Abstract- This paper deals with optimal design of hybrid solar and wind energy system with perpetual motion. This design gives flexibility in siting new sources of generation of electrical energy. The demand of electrical energy is increasing day by day exponentially so it is necessary to find out new ways of generation at low cost. One more thing is to be consider that the fossil fuels are going to be end so sources should be other than fossil fuels. The substitute of fossil fuels are the renewable energy source. Solar energy and wind energy are two major sources of renewable energy. Also in present scenario waste management have its own importance. The perpetual motion in this system is an example of waste management. The whole system can be used for generating electrical energy without any harm to nature. With the help of this system we can make dependency less on the power system and also make profit by this. The energy generated by perpetual motion machines(PMM) are usually discounted by the scientific community since they are considered impossible at industrial level but for small operations PMM can become very compact machines.
conventional, such as solar, wind, hydro, biomass and bio fuels, geothermal, cells fuels. Renewable energy sources such as Solar Energy and Wind energy are the sources that energy captured and stored by nature. A generating system with a single power source non-conventional energy does not supply electricity required. Due to global warming new energy sources need to be used such as solar and wind energy. Renewable energy is becoming more important. Solar and Wind energy is pollution free and inexhaustible. All regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. Thus a study on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. Use of renewable energy sources for power generation many studies have been carried out. Due to their unpredictable nature, the solar and wind energy systems are highly unreliable. Other energy source can compensate for
ABSTRACT: This paper represents the hybrid energy system using solar and wind energy sources for the control of street lighting. Solar-Wind Street light is an intelligent, small scale, and off grid LED lighting system. It’s components are solar panel, wind generator system (PVC blowers), Dynamo, LDRs, battery, LED light, charge controller. The energy stored in battery during day time due to solar panel, get extracted by LEDs during the night time (because LDRs get activated due to absence of sun light). Wind also charges the batteries due to wind which is used for glowing street light. The advantage of this idea is to avoid daily running cost and make the system purely off-grid. In this prototype, we have used 12V DC system to supply energy to the lights.
Abstract: In this paper authors have focused on determining the behavior of hybrid energy system using wireless control. Generation of the electric energy is done using available renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Non-renewable energy resources such as coal, petroleum etcare depleting day-by-day, therefore generation of electric energy using renewable resources such as solar, wind etc has large scope with increase in technology. A hybrid energy system consisting of solar and wind energy generates electricity. This generated power gains more concentration for its storage, maintenance and even controlling of system. The proposed hybrid energy system generates power using the solar and wind energy and the generated power is stored in a rechargeable battery for further utilization. Controlling of this hybrid system is carried out with a secured web server through the Wi-Fi module (ESP8266 NodeMCU). An inter-integrated circuit (I2C) protocol is used for communicating between Wi-Fi module and 16*2 LCD. It also reduces the hardware mesh for circuit. The system has a MQ2 gas sensor that detects the poisonous gases emitted and removes out of the system with help of an exhaust fan. This ensures an eco-friendly system and helps to keep environment healthy and safe.
system expand significant energy. The principle target for this paper is to control and monitor the greenhouse system, for this purpose we have choose the set points for day and night for controlling the inside parameters of the greenhouse, and these set points are vary depending upon the type of plants inside the greenhouse. Smart grid is use to manage energy source, in this application smart grid is use to control and monitor three different types of energy sources. Given energy sources are wind energy, solar energy and regular energy from electricity board. In smart grid algorithm each energy source has priority to serve consumer. Solar energy have top most priority, wind energy have lowest priority than solar energy and higher than paid energy from electricity board and the proposed system is used to regulate the operation of greenhouse with respect to Smart Grid, which include Energy Management System and Automated Control System. The system can be extended to detect fungicides of various plants in the greenhouse for future use also the automated sprinklers of pesticides can be implemented for future work.
Most inverters operate as current sources injecting a current that is sinusoidal and in phase with the grid voltage, with a power factor equal or very close to unity. It is required that the inverter synchronizes with the fundamental component of the grid voltage, even in the cases when the grid voltage is distorted or unbalanced or when the grid frequency varies. An example of synchronization in steady state for a three-phase system is shown in Fig. 8, in which three phase sustainable energy based wind energy conversion system and solar photovoltaic systrm.
Wind is a form of solar energy. Due to the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun wind flow. Due to the earth terrains, bodies of water and vegetation the wind flow patterns are modified. Wind turbine converts the kinetic energy in the wind in to mechanical then to electrical by rotating the generator which are connected internally. Wind is highly unpredictable in nature as it can be here one moment and gone in another moment but it is capable of supplying large amount of power. Due to this concept of wind energy it is an unreliable one and less used.
The polycrystalline solar panels were made with Polycrystalline cell. The mono crystalline solar panel have the cell are in the large block of many crystal and not grown in single crystals which allow them striking shattered glass appearance. The polycrystalline photovoltaic panel is sliced into wafers and then all the individual silicon was combine and wired together in the solar panel. Compare to Mono crystalline solar panel, the Polycrystalline solar panels are less expensive but less efficient . The Figure 2.3 below shows the polycrystalline photovoltaic panel.
