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Distribution Patterns of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marshy Soil and Sediments in Warri, Southern Nigeria

Distribution Patterns of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marshy Soil and Sediments in Warri, Southern Nigeria

PAH in soil is usually from atmospheric deposition due to pyrolytic sources [17]; and the other sources are petrogenic due to petroleum or crude oil activities and spillage. While PAHs in sediments have been found to reflect the history of fossil fuel combustion in the environment [15], and higher molecular weight PAHs which are hydrophobic compounds and have less solubility in water tend to settle in sediments. Dry season in the Niger Delta which is the area for this study is marked with dust and cool “harmattan” haze and there could be high temperature of 36ºC and 37ºC. These conditions are favourable for high PAH levels in soil and could be considered to be one of the responsible factors for high PAHs levels in soil samples in dry season for the areas under this study. According to Adejuwon [18], annual rainfall amount in the study area- Warri, could get to 2807mm. Apart from usual rainfall in rainy season- May to October, it frequently even rains in the dry season (November to April). Most of the areas in Warri (and mostly the
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STUDIES ON ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATED FROM DUMP YARD SOIL AND SEDIMENTS FROM FRESH WATER RESERVOIR.

STUDIES ON ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATED FROM DUMP YARD SOIL AND SEDIMENTS FROM FRESH WATER RESERVOIR.

Objective: To isolate and screen potential antibiotic producing Actinomycetes from hospital dump yard soil and sediments of Bhadrakali reservoir, Warangal. Methods: Soil dilution – plating method was used to isolate Actinomycetes. Cross-streak method for primary screening, well-diffusion method for secondary screening of crude extracts and TLC to detect secondary metabolites was performed. Results: Of the twelve isolates of soil and freshwater sediments, eight were potential producers of antimicrobial metabolites. One soil isolate and three aquatic Actinomycetes were effective inhibitors of pathogenic bacteria employed. Conclusions: The present study is aimed to screen Actinomycetes from dump yards and to screen sediments as novel sources of antibiotics. The isolation of potential secondary metabolites producing Actinomycetes may help to meet the need of search of new antimicrobials. Most of the isolates from water sediments exhibited good antimicrobial activity, which can be further used in new drug discovery.
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SOIL SALINITY ASSESSMENT AND DEFICIENCY OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN THE REGION OF BIJAPUR AND BELAGAVI DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA STATE

SOIL SALINITY ASSESSMENT AND DEFICIENCY OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN THE REGION OF BIJAPUR AND BELAGAVI DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA STATE

The deficiency of OC in soils reduces the biomass activity and nutrient mineralization processes. In the present investigations OC percentage in soil samples of Muddebihal, Basavan-Bagewadi and Sindagi of Bijapur Districts were found within the prescribed legal limits. The same trends were noticed in Athani, Raibagh and Chikkodi taluks of Belagavi district. Whereas in the surface sediments OC found more than average values, indicates that sediments were highly fertile than that of soils. OC supports vegetation growth; it is one of the Major sources of soil and sediment fertility particularly for Nitrogen and Phosphorous. The salinity conditions in the selected lands of Bijapur and Belagavi districts were justified by the EC values. In all the study areas the EC values of soils and sediments found within 2 Ds/m. it is noticed that no salt accumulation in the soils and sediments of cultivated lands of the districts. If the EC value found more than 4 Ds/m (m mhos/cm), the soils and sediments possesses severe accumulation of salts may restrict growth of many vegetations. EC values in between 2 – 4 Ds/m showed moderate accumulation of salts will not restrict plant growth. In such condition may require more frequent irrigation / rain. The soil and sediments EC values found less than 2 Ds/m indicates the low salt accumulation will not affect the plants.
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Soil and Sediments Microzonation for Evaluation of Site Effects on Earthquake Damages in Mobarakeh, Esfahan, Iran

Soil and Sediments Microzonation for Evaluation of Site Effects on Earthquake Damages in Mobarakeh, Esfahan, Iran

geotechnical profiles by considering their combina- tions of soil type, layer thickness, shear wave velocity and depth of seismic bedrock (Figure 10). Figure 11 show samples of representative geological outcrops and cross sections and Figure 12 show distribution map of thickness of soil and sediments. Considering information currently available on the underlying structure of Mobarakeh, one possible explanation is the existence of a deeper impedance contrast caused by the Quaternary sediments underlying the surface soil layers and resting at a depth of 100 - 150 m from the ground surface on hard geological bed rock from the cretaceous limestone formations having marked differences in elastic properties. The results of deep down-hole and geo-electrical profiles support this. Another possible explanation is the effect of interac- tion of the surrounding mountain regions with the 3D basin structure.
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Relative Proliferation of Gullies on Three Geological Sediments: The Influence of Soil Consistency Limits and Shear Strength

