Ravindra Kohle et al  conducted experiments to determine the effect of copper oxide nano fluid (pure water mixed with copper nanoparticle with 30-50nm diameter) on the thermal efficiency enhancement of a HP at different operating conditions. The HP was made of straight copper tube of outer diameter 12 mm and inner diameter 10 mm. The length of condenser evaporator, adiabatic section is 65mm, 480mm, 50mm and respectively. Water and nanofluid was used as working fluid for filling HP. Black painted 0.5mm thick is given to copper plate whose dimension is 480 mm*560 mm. A condenser section used for water heating in this experiment was made rectangular cross-section having dimension 25mm*65mm. 30 mm thick glass wool insulation is used from Bottom and side wall of setup and top side was covered with transparent glass cover to reduce convention heat loss. The experimental solarcollector was installed on tilted stand facing south at yeolanashik, India (latitude 20.0420° N, longitude 74. 4890° E) and tested at outdoor condition. By taking Coolant (Water) flow rate 8kg/hr4kg/hr, and 5 different angles of inclination (20°, 31. 5°, 40°, 50°, 60°) of collector the experiment is carried throughout the day. From the experimental analysis, it was concluded that concluded that the solarcollector performance depends on coolant flow rate, heat flux at evaporator, working fluid and inclination angle and the thermal performance of HP collector increases as the coolant rate increases up to certain level after that increase in coolant rate has no effect on performance. It was also absorbed that as inclination angle increases from 20° to 50° the heat transfer rate increases while further increase in angle reduces the heat transfer rate. The photograph of experimental set up is shown in Fig.13. Results showed that CuOnanofluid has greater potential to enhance the performance of HP collector than that of water.
are stable suspensions of nano fibers and particles in fluids. Latest investigations show better thermal behavior such as improved thermal conductivity and convection coefficients in comparison to pure fluid or fluid with larger size particles. Performance of the heat pipe solarcollector was experimentally examined. The results shows when the heat pipe has Nano fluid(Tio 2 )+DI Water as working fluid was performing better than Methanol
of FPSC are shown in Fig. 1 and 2, respectively. The collector specifications are given in Table 1. When solar radiation of halogen lamps passes through a glass cover and hitting the blackened absorber surface of high absorptive, a large part solar energy is absorbed by the plate heat up, changing solar energy into heat energy. The heat is transferred to the transport medium in the fluid tubes to be carried away for storage or use. The fluid circulates in a closed system with using the water pump. Experimental procedure: The solarcollector performance has experimentally investigated in Karbala, Iraq latitude 32.6°N and longitude 44.02°E data is recorded under transient conditions. The solarcollector is tilted to South facing with 12° 22, 32, 42, 52 in Summer, the beam component is more than the diffuse component and thus the the main contribution comes from the beam component that leading to the optimum tilt is less usually latitude -10° (Gunerhan and Hepbasli, 2007) (Table 2).
4.4 Parallel solarcollector pipe distribution 67 5.1 Direction of water flow in parallel solarcollector tube 75 5.2 Direction of water flow in series solarcollector tube 75 Fig B1 Hot water system with parallel solarcollector 87
The design of the thermoelectric generator was started with main support structure, which is used to mount thermoelectric modules, the evacuated tube solarcollector and the cooling water tank. In the present design support structure body, makes the indirect support hot side of the thermoelectric generator module. The support structure design in the thermoelectric power generator is quite critical because in a very short time the energy (heat) should transfer from source to hot side of the thermoelectric generator module also this design should be such that it should not affect the performance of the cooling arrangement at cold of the thermoelectric generator modules.
Arasu and Sornakumar   designed and tested the fiberglass reinforced parabolic trough for parabolic trough solarcollector. It was tested under a load corresponding to force applied by a blowing wind with 34 m/s. They analyzed that the deflection at the center of the parabola was only 0.95 mm with wind drag force load of 72 kg, which is considered adequate. Yashavant  et al.  numerically investigated the performance of parabolic trough receiver with outer vacuum shell and compared with non-evacuated shell receiver. The vacuum shell configuration performs better than the non-evacuated tube even without a selective coating and is significantly better with selective coating.