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Nowadays, with the advance of renewable energy, electrical energy supplied to the road can be saved. Increasing usage of electrical energy that uses non-renewable energy will lead to pollution. Thus, to replace the conventional non-renewable sources is by develop a clean and renewable energy such as solar and wind energy. One of the most promising applications related to renewable energy is the hybrid energy technology stated by Daniele et al, 2013. Hybrid systems are the ones that use more than one energy resources. According to Fesli et al, 2009 it is possible to have any combination of energy resources to supply the energy demand in the hybrid systems, such as solar and wind. Integration of systems (wind and solar) has more influence in terms of electric power production.
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the recovery phase is longer in the year 1974.The Dst recoveries are associated with high AE values. The main reason for this is high fluctuation in interplanetary Bz in the high velocity stream. With every instant of southward field turnings, there is an increase in AE and decrease in Dst. The southward turnings cause magnetic reconnection and plasma injections into the night side magnetosphere. There is slight decrease in Dst at each of these injections. These periods of continuous substorm activity are defined as HILDCAA. The main cause of the interplanetary Bz fluctuations is given by Belcher and Davis (1971). They have demonstrated that Alfven waves are propagating away from the sun which are present in the high-speed streams leads to the Bz fluctuations within the CIRs leading to the irregular shaped storm main phase, and also the fluctuations that cause HILDCAAs in the storm “recovery phases”.  Has described the seasonal dependence of HILDCAA events to determine the solar cycle. Their study clarifies that the occurrence of HILDCAA events during the different phases of the solar cycle. That paper also discussed the interplanetary Alfven waves by indicating high IMF BZ variance and normalized variance of the HILDCAA events. [12,13] studied the solar wind energy during HILDCAA in his PhD thesis to described the electrodynamical process caused by the solar wind magnetosphere coupling for HILDCAA events (high intensity, long duration continuous AE activity) [12,14]. He has also described the effect of HILDCAA event on geomagnetic status and its consequence on Earth’s environment by analysing the coupling mechanism between the solar wind and magnetosphere.
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For development of any nation the energy play an important role without energy we cannot go for development, but the energy sources are limited on earth and due to these sources the pollution is also increase and the amount of greenhouse gases so we can find the sources which are replace the conventional energy sources these sources are non- renewable energy sources like solar wind small hydro tidal energy biogas etc. solar and wind are the major source of energy and they cannot produce greenhouse gases which can use in place of conventional energy sources but solar and wind also have some limitations like solar energy are not present all time it present only in day so there is no solar energy at night and wind energy is not constant al the time so to overcome these limitations we combine these two energy sources so we can produce energy by wind at night and at day time energy is taken By solar and wind both this combine system is called hybrid energy system. Figure 1
requires system’s long-term assessments to ensure efficiency. G To reach a techno-economic optimum hybrid economic system graphical construction approach, probabilistic method, and artificial intelligence can be used. An optimum combination of the system reliability and the system cost are two major parameters must be searched for by them no matter what sizing and optimization technique are used . A vital criterion in optimization is the expected reliability from a stand-alone hybrid system; the governing factor is the cost of the system if unlimited budget is not available. Therefore, to attain an optimum solution, they must study the relationship between system reliability and cost. This paper will concentrate on reviewing the current state of the local meteorological data generation, optimization and control technologies for the stand-alone hybrid solar– wind energy systems with battery storage and try to find what further work is needed .
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, solar radiation and temperature data and its sensitivity analysis was made . Köse (2010) theoret- ically examined energy generation from off grid and on grid hybrid energy systems consisted of wind and solar within the Kütahya Dumlupınar university Center Campus area. Similarly, Dursun et al., studied a local mi- cro-grid wind-PV hybrid system for a remote community with 50 houses in Edirne in order to determine the opti- mal configuration and also make a techno-economical analysis for the considered power generating systems by the HOMER software which was used in constructing and designing the power generating systems. Furthermore, fuel savings and reduction in carbon emissions of different hybrid systems are investigated . Moreover, the energy demand of a house in Gebze-Turkey, was met using wind energy as a primary energy source combined with rechargeable batteries are presented by Dursun and Gokcol. The wind turbine generators considered were of various nominal powers, ranging from 0.6 to 450 kW. For each wind turbine, the necessary number of batteries to continuously supply the house with energy was calculated and an economic analysis of each system was per- formed .
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Thus, there is a need for prior measurement and monitoring over time to verify their fact in the field. Long term location and time synchronized data would even be more valuable to produce big pictures of the field as well as detailed possible. Large wind energy companies require a complete wind speed data set at a chosen location ranging from 3 to 6 years before embarking in this capital and technology intensive project of renewable energy harvesting, thus eliminating guessing decision. They need to evaluate the variability over time from lowest to highest wind potential. Meanwhile, for solar energy harvesting, as long as there is no shadow on the solar PV panel, shorter observation and data collection of 1-3 years is enough, but the longer is the better to see the effect of changing weather and climate.