Relative Proliferation of Gullies on Three Geological Sediments: The Influence of Soil Consistency Limits and Shear Strength

This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of soil consistency limits and shear strength on the relative proliferation of gullies on three geological sediments, namely: the Upper Coal Measures (UCM), the Ajalli Sandstones (AS), and the Lower Coal Measures (LCM), which has been ranked as AS > UCM > LCM. Soil samples were collected from a depth range of 60 - 90 cm of sampling pits dug at a selected location on each of these texturally homogen- ous and unique formations. These were analysed for consistency limits and shear strength using standard methods and procedures. Results showed that the plasticity index (PI) of the UCM (PI UCM ) was 24.49%; PI AS , 5.89%; and
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A trial to determine the impact of soil washing on coal seam gas (CSG) dam sediments in Queensland

A trial to determine the impact of soil washing on coal seam gas (CSG) dam sediments in Queensland

washing of CSG dam sediments to answer research question 3, but showed the four flushing solutions generated in this experiment only partially met the criteria for use as livestock drinking water or irrigation water. These findings indicate that soil washing may be a viable method to recondition CSG dam sediments for on-site beneficial reuse when organic contaminants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene, are not present in the sediment profile. However, further research on the role of different surfactants, methods of soil washing (including volumes of water and water:sediment ratios), methods of mixing and agitation, energy consumption, and other physical and chemical parameters must be carried out before concluding that soil washing provides a viable, economical or operationally useful tool to treat CSG dam sediments and thereby convert them into a soil with beneficial reuse potential.
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Application of alkane biological markers in the assessment of the origin of oil pollutants in the soil and recent river sediments (River Vrbas, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Application of alkane biological markers in the assessment of the origin of oil pollutants in the soil and recent river sediments (River Vrbas, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Abstract: In this paper, an attempt was made to contribute to the use of bio- logical markers, n-alkanes, and polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type, in the assessment of the source of oil pollutants in the environment using the example of the correlation between recent river and coastal sediments,. Four samples of recent river sediments of the Vrbas River and four samples of adjacent bank sediments (soils), in the part of the River that belongs to the city of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina) were analyzed. In the alkane fractions of isolated extracts, a bimodal distribution of the n-alkanes was observed. Lower homologues dominated in the recent river sediments with maximum at C 15 , but higher n-alkanes dominated in the soil samples, with a maximum at
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The Effect of Mass Transfer Resistance on the Adsorption Rate of Phenol in Soil Sediments

The Effect of Mass Transfer Resistance on the Adsorption Rate of Phenol in Soil Sediments

Abstract: This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of mass transfer resistance to the transport of phenol in soil sediments. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted using phenol in homogenous soil sediments (clay and sand). The Physico-chemical properties of the soil sediments were determined and sorption behaviour kinetically modelled using the Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order, Intra-particle, Elovich, and Power function models. The sorption behaviour was best modelled with the intra-particle model (R 2 ˃ 0.9628). The rate limiting step and mass transfer resistance were determined by the Boyd plot, Homogenous pore diffusion model (HPDM) and the modified Furusawa -Smith equation. The Boyd plots indicated external mass transfer as the rate-determining step for the phenol/clay and phenol/sand systems; the HPDM model gave a poor fit (R 2 ≈ 0.6) for the phenol sorbate systems, corresponding with projections from the Boyd plots. From the results of the study, the rate controlling step for phenol sorption in the sediments was predominantly due to external mass transfer resistance. A comparative analysis between the two sediments using the Furusawa -Smith equation gave the mass transfer coefficients for clay and sand to be 2.09205E-14 m s −1 and 4.17537E-12 m s −1 respectively, showing that as the particle size decreased, the more significant the effect of external mass transfer effect on the sorption rate.
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Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in the soil and sediments around the abandoned mine in southwest of Korea

Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in the soil and sediments around the abandoned mine in southwest of Korea

Pb/ 207 Pb. On the other hand, the Pb isotopic compositions of sediments collected from the other sites were clearly different from those of ore deposits. The Pb isotope ratios versus in- verse concentrations plot showed high linear correlation between the main stream, the tribu- tary stream and one of the downstream sites representing the two end member mixing sys- tem between these sites. According to the bi- nary mixing equation, the relative contribution of Pb pollutants from the abandoned mine to the downstream area were approximately 33% - 36%.

