weight from the oats and mushrooms. Generally, both the oat and shiitake mushroom beta-glucans showed sheer thinning behavior where the viscosity decreased with higher speed. At low speed, they also showed thixotropic behavior where the viscosity decreased over time under constant shear rate. Due to the variety of speeds used (to ensure that the torque exerted on the liquid was between the manufacturer’s recommended range), for comparison, the viscosity data at 45 rpm is presented (Table 3). At this speed, the viscosity of the oat beta-glucan, at the concentrations studied in this work, was considerably higher than that of the mushroom. The viscosity of mush- room beta-glucan even at the highest concentration (18 mg/ml) was lower than that of oat beta-glucan at the low- est concentration (3 mg/ml), suggesting that viscosity is not the reason that mushroom beta-glucan is more effec- tive to prevent weight gain and fat accumulation than oat beta-glucan. The viscosity data of high dose beta-glucan in oat solution (25 mg/ml) is shown separately because
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Thus, it is reasonable that the amount of LT pro- duced increased as the LA content increased. Interestingly, these results show that the enzyme activity was maintained in the drying process, and the amount of LT produced was defi ned by the LA content. LT content is a suitable indicator of the rehydrated dried shiitake mushroom smell; the LA content is higher than the amount of LT produced and could be quantifi ed without incubation. Moreover, the amount of LT increased along with the LA content for other fruiting bodies cultivated on sawdust media (data not shown); thus the LA content in dried samples could be used in the pre- liminary screening to select odor-rich strains.
Optimal amount of dried shiitake mushroom for HP The HP was affected by OP and SI, and the SI was affected by AC and SA. Therefore, the optimal amount of dried shiitake mushroom for likers and neutralists was inferred to comprehend the relations, using the equation described by Stevens’ law. For purposes of the estimation, AC were grouped into three classes: the teens class, the twenties to forties class, and the over-fifties class (Table 4). The optimal amount increased according to rising OP and AC in gen- eral, and the value ranged widely, from 100 to 1470 mg per 200-ml bottle (Table 9). The increase of the optimal amount according to aging was due to the compensation for the decrease of the SI (Table 5). It was thought that the increase of the optimal amount along with OP was attributable to elevation of desire. On the other hand, dislikers did not accept dried shiitake mushroom, because there was a nega- tive correlation between HP and SI. To allow dislikers to accept dried shiitake mushrooms, little or almost no odor material is needed.
Renewable biomass resources have become an important alternative to fossil resources, and various methods for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into bioethanol or other bioproducts have been suggested [1–3]. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is one of the most commonly produced edible mushrooms in the world . Waste mushroom medium (WM) from the cultivation of shiitake mushrooms is more suitable as a feedstock for enzymatic saccharification than other lignocellulosic biomasses because resource collection costs are low, resource supplies are seasonally stable, and enzymatic saccharification is easy . Most WM is believed to be composted or dis- carded [6, 7]. When WM is composted or discarded, most of the cellulose within it degrades to CO 2 . Obtaining glu-
The authors aimed to create dried shiitake mushrooms with a smell that is able to match consumer preferences and it was proposed that 1,2,4-trithiolane could serve as an indi- cator to estimate the smell of dried shiitake mushroom. Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid (Integrated Research Program for Effective Use of Biological Activi- ties to Create New Demand) from the Research Council, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan. The authors are grateful
WMM is more advantageous than other types of ligno- cellulosic biomass because of its high density, availability throughout the year, and decreased structural rigidity resulting from the growth process of shiitake fungus. The shift from natural bed log cultivation to synthetic medium cultivation has consolidated scattered mushroom produc- tion areas into narrow production zones in mushroom fac- tories. 12 The WMM obtained from these narrow zones therefore can be rapidly utilized. WMM can be supplied throughout the year because the shiitake mushroom is stably produced throughout the year in the mushroom fac- tories. 12 Therefore, WMM does not incur large transporta- tion and storage costs. In addition, because steady amounts of WMM can be obtained, a biomass conversion facility could operate without interruption.
