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Sprint Training Reduces Urinary Purine Loss Following Intense Exercise in Humans

Sprint Training Reduces Urinary Purine Loss Following Intense Exercise in Humans

enzymatic and HPLC analysis, respectively). A greater number of participants will be required to clarify the situation, as the statistical power of the test for detecting a significant decrease is low (i.e., 38%) in the present study indicating that a Type 2 error is likely. The imbalance between ATP loss and its resynthesis/synthesis is considered to be responsible for the reduction in resting muscle ATP content. Assuming the elevation in purine excretion during recovery represents the loss of endogenous purines from the active muscle, the loss of purine metabolites in 24 hours recovery from an intense sprint bout represents around 2% of the resting ATP content in the untrained and trained state. This was estimated by calculating the extent of purine excretion relative to the active muscle. If skeletal muscle is 40% of body weight (76.1 kg) and the legs comprise 55% of the total muscle mass (Snyder et al. 1975), then the mean weight of the exercising muscle (both legs) is 3.85 kg d.m. (assuming 23% dry weight). The urinary purine loss is probably an underestimate, as uric acid can also cross into the gut (Sorensen and Levinson 1975). As well as reducing the production of purines in the muscle, the conservation of muscle purine nucleotides with sprint training could also be enhanced by an increased capacity of intramuscular purine recovery after sprint training. Evidence of an elevated activity of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) following sprint training (Hellsten-Westing et al. 1993b) supports this possibility and provides a mechanism to further reduce the loss of purines from the muscle following exercise in the trained state.
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Effect of combined uphill downhill sprint training on kinematics and maximum running speed in experienced sprinters

Effect of combined uphill downhill sprint training on kinematics and maximum running speed in experienced sprinters

Besides these acute effects of slopes on sprinting, training on downhill slopes (3°) for 6 weeks produced significant increases (p < 0.05) in MRS (1.1%) and step rate (2.3%) [1]. Under similar training conditions (duration, volume, and intensity) sprint training on a 3° uphill slope did not produce any significant changes in MRS for physical education (PE) students [1]. However, training for 6 to 8 weeks on the combined uphill-downhill (U+D) sloping surfaces (3°) produced superior improvements (p < 0.05) for both MRS (from 3.5% to 5.9%) and step rate (from 3.4% to 7.4%) when compared to any other training method on sloping surfaces [1, 4, 5]. These improvements in MRS and step rate were predominantly due to a 17% shorter concentric phase of the contact time [5]. Interestingly, these changes were linked to the observed improvements in the force generation properties of the leg flexor muscles. The U+D training improved the maximal bilateral isometric force by 7.1% and the relative and absolute time of force production by 24.7% [5]. These findings supported the emphasized role of the hamstring muscle group in the sprint action as the main energy supplier for the forward propulsion action during contact time [6-8].
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Hypoxic repeat sprint training improves rugby player's repeated sprint but not endurance performance

Hypoxic repeat sprint training improves rugby player's repeated sprint but not endurance performance

Generally the addition of hypoxia during exercise results in substantially higher ratings of perceived exertion (Shephard et al., 1992; Buchheit et al., 2012; Goods et al., 2014). It seems that when exercising under hypoxic conditions, even when the workload is reduced to account for the lowered oxygen availability (Buchheit et al., 2012), participants perceive the exercise to be more difficult. Some of this increased effort is probably due to the increased ventilator drive required during hypoxic exercise (Katayama et al., 2001), but increased peripheral muscular sensation via accumulation of hypoxic metabolites (Hogan et al., 1999) is probably also involved. Exercise under hypoxic conditions can also have a negative effect on cerebral oxyhemoglobin levels (Monroe et al., 2016) which may affect sensations directly. The increased perceived effort reported by the athletes in this study when adding normobaric hypoxia to high-intensity exercise (average training RPE increased from 14.7 to 15.6 in the hypoxic group compared to 13.9–15.5, in the normoxic group over the eight training sessions) is similar to previous research (Aliverti et al., 2011), but is in contrast to a recent study (Brocherie et al., 2016). Brocherie et al. (2016) found a slow reduction in the perceived effort reported by elite field hockey athletes as they completed six sessions of repeat-sprint training (four sets of five reps of 5 s running sprints in FIO2 ∼14.5%) over 2 weeks (average training RPE decreased from 14.6 to 13.1 in the hypoxic group and increased from 14.4 to 14.8 in the normoxic group over six training sessions). Differences between studies may be due to the exercise mode (cycling compared to running), the caliber of athletes (elite field hockey players compared to well-trained rugby players), or the fact that athletes performed the training while resided at a simulated altitude of ∼3000 m (Brocherie et al., 2016). In addition, the current study design with an increased resistance during training days 3 and 4 and a 3-week break between intervention 1 and 2 probably did not allow for such acclimation to be studied as rigorously as Brocherie’s study.
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THE EFFECT OF SPRINT TRAINING ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE PURINE NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM

