humor samples were obtained by paracentesis from glaucoma and cataract patients who were undergoing elective surgery. Aqueous humor and corresponding plasma samples were ana- lyzed for Hep concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Hep levels were significantly lower in aqueous humor of POAG patients with respect to the comparative group of cataract patients (P < 0.001). No significant difference in the levels of Hep in plasma of POAG and cataract patients. A positive correlation was found between plasma/aqueous humor Hep concentration in POAG versus the control group (P < 0.001). No significant correlation was found between Hep levels and the severity of visual field loss. Conclusion: Lower lev- els of aqueous humor Hep may be associated with POAG. In addition, Hep may be useful protein derivatives levels in aqueous humor of POAG patients as a consequence of glaucomatous damage.

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Glutathione S-Transferase GSTM 1, Null Genotype May Be Associated with Susceptibility to Age-Related Cataract

Glutathione S-Transferase GSTM 1, Null Genotype May Be Associated with Susceptibility to Age-Related Cataract

Juronen et al. [20] investigated the associa- tion between GST polymorphism, smoking status, and senile cataract incidence in the cataract pa- tients. This study showed that in the GSTM 1-pos- itive phenotype, the susceptibility to senile cataract development was weekly associated in smokers when compared with non-smokers, but this re- lation was not statistically significant (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 0.79–3.67). Our study has demonstrated possible associations between GSTM 1 null geno- type and age-related cataract, also interactions be- tween GSTM  1  null genotype and smoking sta- tus. Also, we have found an additive effect of the

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Delay in presentation to hospital for childhood cataract surgery in India

Delay in presentation to hospital for childhood cataract surgery in India

9. Sri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, Assam A sample size of 720 was calculated based on an esti- mated late presentation rate of 50% [15], with 5% precision, 95% CI and a refusal rate of 20%. We prospectively approached the parents or carers of all children (aged < 18 years) admitted for cataract surgery between 16th Nov to 5th March 2016, and those who gave consent were enrolled. At each center, a member of staff was trained for this project and they conducted the interview with the parents in the local language. A structured questionnaire was devel- oped based on literature review with the aim of estimating the age of recognition and presentation for childhood cat- aract surgery. It was piloted before the main study and after minor modi fi cations the fi nalized questionnaire was trans- lated to Telugu, Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi, Bengali and Assamese languages and back-translated to ensure accuracy and consistency of content.

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Explicit criteria for prioritization of cataract surgery

Explicit criteria for prioritization of cataract surgery

We requested that the same panelists score the 310 scenar- ios. Ratings also were scored on a 9-point scale, with 9 indicating the highest priority and 1 the lowest compared to other scenarios. Priority in the context of cataract extraction was defined as the benefit that the patient may obtain from undergoing surgery. The higher the benefit was for the patient, for a similar risk of complications, the higher the priority of the intervention was. Benefit was defined in terms of quality-of-life improvement. Three categories, from higher to lower priority, were established. The priority of cataract surgery was considered high for a specific indication if the panel's median rating was between 7 and 9 without disagreement, low if the value was between 1 and 3 without disagreement, or intermedi- ate if the median rating was between 4 and 6 or if the panel members disagreed. Disagreement was defined as occurring when at least one third of the panelists rated an indication from 1 to 3 and at least another third rated it from 7 to 9. This method did not attempt to force pan- elists to reach agreement on the priority.

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Morphometrical study on senile larynx

Morphometrical study on senile larynx

The aim of the study was a morphometrical macroscopic evaluation of senile la- rynges, according to its usefulness in ORL diagnostic and operational methods. Larynx preparations were taken from cadavers of both sexes, of age 65 and over, about 24 hours after death. Clinically important laryngeal diameters were collected using common morphometrical methods. A few body features were also being gathered. Computer statistical methods were used in data assess- ment, including basic statistics and linear correlations between diameters and between diameters and body features. The data presented in the study may be very helpful in evaluation of diagnostic methods. It may also help in selection of right operational tool’ sizes, the most appropriate operational technique choice, preoperative preparations and designing and building virtual and plastic models for physicians’ training.

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Cataract Surgery in Asian Countries – An Overview

Cataract Surgery in Asian Countries – An Overview

Cataract Surgical Coverage compares the proportion who have received surgery (aphakic and pseudophakic) to the total, who still need or have had surgery (aphakic/pseudophakic + operable cataract) in a certain area. It indicates to what extent the services have covered the needs. It measures the effectiveness of the cataract intervention programme in providing surgical services and, as such, it is an output indicator and does not measure the quality of cataract intervention. In India, large number of ICCE operations have been performed in temporary operation theatres in one of the rooms of the building where screening and surgical eye camps were organized in rural areas by non- governmental organizations for many years. The patients were examined by a team of ophthalmic surgeons and after the selected patients were

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Risk factors for refractive error after cataract surgery : analysis of 282 811 cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for cataract and refractive surgery

Risk factors for refractive error after cataract surgery : analysis of 282 811 cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for cataract and refractive surgery

(EUREQUO) is a multi-national web-based registry with data from over 2 million cataract cases to date, providing a unique opportunity to benchmark and improve the quality of cataract surgery in Europe. In this study we identify and discuss risk factors for a poor refractive outcome using the database of the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery (EUREQUO). The purpose is to analyse risk factors for refractive errors after cataract surgery. Knowing risk factors means that the surgeon can advise a patient before surgery about what to expect and maybe use more than one method for IOL calculation. Furthermore, the analysis of such a big data volume will give a good

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Cataract Surgery combined with excimer laser trabeculotomy to lower intraocular pressure: effectiveness dependent on preoperative IOP

Cataract Surgery combined with excimer laser trabeculotomy to lower intraocular pressure: effectiveness dependent on preoperative IOP

It is known that, when performed as a single procedure, phacoemulsification has the effect of reducing IOP [34-38]. This is most likely due to the deepening of the chamber angle by extracting the thickened opaque lens and subse- quently enhanced drainage of aqueous humor. The IOP re- duction following phaco-ELT is greater than that due solely to cataract surgery. Thus, the IOP reduction we found fol- lowing phaco-ELT is a combined effect of both the phacoemulsification and the ELT. This has also been shown by prior studies comparing ELT alone with phaco-ELT [20,21]. Recently the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) group analyzed their data to assess the IOP- lowering effect of cataract extraction. Their cataract group had an IOP comparable to our control group. They found an IOP decrease of 4.1 mmHg (16.5%) after cataract extrac- tion, whereas the IOP remained unchanged in their control group of patients who did not undergo cataract extraction. We found an average IOP reduction of 9.5 mmHg (36.6%) after phaco-ELT. It was also possible to reduce the AGD by an average of 0.7 (29.5%). The combined effect of Phaco and ELT markedly exceeds that of cataract extraction alone as found by the OHTS group [39]. IOP fluctuation is a risk fac- tor for glaucoma progression. Phacoemulsification may lower IOP but may not have a substantial influence on IOP fluctuation, whereas ELT may reduce diurnal IOP variation. Possible effects on diurnal IOP are an issue worthy of exam- ination in a future study.

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Outcome of Strabismus in Children with Cataracts

Outcome of Strabismus in Children with Cataracts

In summary, we found that age is the best predictor for the resolution of strabismus after cataract surgery and that patients with intermittent strabismus have a trend toward a higher chance of resolution without strabismus surgery. Other factors such as gender, the presence of congenital or acquired cataract, unilateral or bilateral cataract, duration of cataract, and the presence of IOL or aphakia were not found to affect the resolution of stra- bismus. Future larger studies and randomized trials eva- luating the nature and behavior of strabismus in pedi- atric cataract patients are necessary.

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