The electricity sector in India supplies the world's 5th largest energy consumer, accounting for 4.0% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. The Energy policy of India is largely controlled by the Government of India's, Ministry of Power, Ministry of Coal and Ministry of New Renewable Energy and administered locally by Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs).About 65.34% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants, 21.53% by hydroelectric power plants, 2.70% by nuclear power plants and 10.42% by Renewable Energy Sources. More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. The country has also invested severely in recent years in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energy. In 2010, India's installed wind generated electric capacity was 14,550 MW. Additionally, India has dedicated massive amount of funds for the construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30,000 MW. In July 2009, India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. 
Solar energy can be used to generate power through solar panel (photovoltaic), is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity through photocells. Photovoltaic (PV) production becomes double every two years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002 due to this reason, it has become the world’s fastest growing energy technology And also the Wind is a natural resource and can be harnessed as an alternative energy. Wind energy is a good choice to supplement for fossil energy demand. Vertical axis micro wind turbine has some advantages. VAMWT can capture the wind from all the directions. And also work in low wind speed at 4m/sec to 35 m/sec.
ABSTRACT: Solar energy is the most abundant stream of energy. It is available directly as solar isolation and indirectly as wind energy. Solar energy has the sources of renewable energy. Its potential is 178 Billion MW, which is about 20,000 times the world’s demand. Sun sends out energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. In this project we use the solar energy for generation of electrical energy, by using the Solar cells. The solar cells receive the solar energy. The solar cells operate on the photo-electric energy by using solar cells principle. The energy from the photo voltaic cells is used to switch on the lights. At present solar electric power generation systems are having fixed solar panels whose efficiency of generation is less. The aim of the project is to introduce the SOLAR TRACKING to the existing fixed solar panels, thus we are maintaining the constant maximum power output. Thus by using this tracking system we can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar electric power generation. For this tracking purpose we use a sensor and the input from the sensor is given to the micro controller and according to the program the panel is fixed to the maximum intensity position. Here we are using PIC micro controller. The 16F877 is a low-power, high- performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The opto-coupler used is to provide isolation between the micro controllers to the sensor circuits.
Tidal power is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electrical power. As tides are more predictable than wind and sunlight, tidal energy can easily be generated from the changing sea levels. Dams or barrages with water turbines can be placed diagonally in a river’s mouth or inlets to generate electricity from the motion of tides. The coast of Bangladesh has a tidal rise and fall from 2 to 5 meters. Among these coastal areas, Sandwip, which experiences 5-meter tidal waves, has the best prospect in generating tidal energy. Moreover, according to existing literature, Bangladesh can generate tidal power from these coastal tidal resources by applying low head tidal movements and medium head tidal movements. Low head tidal movements use tides of height from 2 m to 5 m in areas like Khulna, Barisal, Bagerhat, Satkhira and Cox’s Bazar regions. In contrast, medium height tidal movements use more than 5 m high tides which are available in Sandwip . So, geothermal can be a great source of energy for electricity generation in Bangladesh.
Solar PV technology is widely used all over the world. This method uses photovoltaic (PV) effect to generate electrical energy through the conversion of solar light into direct current (DC) electricity . This technology employs solar modules comprising a number of solar cells consisting of photovoltaic material. The two broad classifications of Solar PV applications are: standalone (off-grid) system and grid connected system . Komali Yenneti , et.al, explains the temporal evolution of policy and institutions responsible for solar energy development, after critically reviews the political economy of grid-connected solar energy in India, It indicates that the implementation of a range of programs, policies, and institutions plays a vital role in India’s solar energy portfolio on sector from less than 10 MW installed capacity in the 2000 to 3000 MW in 2014. Sreenath Sukumaran , et.al, states that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing and it remained above 400 ppm throughout the year 2016 for the ﬁrst time. In the emission of Greenhouse gas the aviation industry is the main contributor. In this regard, aviation industry as a whole and airports in particular are trying to limit their carbon foot print. A suitable solution is to replace the conventional electricity energy consumption of airport with clean energy sources. Solar PV route is nonpolluting source of electricity for large generation need larger area. Since vast areas are mandatory in airport as buffer zones, this land can be effectively used for utility scale solar PV plant. A 2 MWp onsite solar PV power plant is proposed for Raj Bhoj International Airport (RBIA), India
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Differences between the simulations executed using differ- ent spatial resolutions in local measures, such as the magne- topause nose position, do not show in global variables, such as the total energy through the dayside magnetopause sur- face. As can be seen in Fig. 6d, the curves of the two differ- ent spatial-resolution runs are almost identical. This empha- sizes that integrated quantities, such as energy, give a better representation of the true physical properties of the magneto- sphere in the GUMICS-4 solution and are not dependent on grid resolution (Janhunen et al., 2012). We acknowledge that using more sophisticated methods for identifying the magne- topause surface from the simulation could potentially lead to some changes in the results. The Shue model was used for its simplicity and computational ease. Our results agree in gen- eral with Palmroth et al. (2003), who identified the magne- topause by using plasma flow streamlines from GUMICS-4, indicating that the use of the Shue model does not introduce large errors into the energy estimates.
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