THE EFFECT OF SPRINT TRAINING ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE PURINE NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM

Eight untrained subjects (six male and two female), performed a 30 s maximal sprint bout on a bicycle ergometer before and after a seven week intense sprint training regime. Venous blo[r]

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Gas exchange kinetics in elite runners

Gas exchange kinetics in elite runners

After a regime of sprint training, higher concentrations of blood lactate can be observed during maximal exercise (Boobis et al 1983, Nevill et al 1989, Sharp et al 1986) and this might be due to the higher levels of intramuscular glycogen and glycolytic enzymes present. Sprint training requires considerable motivation and increased pain tolerance to the metabolic acidosis could contribute to the higher levels of blood lactate observed after sprint exercise in the trained state. Improvements in the capacity of muscle to buffer the protons associated with lactate accumulation could also be of importance, as training is known to lead to reduced lactate accumulation through greater clearance potential (Phillips et al. 1995b). Muscle H* regulation is enhanced after sprint training, with an increased in vivo muscle buffering capacity in type II muscle fibres of humans (Sharp et al. 1986) and an increased muscle
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Combined sprint and resistance training abrogates age differences in somatotropic hormones

Combined sprint and resistance training abrogates age differences in somatotropic hormones

In the present study, training-induced increases in basal GH occurred between trained groups, and ameliorated the age effect at P2. Such findings are in accordance with recent inves- tigations demonstrating that intense training increases GH in males [80, 81]. However, other studies have not observed perturbations to basal GH after sprint [34, 82, 83] or resistance [83] training performed alone.The relatively short half-life of GH and the “snapshot” nature of basal hormone sampling may explain discrepancies in resultsas GH during rest loses half of its physiologic activity in10-30 minutes following secretion [84]. This brief period of hormonal activity depends on several factors such as diet, sleep duration, blood sampling (stress response from the vascular puncture) and time of the day [20, 84] which contributes to fluctuations in basal GH. The most reproducible pulse of GH secretion however, occurs in response to intense exercise, when rate of secretion exceeds rate of degradation [85]. For example, Nevill et al. [34] reported GH to be tenfold higher than basal levels in sprinters following exercise and were greater than those measured in endurance athletes. GH increases may also be exercise volume dependent as 30s all-out sprints resulted in greater GH response than 6 s sprints and remained high for >90 minutes compared to 60 min following 6 s sprint [86]. An alternative explanation for discrepancies with previous investigations is the utilisation of concurrent trainingin the present study, rather than only resistatnce or only sprint training previously investigated.
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Anaerobic performance in masters athletes

Anaerobic performance in masters athletes

To our knowledge, only two studies have specifically examined the effects of anaerobic or resistance training on anaerobic performance in masters athletes [34, 128]. We examined the effects of an 8-week hypertrophy resistance training program on muscular strength, thigh girth mea- sured anthropometrically, and both 100 and 300 m sprint performance in eight high-performance male sprint runners aged 45–79 years who maintained their normal sprint training over the study period. Significant increases in both isoinertial and isokinetic strength, thigh girth, and 100- and 300-m track performance following resistance training were observed [126]. More recently, Cristea and others [34] examined the effects of a 20-week progressive and combined sprint and strength training program on muscle morphology and contractile characteristics in seven elite sprint runners (66±3 years) with no prior strength training experience. The researchers observed significant increases in isometric torque of the knee extensors (21%) and flexors (40%), 1-RM squat (27%), squat jump (10%), triple jump (4%), reactive jump test power (29%), rate of force development of braking (12%) and propulsion (14%), together with significant increases in 10 m sprint velocity (4%) and 60 m sprint time (2%). These performance changes were accompanied by a 9% increase in neural activity (iEMG) in the jump squat and hypertrophy of the type II (17%) and IIA (20%) fibers. The inves- tigators concluded that the major adaptation to com- bined sprint and resistance training appears to be improved speed and power performance as a result of muscle hypertrophy, primarily of the muscle fibers expressing type II myosin heavy chain isoforms. Taken together, the results of the two studies above strongly suggest that resistance training combined with speed training enhan- ces anaerobic performance in well-trained and motivated masters athletes.
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The Training and Development of Elite Sprint Performance: an Integration of Scientific and Best Practice Literature