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Origin of selected soil parent materials and sediments in North Island, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science at Massey University

Origin of selected soil parent materials and sediments in North Island, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science at Massey University

The ori g i n of quartz i n soi l s and sediments can often be determi ned by i ts oxygen i sotope compo s i t i on . I n parti cul a r , the p resence of l ow temperature quartz formed i n s ed i mentary or soi l envi ronments can be determi ned by i ts h i g h o18o val ues . I n th i s s tudy we have s hown that p e d o � e�t t � a-quartz was not present i n the range of soi l s exami ned . The rap i d rel eas e of s i l i ca duri ng weatheri ng l eads to the prec i p i ta t i on of amorphous s i l i ca i n andes i ti c and rhyol i t i c vol ca n i c a s h . I n free dra i n i ng basa l ti c s o i l s l eachi ng o f s i l i ca a nd reacti on w i t h a l um i na t o form hal l oys i te probabl y accounts for most of the s i l i ca rel eased du r i ng weatheri ng . Only i n h i g h l y quartzose parent mater i a l s i s the concentrati on o f s i l i ca i n sol ut i o n apparently l ow enoug h t o form the c ha l cedon i te reported i n the
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Screening for antiviral activity of Actinomycetes isolated from soil sediments

Screening for antiviral activity of Actinomycetes isolated from soil sediments

From the present work it is concluded that the soil of the region of Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Nagai, district of Tamil Nadu have the capability to produced actinomycetes . The soil samples which were collected from Coimbatore showed potential for producing actinomycetes which are related to some species. The AcO2 was one of the strain related to streptomyces species. It is non-motile, non- acid fast from study. It was concluded that GLM medium is one of the best medium for isolation of actinomycetes from soils. Among the various actinomycetes strains isolated, the strain of AcO2 shows very good inhibition over the virus Herpes simplex virus type I. So this study used for developing a new drug against such type of virus, which may be very safe, less toxic and cheap when compared with other drugs.
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Impact of interlayer on moisture characteristics of reclaimed soil backfilled with Yellow River sediments

Impact of interlayer on moisture characteristics of reclaimed soil backfilled with Yellow River sediments

The cumulative infiltration of different treatments was shown in Figure 3. In the early stage, the cumulative infiltration increased rapidly due to the large water potential gradient. The cumulative infiltration of CK1 exhibited a linear relationship with infiltration during the later stages of the experiment; while the change came earlier in the other treatments. However, at approximately 330 min, the slope of CK2 no longer changed after water entering the sediment layer of the Yellow River, which means that the relationship between the cumulative infiltration and infiltration time was linear and the infiltration rate became constant. At approximately 630 min, when water moved into the soil interlayer, no significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between the Multi-layered soil profiles of T1-T4, and the cumulative infiltration was between CK1 and CK2. At approximately 1350 min, the wetting front moved into the second soil interlayer, and the infiltration rate decreased again. Multi-layered soil profiles (T1-T4) that put soil interlayers into filled sediment enhanced cumulative infiltration of 18.89%, 20.87%, 31.81% and 30.32% of CK2 respectively when the wetting front arrived at 120 cm of soil columns, which proved that T1–T4 enhanced water storage of CK2 on infiltration. Soil infiltration characteristics are determined by the soil layer pattern under vertical rainfall infiltration [31] . The total thickness of the 30 cm
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Microbial diversity of oligotrophic marine sediments