The 1,2,4-trithiolane content of dried shiitake mushroom on the basic media was 14 m g/g, and increased in accordance with both amino acids addition, but decreased when both amino acids were added at 500 mg/kg (Fig. 3). When cys- teine was added to the media, the maximum content of 1,2,4-trithiolane was 237 m g/g at 300 mg/kg addition, and the elevation rate was 0.83 in the range from 33 to 300 mg/kg content. Adding methionine, the maximum content was 248 m g/g at 400 mg/kg addition, and the elevation rate was 0.67 in the range from 49 to 400 mg/kg content. These re- sults showed that both amino acids gave rise to 1,2,4- trithiolane content. However, the amounts of cysteine, which produced the maximum 1,2,4-trithiolane content, were smaller than the amounts of methionine, and the el- evation rate when adding cysteine was larger than adding methionine, suggesting that the effect of cysteine in increas- Fig. 2a–c. Effects of cystein (Cys), methionine (Met), ammonium sul-
Shiitake mushroom was cultured on malt extract agar for 7 days at 28°C and mycelium covered the medium as indicated in Figure 4. During mycelium growth, there is a circular pattern of mycelium growth observed on plates. Cultivated mushroom are generally saprophytes, utilizing substrate as primary or secondary decomposers (Stott and Caroline, 2004). Habitats in which mushrooms are found include grassy meadows, deciduous hardwoods, woodlands where they grow up lingo cellulosic, (hemi) cellulose substrates, such as straw, hard, and soft woods of the temperate as well as tropical region (Chang and Miles, 1997). Their relative adaptability to various substrate species and forms, (stumps, logs, wood particles, leaf litter) and their preferences with respect to the microbiological condition of their substrates (Bruhn, 1998) was conducted.
resource are high because lignocellulosic biomass is bulky and has a low density [8, 9]. High storage costs are incurred because lignocellulosic biomass has seasonal availability . WS and WE are more advantageous than other types of lignocellulosic biomass because of their high density and year-round availability. Shiitake and enokitake are culti- vated in mushroom factories in a narrow zone, and a stable amount of their fruiting bodies are harvested every day because synthetic medium cultivation allows them to be produced in a factory. It has been demonstrated that 50–60 % of the cellulose of WS is easily saccharized using an enzyme without pretreatment with acid, alkali, or high heat . Although it is important that a 50–60 % of saccharification ratio was obtained without pretreatment, pretreatment is needed to improve the saccharification ratio of WS.
Mushrooms are one of the most promising sources of functional food , drug, dietary supplements, healthy beverages etc. Lentinula edodes or Shiitake is a white rot wood decay fungus which produces brown basidiocarps with exotic flavor. It is extensively grown in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries because of suitability of the climate. In India, successful cultivation of Shiitake mushroom has been reported on sawdust, wheat straw and wood chips of hard wood tress. It is well known, not only for its delicious flavor and nutritional value but also for potential use in medicinal applications. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes.
Most basidiomycetes form a fruiting body (mushroom) during sporulation as part of their usual life cycle. The cell walls of the fruiting body are also constructed mainly from chitin and b-glucans . Therefore, GHs for chitin and b- glucans also act in morphological changes of the fruiting bodies. Kamada et al.  detected chitinase, b-1,3-glu- canase, and b-1,6-glucanase activities in the stipe of Co- prinopsis cinerea, and suggested that the enzymes act in stipe elongation. Furthermore, Iten and Matile  repor- ted that the cell wall chitin of fruiting bodies undergoes autolysis by chitinolytic enzymes after harvesting. How- ever, little is known about the physiological function or role of chitinolytic enzymes in basidiomycetes.
endophytic fungi have the ability to produces extracellular compounds that are antifungal. The test results showed that antifungal activity of endophytic fungi shiitake mushrooms could be expected to produce secondary metabolites with the ptential as antifungal.Microdilution testing results can be seen from the negative controls (first column) that only contains media, showing the results in the form of a solution does not change color, which remains as before, means there is no microbial growth. The procedures performed during the test can be said aseptic and capable toprovide the correct test results. The test results of F1 isolates show that the solution in column 12 to column 8 become clear, which means at this concentrations F1 isolates can inhibit the growth ofCandida albicans, while the column 7 to column 3 solution becomes cloudy, which means atthis concentrationF1 isolates have not been able to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. It is estimated that the minimum inhibitory concentration for F1 isolates is at 2125 ppm. Thus, the antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites of F1 isolates has a weak antibacterial activity. Whereas Ketoconazole has a MIC value of 2 ppm. Furthermore, from the results of MIC test, MFC was determined by growing the clear part over the PDA medium (potatosDextrosa Agar) with a streak technique. The result, a secondary metabolite extract has the ability to kill seen from the fungitest. It is characterized by aliquots grown on PDA medium (PotatosDextrosaAgar) are not covered byfungi. The results for MFC was in 2125 ppm concentration. As for KFM ketoconazole is in a concentration of 2 ppm. CONCLUSION
Abstract Odor is one of the most important characteristics affecting consumer preference for dried shiitake mush- rooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler]. In our previous studies, we found that the odor content of commercial dried products was too weak for most people, and that the odorous compound content could be increased by adding amino acids to sawdust media. Currently, however, bed-log cultiva- tion is used to produce fruiting bodies for dried products. The purpose of this study was to fi nd a method to increase the content of odorous compounds in dried products culti- vated on bed logs. Pressure injection of amino acids from the side of the bed log was the most effi cient method, but it had some problems. Hence, a simpler and less trouble- some method was developed, i.e., injecting amino acid solu- tion from small bottles set in deep holes bored in the sides of the bed logs. In fruiting bodies cultivated on bed logs injected with amino acid solution by the improved method, the mean contents of lentinic acid, a precursor of the odorous compound lenthionine, approximately doubled compared to that in the untreated logs, although the infi ltra- tion area of the solution injected by the improved method was smaller than that by the former method.