The Training and Development of Elite Sprint Performance: an Integration of Scientific and Best Practice Literature

Despite a voluminous body of research devoted to sprint training, our understanding of the training process leading to a world-class sprint performance is limited. The objective of this review is to integrate scientific and best practice literature regarding the training and development of elite sprint performance. Sprint performance is heavily dependent upon genetic traits, and the annual within-athlete performance differences are lower than the typical variation, the smallest worthwhile change, and the influence of external conditions such as wind, monitoring methodologies, etc. Still, key underlying determinants (e.g., power, technique, and sprint-specific endurance) are trainable. In this review, we describe how well-known training principles (progression, specificity, variation/ periodization, and individualization) and varying training methods (e.g., sprinting/running, technical training, strength/power, plyometric training) are used in a sprint training context. Indeed, there is a considerable gap between science and best practice in how training principles and methods are applied. While the vast majority of sprint-related studies are performed on young team sport athletes and focus on brief sprints with maximal intensity and short recoveries, elite sprinters perform sprinting/running over a broad range of distances and with varying intensity and recovery periods. Within best practice, there is a stronger link between choice of training component (i.e., modality, duration, intensity, recovery, session rate) and the intended purpose of the training session compared with the “ one-size-fits-all ” approach in scientific literature. This review provides a point of departure for scientists and practitioners regarding the training and development of elite sprint performance and can serve as a position statement for outlining state-of-the-art sprint training recommendations and for generation of new hypotheses to be tested in future research.
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The Long-term Effects of Colostrum Supplementation
and Sprint-Endurance Training on Plasma VEGF Levels
in Male Wistar Rats

The Long-term Effects of Colostrum Supplementation and Sprint-Endurance Training on Plasma VEGF Levels in Male Wistar Rats

Distribution of VEGF values determined by the K-S test was normal (P > 0.05). Comparison of the aforesaid groups using one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the mean values of VEGF (P = 0.001); thus, groups were compared using Tukey test and 95% CI. Figure 1 illustrates the mean and standard deviation of VEGF values. The results of this study showed that VEGF values of rats in the groups 2 (endurance training+saline), 3 (sprint training+saline), 5 (endurance training+colostrum supplementation), and 6 (sprint training+colostrum supplementation) significantly increased compared to those in the control group (P = 0.001). VEGF values in group 4 (colostrum supplementation) also significantly increased compared to those in the control group (P = 0.033). Results indicated greater increases of VEGF values in training groups receiving colostrum supplements
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Evaluation study on training of 100m sprint athletes based on improved D S evidence theory

Evaluation study on training of 100m sprint athletes based on improved D S evidence theory

Speed concludes acceleration ability, speed-endurance, absolute velocity, movement speed, speed ability [4]. For different speed, the corresponding training can be applied. Special technique concludes optimal special exercise, the training technique that can improve swing amplitude, the training technique that can improve swing ability. Strength concludes strength of hip muscle, strength of lumbar muscle, strength of lower limbs, the evaluation index system of 100m sprint training is established, which is shown in table 1.

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Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

Training effect on CAC mobilisation and function The present study is the first to evaluate the effects of sprint training on CAC mobilisation and function and demonstrated an increase in circulating CD34 + cells following SIT and SCT but no change in its subpopulation CD34 + /CD45 dim , suggesting that a different subpopulation of CD34 + cells were mobilised. The enhanced CD34 + cells did not correlate with FMD at pre-training or training induced changes in FMD, indicating that these cells may not have been directly involved in the increase in brachial artery endothelial function. It is possible that the elevated numbers of CD34 + cells were recruited to other parts of the body such as the arteries supplying blood to the exercising muscles. Further- more, cultured CACs adhesive and migratory ability did not alter following both training programmes. Conversely, increases in CAC function following exercise training have been documented in populations with or at risk of CVD [12,13,55]. However, healthy individuals do not exhibit impaired CAC function [10], which likely explains why an increase in CAC function was not observed in the present study. Furthermore, increases in CAC migratory ability occurred in those with lower pre-training levels in the present study, supporting the suggestion that exercise training increases CAC function, only when an impairment in CAC function is present at pre-training.
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Physiological responses to shuttle repeated-sprint running