Abstract This research work is concerned with comparative experimental analyses performed on parabolic solarcollector. It presents the experimental analyses on parabolic solarcollector at various operating conditions. For this experimental work, parabolic solarcollector was fabricated. Various comparisons have been done between mirror concentrator and aluminium sheet concentrator. Experimental readings have been taken at 12:30 PM and at 01:30 PM and then performance of the solarcollector has been found. For performance analyses, different pipe materials have been selected like copper pipe, aluminium pipe, brass pipe and mild steel pipe as receiver pipes. And different fluids have been selected for analyses like water and antifreeze ethylene glycol (coolant) as working fluids. Flowing fluids outlet temperatures, heat transfer rates and instantaneous efficiencies have been found at various operating conditions and then best operating condition for solarcollector has been identified. This experimental research work can be concluded as up to 92% instantaneous efficiency and 12.2ºC temperature difference between inlet-outlet temperatures are achieved with aluminium sheet collector but 1208.99 W heat transfer rate is found through mirror collector with copper pipe and coolant. After all experiments, calculations and graphs have been plotted, concluded that overall performance of fabricated solarcollector with the aluminum sheet collector, copper pipe and coolant is the best.
This specifically command control manages the quality and quantity of hot air blown into the house in all types of operation (established or transient) and as required by the user. The prototypes were tested in the laboratory and their performance has been highlighted by It showed, since its installation on different prototypes of solarcollector a good effective management of the thermal power and the quality of the inside temperature in the heated space. In addition to its low power consumption (a few milliamperes) required for this type of applications (photovoltaic energy source), it showed high reliability.
This paper presents a new experimental approach proposed to improve the conventional basin type solar still performances by integrating an internal solarcollector. A serpentine heat exchanger is integrated inside the still acting as a solarcollector to form an active solar still. The still productivity enhancement is verified experimentally through a comparative study with and without the internal solarcollector during typical summer days. The effect of water depth is evaluated by varying the water amount in the basin still. The experimental tests show that the integrated internal solarcollector acts as an effective heat source allowing more solar energy absorption which contributes to improving the still productivity. It was found that the still daily output is increased by about 20% and its thermal efficiency is improved by 16.8%.
Ning Zhu et al.,  developed a small power generation system making use of parabolic solarcollector, the thermoelectric generator and the battery. The solar light is collected by the parabolic solarcollector and focused on the thermoelectric generator, mounted at the focus point of parabolic solarcollector. The temperature difference is developed between the hot side and the cool side. One side of the thermoelectric generator is heated (hot side) while other side’s temperature is kept lower (cool side), causes the thermoelectric generator to generate the electricity. This electricity will be stored into the battery. In this system the maximum temperature difference reached to about 202 degree.
Thermal diode is important in designing of solar collectors, where heat is transferred only from the evaporator to the condenser, but never in the reverse direction. This feature can cut off the heat loss when the absorber temperature is lower than that of the liquid in the heat exchanger [4-7]. Several studies on heat pipe solar collectors are reported in the literature. Riffat, et al  studied developing a theoretical model to investigate thermal performance of a thin membrane heat-pipe solarcollector. In their work thin membrane heat- pipe solarcollector was designed and constructed to allow heat from solar radiation to be collected at a relatively high efficiency while keeping the capital cost low. Azad  investigated the heat pipe solarcollector theoretically and experimentally,
The project’s main objective is to develop and test a solar efficiency testing unit located in the School of Engineering building at Murdoch University. The unit mixes hot and cold water to achieve a specific temperature and flow rate. The main purpose of the unit is to test the efficiency of solar collectors, which is defined by Standards Australia to be “A Measure of the ratio of energy removed from a specified reference collector area by the heat transfer fluid over a specified time period, to the solar energy incident on the collector for the same period” (Mousa, 2009). During the test the unit feeds the solarcollector with water at a specific flow rate and temperature. As shown in Figure 1 below.
The flat plate collectors are the commonly used device for residential water and space-heating applications. Solar collectors have potential to fulfill the industrial process heating demands which helps in the saving of electric energy. Basically, solar collectors are used for the low temperature application due to its operating simplicity. From the non-concentrating collectors liquid flat plate solarcollector (LFPSC) is much preferable because of its design simplicity and more reliability. The main purpose of this paper is to give the selection criteria to create the best design and operational conditions with the best economic characteristics for solar flat plate collectors.
collector and fin length etc on first and second law performances. These performances have been compared for smooth solar air heater under the same operating parameters. From the study it was found with increasing the number of fins there is enhancement in the both performances parameters while increasing the duct height there is decrement in the both performances of SAHs. Furthermore optimal performance and mass flow rate has been achieved on the basis of second law analysis.