Endocytosis is the process by which substrates enter a cell without passing through the plasma membrane but rather invaginate the cell membrane and form intracellular vesicles. Rab7 regulates endocytic trafficking between early and late endosomes and between late endosomes and lysosomes. LeRab7 in Lentinula edodes is strongly homologous to Rab7 in Homo sapiens. Receptors for activated C kinase-1 (LeRACK1) and Rab5 GTPase (LeRAB5) were isolated as interacting partners of LeRab7, and the interactions were confirmed by in vivo and in vitro protein interaction assays. The three genes showed differential expression in the various developmental stages of the mushroom. In situ hybridization showed that the three transcripts were localized in regions of active growth, such as the outer region of trama cells, and the subhymenium of the hymenophore of mature fruiting bodies and the prehymenophore of young fruiting bodies. The existence of endocytosis in the mycelium and hymenophores was confirmed by the internalization of FM4-64. LeRAB7 was partially colocalized with the AM4-64 and was located in the late endocytic pathway. This is the first report of the presence of endocytosis in homobasidiomycetes. LeRAB7, LeRAB5, and LeRACK1 may contribute to the growth of L. edodes and cell differentiation in hymenophores.
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addition to ligninolytic enzymes, shiitake fungi also contain cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes that reduce polysaccharides to low molecular weight monomer and oli- gomer sugars for uptake . There are many shiitake fungi induced chemical and physical changes in spent logs, two of which may potentially be favorable for binderless boards: (1) increase in hot water extractives, which can promote polym- erization  and cross linkage  between various chemical components during the hot press process and (2) structurally weakened cells that may breakdown into smaller particles during the milling process, which can lead to a better par- ticle packing system  with less voids and enhance stress transfer . Furthermore, there is a large volume of waste logs produced by the mushroom cultivation industry . Despite sawdust having a greater share of wood purchased for shiitake mushroom cultivation, spent logs were chosen as the materials for this study for better clarity over species origin and consistency in growing conditions, an important consid- eration for chemical component and particle size analysis.
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pasta products are always manufactured using semolina in order to get high quality due to its excellent rheological properties as well as superior cooking quality and consumer acceptance (Kim et al., 2016). While pasta is an optimal vehicle for health promotion (Ciccoritti et al., 2017), partial or complete replacement of semolina with other flour to produce pasta have also been investigated to improve the nutritive value and functional effects of pasta, such as lupin flour and pigeon pea (Jayasena and Nasar-Abbas, 2012; Majzoobi et al., 2011; Martínez- Villaluenga et al., 2010). Many studies have indicated that pasta can be formulated with mushroom powders according to the consumer demand of more balanced nutrition (Feillet et al., 1996). For instance, the experiments performed by (Kim, 1998) showed a positive relationship between the levels of oyster mushroom and shiitake mushroom in wet noodles and the protein and fibre contents, in this case the noodles still had good acceptability up to 7 % of mushroom powder. Similarly, using oyster mushroom mycelia powder as a fibre- enriching agent in pasta, the protein and total dietary fibre contents increased while the lipid content decreased. In addition, this observation suggested that semolina pasta made with 5, 10 and 15 % oyster mushroom mycelia powder gave good scores in colour, flavour, mouthfeel, elasticity and overall acceptability (Salama, 2007). This new kind of pasta may help consumers to increase fibre consumption and as a result, lower their risk of coronary heart diseases and diabetes. Interestingly, it has been reported that common wheat flour with 4 % -glucan-rich