Physiological responses to shuttle repeated-sprint running

Time-motion analysis of team and intermittent sports has revealed that decisive moments in a match are often preceded by short, high-intensity sprints in the range of 10–30 m or 2–4 s [38]. The ability to repeat these high-intensity, short-duration efforts following short recovery periods, has been termed ‘repeated sprint ability’ (RSA), and has been shown to be a good predictor of match-related physical performance in top-level professional soccer players [36]. Thus, RSA is considered an important fitness component for team-sport athletes [24, 38]. As change of direction ability has also been recognized as a strong prerequisite for successful participation in team sports [5], 180° turns have also been introduced in RSA tests (e.g., [12-15, 28, 34]) and during repeated sprint training sessions [4, 11, 12].
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FACTORS INFLUENCING MUSCLE PURINE NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM

FACTORS INFLUENCING MUSCLE PURINE NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM

The second study re-examined the influence of sprint training with a focus on investigating purine excretion following an intense sprint bout. The study followed the fate of the endogenous purine metabolites produced following exercise, and the influence of sprint training, downstream of their accumulation in the plasma, via their loss in the urine. The loss of purines via urinary excretion following exercise has not been examined extensively. Thus, the influence of sprint training on endogenous urinary purine loss was examined in seven active, non sprint-trained, male subjects to investigate the role of an increased metabolic stress on purine excretion. Each subject performed a 30s sprint performance test (PT), before and after 7 days of sprint training. Training consisted of 15 x 10s sprints on an air-braked cycle ergometer, twice daily with at least 6 hours between sessions. Although there was no change in measured performance variables after sprint training there were some metabolic adaptations. Sprint training resulted in a 20% higher post-exercise muscle ATP content, a lower IMP (57% and 89%, post-exercise and 10 min recovery, respectively), and inosine accumulation (53% and 56%, post-exercise and 10 min recovery, respectively). Sprint training also attenuated the exercise-induced increases in plasma inosine, Hx and uric acid during the first 120 min of recovery and reduced the total urinary excretion of purines (inosine + Hx + uric acid) in the 24 hours recovery following intense exercise. These results show that intermittent sprint training reduces the total urinary purine excretion after a 30s sprint bout.
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Sprint interval training on the vertical treadmill improves aerobic and anaerobic running performance

Sprint interval training on the vertical treadmill improves aerobic and anaerobic running performance

Millet et al., 2002; Mutton et al., 1993; Ruby et al., 1996; Wag- ner et al., 2013). In contrast, the intervention in this study con- sisted of repeated bouts of maximal intensity VertiRun exercise, rather than continuous submaximal exercise, partly due to diffi- culties in quantifying and subsequently matching the training load between VeritRun exercise and overground sprint training. Differences in the training load and metabolic demands probably existed due to the nature of the exercise modes and posture-relat- ed differences between the exercise modes. The sprint group had to support their own body weight, however the metabolic load might have been limited by the relatively low metabolic cost of deceleration phases that are not compensated by the demands of reacceleration in the changing direction of shuttle running (Hader et al., 2016). In contrast, VertiRun exercise is nonweight bearing, however resistance bands tethered to the ankles provided resis- tance to the musculature of the posterior chain and the 30-sec maximal bouts were uninterrupted by changes in direction. Matching training loads based on speed or internal measures such as heart rate and VO 2 would not be valid due to differences in the
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Effects of a Four-Week Small-Sided Game and Repeated Sprint Ability Training during and after Ramadan on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacities in Senior Basketball Players

Effects of a Four-Week Small-Sided Game and Repeated Sprint Ability Training during and after Ramadan on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacities in Senior Basketball Players

Background. Most studies related to the effect of Ramadan fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performances found in the literature were concerned with individual sports; even studies on team sports were mostly dedicated to football, and none of those studies were involved basketball competitions. Objectives. This field investigation examined the effects of a training program in the basics of small-sided games (SSGs) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) during Ramadan observance (R) and a month after Ramadan (AR) (control month)on aerobic and (''anaerobic'') performances in fasting basketball players. Methods. Sixteen basketball players (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; height, 1.86 ± .09 m; body mass, 78.3±11.0 kg; and VO 2max , 51.0 ± 2.7 ml.min -1 .kg -1 ) performed two training programs (SSG and RSA) during R and AR, interrupted by
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Low Volume High Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio Metabolic and Psychological Health

Low Volume High Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio Metabolic and Psychological Health