Microbial diversity of oligotrophic marine sediments

environments, and have few or no close relatives found in purely anoxic environments. This is illustrated in Figure 14, which shows the number of independent studies that have recovered a given lineage from a particular redox environment, for all relevant sequences in the SILVA SSU Ref v.95 database. Studies of oxic or suboxic environments, including oxic/suboxic sediments or water column, and the typically suboxic/oxic environments of hydrothermal fluids and chimney surfaces, account for a majority or plurality of groups associated with ‘blue’ lineages (Figure 13), such as the pISA7 Crenarchaeotal and the DHVEG-II Euryarchaeotal lineages. Although at their source hydrothermal fluids are often highly reduced and anoxic, they are principally oxic or suboxic when sampled in the thermally habitable region of a mixing gradient between an anoxic, hyperthermal source fluid and an oxic endmember (seawater, groundwater or atmosphere) (e.g., Amend and Shock 1998, Spear et al. 2005, Dias and Barriga 2006, Rogers and Amend 2006; but see Kelley et al. 2001). The second largest group of studies for these ‘blue’ lineages is most often studies of environments that have heterogeneous or uncertain redox states, such as soil (e.g., Conrad 1996), ground water (e.g., Jakobsen 2007), and hydrothermal sediments (including hydrothermal deposits and sediments bathed in hydrothermal fluid; Teske et al. 2002, Severmann et al. 2006, Nercessian et al. 2005, Dias and Barriga 2006), where ‘blue’ lineages are hypothesized here to mostly occupy high-energy acceptor niches.
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Electrokinetic dewatering and consolidation of dredged marine sediments

Electrokinetic dewatering and consolidation of dredged marine sediments

The configuration of electrodes has been reviewed in chapter 2. This chapter focuses on how different electrode configurations affect the electrokinetic stabilization of soils. The effectiveness of the process is largely a function of the extent of effective area where the soil changes physio-chemically, as it is these changes that produce electrokinetic stabilization. The physiochemical changes in the soil are due to the oxidation and reduction reactions that occur near the anode and cathode, respectively. The parallel installation of anodes and cathodes is the most common type of electrode configuration presented in the literature. This configuration was initially developed to decontaminate soils, and then was used by Casagrande in 1949 and later by other researchers to stabilize soils. With this configuration, the region where electrochemical reaction occurs is more localized than with other configurations such as a two- dimensional configuration. As noted, it is the physiochemical reactions in the soil that result in cementation and soil strengthening, hence the broader the area affected by physiochemical reactions, the better the soil improvement will be.
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Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of River Owena Sediments

Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of River Owena Sediments

[31] Saravanakumar, A., Rajkumar, M., Sesh, J. and Thivakaran, G. A. (2008). Seasonal variations in physic-chemical characteristics of water, sediment and soil texture in arid zone mangrove of Kachchh- Gujarat. Journal Environmental Biology, 29: 725-732. [32] Tamaki, H., Sekiguchi, Y., Hanada, S., Nakamura, K. Nomura, N.,Matsumura, M. and Kamagata, Y. (2005). Comparative analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Freshwater Sediment of a Shallow Eutrophic Lake by Molecular and Improved Cultivation-Based

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Flood stratigraphies in lake sediments: A review

Flood stratigraphies in lake sediments: A review

Palaeoflood records are most effectively extracted from sediment sequences where sufficient river-borne material is delivered during a flood to overprint the near-continuous autogenic (internal) or allogenic (external) sedimentation pattern at the lake bed with a distinctive detrital lamination. Distinguishing the different sedimentary components lain on the lake bed is therefore an important first step but a non-trivial task. Lakes often exhibit a heterogeneous sediment matrix consisting of fine-grained allochthonous clay and silt, siliceous material (e.g., diatoms) and variable organic matter content, comprised of detrital plant material (leaves, wood, seeds) and humic substances as well as autogenic planktonic and benthic microbes (Håkanson and Jansson, 1983; Lowe and Walker, 1997). Sediment sequences in lakes that experience climatic conditions conducive to intensive photosynthetic activity, or where considerable Ca-rich bedrock is found in the catchment (including some upland lakes in the European Alps where palaeoflood studies have been undertaken; e.g., Lake Iso; Lauterbach et al., 2012), are more strongly influenced by the precipitation of carbonate while other lakes display annually laminated (varved) sediment sequences (e.g., Czymzik et al., 2013). Palaeoflood records have been extracted from each of these lake settings, although site-specific hydrogeomorphic processes, sediment provenance and within-lake depositional mechanisms must be considered. Broadly, catchments with considerable erodible soil cover and limited interruption of the sediment conveyor in the form of large deltas or extensive floodplains will receive greater allochthonous input (Dearing, 1997) and are therefore better suited to palaeoflood reconstruction (e.g., Foster et al., 2008; Parris et al., 2010).
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A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