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cooking have been shown to inﬂuence these properties signiﬁcantly and the resulting functional beneﬁts (Chillo et al., 2011). The structure of foods has an important part to play in the digestibility of nutrients (Dona et al., 2010). Starch encapsulation by proteins, together with the complexation of starch with lipids and porosity of food structure, are known to limit the extent of starch degradation (Fardet et al., 1999). Cleary and Brennan (2006) proposed that structural modi ﬁ cations made by β–glucan to the protein-starch matrix of pasta were re- sponsible for reduced rates of sugar released during in vitro digestion. The protein-starch matrix is, therefore, of considerable importance in terms of pasta structure and function. In this study, the mushroom powders contained more protein than semolina alone, which might contribute to both the nutritional quality and integrity of the protein network in the pastas. Thus, higher levels of protein in the mushroom powder-supplemented pastas may be another explanation for the pro- portion of starch digested at di ﬀ erent time points compared with se- molina only control pasta (except for the 5% shiitake mushroom pasta). Previously, it was reported that, the presence of egg white powder in pasta in ﬂ uenced starch digestibility: the larger amounts of protein probably created a stronger network and, thus, reduced the availability of starch granules to digest enzymes (Hager, Czerny, Bez, Zannini, & Arendt, 2013). Similarly, Kim et al. (2008) reported that the presence of starch-protein interactions in pasta dough may be important for redu- cing the digestibility of starch in pasta and that protein enrichment at a 20% signiﬁcantly delayed the rate of dextrin release. The eﬀect of protein on starch digestion in pasta could be due to changes in the three-dimensional structure of the protein network as well as potential encapsulation of starch by protein fractions, which reduce enzyme
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. The Shiitake, meaning “mushroom (oak tree)” in Japanese, is highly prized in Asia for its flavor and reputed medicinal value. The present study aimed at development, sensory evaluation, nutrient composition and shelf life evaluation of value added biscuits. A good quality of Shiitake mushroom biscuits comparable with refined flour biscuits in terms of sensory attribute were successfully prepared. Value addition was done using treated or untreated dehydrated shiitake mushroom powder. Crude protein content in value ≤0.05) higher as compared to that without value addition (5.74%). HCl extractability for iron, zinc, phosphorus and calcium (70.53, 72.21, 85.83, 53.69 %) were also significantly (p>0.05) higher in treated mushroom biscuits. The developed products could be successfully stored for a period of 30 days. In conclusion, the value addition with mushroom powder can be recommended for the purpose of improved nutrient content.
Aronia, red ginseng and ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom have been reported to influence glucose metabolism. Based on a previous study, freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng and ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom were mixed at the ratio of 3.4: 4.1: 2.5 and the anti- diabetic activity was examined by assessing its efficacy for improving insulin sensitivity and potentiating insulin secretion in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats (Px rats). Px rats fed high fat diets, a well-established model of Asians type 2 diabetes, were used as the animal model for investigating the efficacy of the mixture in the present study. The Px rats had hyperglycemia due to increased insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion. We used whole food not extracts since the gut microbiome is influenced by dietary fiber in the ingredients and antocyanins can be easily degraded due to high temperature during extraction. Aronia, red ginseng and ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom contain different effective components such as anthocyanins, ginsenoside and β -glucan with vitamin D [19-21]. The major ingredients are known to be beneficial for alleviating type 2 diabetic symptoms and they are not overlapped between the plants. Thus, the efficacy of the mixture was examined for anti-diabetic activity in the present study.
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Patient 9: intermittent pescovegan diet with daily shiitake mushroom ingestion and avoidance of gout-inducing foods, melatonin 10 mg hs, flax meal 1–2 tbsp qd, prostate supplement (Prunus africa- num, Serenoa, pyridoxine, zinc) 1 qd, Vit E 400 IU qd, Selenium 200 μg qd, Fish oil 1 g bid, Lycopene 20 mg qd, Soy isoflavones 50 mg bid, Pectasol 1 scoop bid, Bio-D-Mulsion 4000 IU qd, Vit C 1000 mg qd, Goji juice DU, Herbal tincture formula with Annona muricata, Catharanthus roseus, Mahonia aquifolium, Larrea tridentata, Phytolacca americana, Rheum palmatum, Zizyphus spinosa, Taxus brevifolia, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Dicentra formosa, Pinellia ternata, Trichosanthes kirilowii 1 tsp tid, Herbal tincture formula with Catharanthus roseus, Artemisia annua, Mahonia aquifolium, Schisandra chinensis, Phytolacca americana, Rheum palmatum, Zingiber officinale, Taxus brevifolia, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Arctium lappa, Podophyllum peltatum, Trichosanthes kirilowii, Rosmarinus officinalis, Silybum marianum 1 tsp tid.