HIT and MICT both led to reductions in plasma NEFA, TC and LDL-C and an increase in HDL-C. Eight weeks of HIT has previously been shown to reduce TC and LDL-C, but did not increase HDL-C, in lean individuals [37]. A strong trend for a reduction in plasma TG concen- tration was also observed following training ( p = 0.052). Closer inspection of the data indicates that this is driven by the decrease in TG following HIT (Table 3). This is the first study, to the authors ’ knowledge, to observe a reduction in TG following low-volume HIT. This is impor- tant, since high fasting plasma TG concentrations are associated with a high cardiovascular dis- ease risk [38]. The lack of change in TG in response to MICT in the present study is not immediately clear, but could be the consequence of the greater variation observed in TG con- centrations in the MICT group (see Table 3), or the use of intention-to-treat analysis in which 8 baseline values were carried forward. Nevertheless, the improvements in aerobic capacity, whole body insulin sensitivity, and reduced adiposity in addition to the improvements in blood lipids following 10 weeks of group-based HIT will result in meaningful reductions in cardiovas- cular and metabolic disease risk.
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Effect of plyometric training on athletic performance in preadolescent soccer players

Effect of plyometric training on athletic performance in preadolescent soccer players

Michailidis, Y. (2015). Effect of plyometric training on athletic performance in preadolescent soccer players. J. Hum. Sport Exerc., 10(1), pp.15-23. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of plyometric training on performance of preadolescent soccer players. 21 players assigned to two groups: jumping-group (JG, n = 11) and control-group (CG, n = 10). Training program was performed for 10 weeks. Anaerobic power performances were assessed by using standing long jump (SLJ), 10 m and 30 m sprint. In the JG the performance at the long jump was increased significantly (P = 0.031). Also the performance of JG increased at 30m sprint running by 7.2 % (P < 0.001). None of the variables tested in the CG demonstrated difference between the pre-test and the post-test. Our results indicate that plyometric training can improve running performance at 30 m sprint and the performance at standing long jump in preadolescent soccer players. Key words: PLYOMETRIC, JUMP, SPRINT, PERFORMANCE, PREADOLESCENT.
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Physiological Effects of Adding a Percentage of Body Weight During a 7 Week Stair Climbing Sprint Interval Training Program

Physiological Effects of Adding a Percentage of Body Weight During a 7 Week Stair Climbing Sprint Interval Training Program

The participants climbed as many stairs as possible in a 15-sec bout without weight. For both groups (Table 2), no-weight was used during the first wk of SC SIT to ensure all participants became familiarized with SC SIT. Upon completion of the first wk, participants continued with SC SIT in their respective training groups: Control Group - 7 wk non-weighted, and 10/20% BW Group – (1 wk non-weighted + 3 wk with 10% BW + 3wk with 20% BW). The purpose of increasing the weight was to provide a progressive overload and determine if further improvements in MVO 2 and skeletal muscle performance could be elicited during weighted SC. The addition of 10% and 20% BW had been previously used in treadmill and stair climbing exercise training studies (Cress et al., 1991; Puthoff et al., 2006;
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Volume 5, Issue 9, 2019

Volume 5, Issue 9, 2019

The allocated grouped participants of the study agreed not to change or increase their current exercise routine during the course of the study. The sprint specific plyometric training group participated in a six week exercise program thrice a week which included various jumping, bounding and sprinting exercises designed (table 1) where the control group continued their routine training schedule. Participants were tested before and after the six weeks training period. The procedure was conducted using telemetric Noraxon TELEMYO U.S.A., Inc.v3.1.10 machine. The readings of total 10 muscles (5 on each side was taken) which included the tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius and semitendinosis. The readings were taken while running on treadmill on speed of 2.7m/s for 30 seconds before and after six weeks period (11) .
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Improvements in attention and cardiac autonomic modulation after a 2-weeks sprint interval training program: a fidelity approach

Improvements in attention and cardiac autonomic modulation after a 2-weeks sprint interval training program: a fidelity approach

Participants were recruited through advertisements placed across the university campus. They were invited and received detailed information about the study and subsequently signed an informed written consent. Participants were instructed not to perform any change in their routines (e.g., incidental physical activity, sleeping hours, nutritional habits, etc.), and not to consume alcohol or caffeine several hours before sessions. The criteria for participation in the study were: not consuming tobacco, medications, supplements, or any drug that could compromise the evaluations; being free of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and attention disorders; and not being pregnant. Each participant was informed about the study design and signed a consent form before participating in this study. One hundred and nine participants from a total of 114 candidates were eligible and randomly allocated into experimental (n = 89) and control (n = 20) groups. After the training and control periods, some participants from both experimental (n = 17) and control (n = 1) groups withdrew from the study because of lack of time. The local ethics committee of Catholic University of Brasilia, in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki, approved the current study (Protocol number: 43515415.1.0000.0029).
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