Solar energy is one of the best candidates to produce process heat at mid temperatures to satisfy the industrial demand. The interest in improving solar thermal collector efficiencies is huge, in order to take full advantage from this source of energy. TVPSolar is a leading company in the field of high-performance solar energy conversion that develops and produces an innovative flat-plate solar thermal collector under high vacuum. Vacuum technology ensures that both gas convective and conductive losses are reduced to a negligible level, so that these flat-panels are able to reach high working temperatures (up to 200 °C) . Concentrating Solar Power technology (CSP), combined with high vacuum insulation, could be an alternative to reach higher working temperatures. The sunlight concentration technology splits into two different broad categories: imaging and non-imaging concentration. As regarding Solar Thermal (ST) and photovoltaic (PV) applications, non-imaging concentration has been an interesting option, since mid-1960s . CSP usually uses only direct-beam sunlight , so mirrors require high cleaning standards and tracking systems to efficiently harness solar energy in day-light hours, resulting in high maintenance costs and installation issues. Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) is an example of non-imaging concentration of sunlight that could be designed for stationary or passive tracking thus having acceptable concentration ratio. Moreover, it can collect both direct-beam sunlight and part of diffuse light (only rays within the acceptance angle)  and concentrate them on an absorber tube. A new frontier in high efficiency solar collection could be a high vacuum flat solar panel, thick enough to be equipped with CPC. The CPC installed in a high vacuum envelope leads to various advantages: no need for mirror cleaning, no corrosion due to atmospheric agents, better insulation resulting in thermal loss reduction, possibility to deposit a IR reflective coating on the interior side of the glass to benefit from ‘photon recycling’ mechanism . A pioneering work  has experimentally investigated the idea to place a CPC under vacuum to reach the high temperatures needed for methanol reforming but CPC dimensions and performances were limited by the small volume of the cylindrical vacuum chamber. To extend CPC sizes the vacuum chamber must increase too, so the surface under vacuum needs a mechanical support to sustain the glass against the atmospheric pressure and the CPC has to be designed to respect the support mechanical constraint.
A heat transfer fluid is used to collect the heat from collector and transfer to the storage tank either directly or with the help of heat exchanger. In order to have an efficient SHW configuration, the fluid should have high specific heat capacity, high thermal conductivity, low viscosity, and low thermal expansion coefficient, anti-corrosive property and above all low cost. Among the common heat transfer fluids such as water, glycol, silicon oils and hydrocarbon oils, the water turns out to be the best among the fluids. Water is the cheapest, most readily available and thermally efficient fluid but does freeze and can cause corrosion.
To monitor the long term performance and capture real-time data, the Solar Center installed a data acquisition system at the Intek manufacturing facility. This data system allowed useful information to be collected on the performance of the system under a variety of conditions. In order to choose flow monitoring equipment properly, initial measurements were made on the air velocity in the distribution duct prior to installing a full data acquisition system. The velocity of the flow was measured with an Alnor Velometer at the following specified radius from the center of the 24” diameter duct: 0.316R, 0.548R, 0.707R, 0.837R, and 0.949R. These measurements were used to determine the average velocity in the duct and estimate the average flow rate. Then, two Air Monitor 24” Fan-Evaluator flow measuring stations were installed downstream from the fan outlet and coupled with two Omega PX-277 differential pressure transmitters to determine outlet air flow. The flow measuring device and temperature sensors in the distribution duct are shown in Figure 3.2.1.
The conclusion which we get from report is that the solar power is so useful to use and can be applied in our lives for so many purposes like from water boiling , making steam , generating electricity, and so many. This steam can also be used for air conditioning through absorption chillers. The steam is used to heat the lithium bromide which is a compound which absorbs the heat in the air making it cooler.
The design of the parabolic trough is defined by four main characteristics: the width, the length, the focal length, and the reflective material. For the present study, the length was constrained to 48 inches by the choice of an evacuated glass solar tube. Due to time constraints, a reflective material was chosen based on a response to an inquiry concerning Southwall Technologies’ Silver-BSR (data sheet provided in Appendix) material 2