the presence of RAMEB. This may be ascribed to the higher degree of homogeneity and higher mass-transfer rates typical of slurry-phase conditions [20,21] which, in turn, probably enhance the intimate contact among the specialized microorganisms, the mobilizing materials and the soil-sorbed PAHs. Then, the beneficial effects of RAMEB have been also demonstrated in the aerobic biore- mediation of PAH- and transformer oil-contaminated soils under laboratory slurry and solid-phase conditions as well as in the field, through pilot scale experiments con- ducted both under ex-situ (biopile) and in situ conditions [73]. Recently, the potential enhancing effects of other two commercial biogenic pollutant-solubilizing agents, namely a technical mixtures of Soya Lecithins and an extract of water soluble humic substances of North Dakota Lignite, on the aerobic slurry-phase bioremedia- tion of a model soil spiked with PCBs [74,75] and of an aged PAH-contaminated soil [11] have been demon- strated. In the latter case, a soil historically contaminated by about 13 g/kg of a large variety of PAHs was amended with soya lecithin or humic substances at 1.5% w/w and treated in aerobic solid-phase and SBs for 150 days. The overall removal of PAHs in the presence of the agents was faster and more extensive and accompanied by a larger soil detoxification, especially under slurry-phase condi- tions. The agents could be metabolised by soil aerobic microorganisms and enhanced the occurrence of both soil PAHs and indigenous aerobic PAHs-degrading bacteria in the reactor water-phase. Thus, the agents were biodegrad- able and efficiently enhance PAH biodegradation by improving the availability of both PAHs and specialized microorganisms in the soil reactors.
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Agronomic effectiveness of Chatham Rise sediments

Agronomic effectiveness of Chatham Rise sediments

One of the most surprising findings to develop from the second experiment was the contrast between the ryegrass and the white clover in respect to how they responded to P fertiliser and their P uptake responses. Phosphorus uptake from the white clover was positively increased by all P fertilisers compared to the control as is expected with greater sensitivity to P with legumes vs non legumes (Li et al., 2011). However the sediment application did not result in the expect lower P uptake as seen in the ryegrass pots, as there was no difference between P fertiliser type. Reasons for this could include that the white clover was slow to establish and only received one herbage harvest so had less time to absorb P from soil solution. In contrast the rapidly growing ryegrass received 3 cuts, time for roots to proliferate the soil and time to utilise soil P. Also due to its slow establishment and growth the white clover P requirements may have been very low, which was adequately supplied by all of the 3 P sources.
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISSIPATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISSIPATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

matrices like soil (Xu et al. 2009; Ghafoor et al. 2011; Wu et al. 2012). Silt % (R 2 = 0.461, p<0.05) was selected as the only descriptor for cimetidine. The result observed in the present study for diltiazem and cimetidine regarding the involvement of clay and silt in the final regression models is expected since in our previous study (Al-Khazrajy and Boxall, 2016b) we found that the sorption affinity of the compounds is highly dependent on the log Dow (diltiazem) and OC% and clay% (cimetidine) so the identification of these parameters may be a reflection of the fact that they provide information on the bioavailability of the molecules to the microbes. For ranitidine the first descriptor chosen by the model was microbial activity (R 2 = 0.631; p<0.01) but when OC% was included, the fit improved (R 2 of 0.869; p<0.001). These two descriptors are normally found to dominate the degradation of chemicals since microbial activity would be higher in an OC rich matrix (Villaverde et al. 2008; Maqueda et al. 2009). None of the sediment parameters was identified by the model to clearly describe the degradation of amitriptyline, atenolol and mefenamic acid. This may be explained by the fact that degradation of these molecules is driven by factors other than those evaluated in this study. For example, factors such as the diversity structure of the microbial communities in the different sediments and the chemistry of the sediment pore water could be important in determining rates of degradation of the molecules (Boxall and Ericson 2012).
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Pyritization of the Coastal Sediments in the Malay Peninsula during the Holocene and its Effects on Soil

Pyritization of the Coastal Sediments in the Malay Peninsula during the Holocene and its Effects on Soil

Table 1 show the soil properties of the soils at selected points from three locations in the Kelantan Plains where detailed investigations were carried out were studied. By and large, the first type (pyrite occurred 2 m below the soil surface) was found mostly at Location a (the northern part), the second type (peat overlying the pyritic layer) was found at Location b (the partially drained peaty area - the middle part) and the third type (pyrite occurring in the topsoil) was found at Location c (southern part) (Enio et al. 2011) (Fig. 6). At these locations, the pyrite containing layer was found to occur at different depths. Soils had low pH, ranging from 3.24 to 4.89, and contained remarkably high amounts of exchangeable Al (>5 cmol c / kg). Soil pH values less than 3.5 are indicative of high acidity associated with the occurrence of pyrite/jarosite.
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