Rats suffering from adjuvant arthritis (AA) were used to examine the effect of a staticmagneticfield (SMF) upon pain relief. Rats were divided into SMF- treated AA rats, non-SMF treated AA rats and con- trol rats. Following SMF stimulation, we measured blood flow volume in the paw and then reactive speed response to thermal stimulation. The AA groups ex- hibited significantly lower blood volume and reacti- vity to thermal stimulation compared to the control group. Compared to non-SMF, SMF exhibited in- creased blood flow volume in both the tail and paw, along with an increased reactive speed response to thermal stimulation. Our findings suggest that an im- proved of blood flow and reactive speed response, in- duced by SMF, appears to be effective for the relief of pain induced by chronic inflammation.
Fig. 5. Microvasodilatory response to the same dose of intravenous (iv) bolus injection of sodium nitroprusside. Segments of experimental recordings before and after local action of a 350 mT staticmagneticfield (SMF) on sinocarotid baroreceptors under conscious condition with pentobarbital sedation. MAP, mean femoral arterial blood pressure; HR, heart rate; MPPG, microcirculatory blood flow measured by microphotoelectric plethysmography; Ni, Ph, doses of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (μg kg-1) given by iv bolus injection. CONT, initial control readings; SHAM, after SHAM magnets exposure; SMF, after staticmagneticfield exposure. Note, the sodium nitroprusside NO-mediated vasodilatory effect (reflected by MPPG swings up) markedly increased after 40 min of a 350 mT SMF exposure to sinocarotid baroreceptors.
This study was conducted to reduce aflatoxin B1 produced by Aspergillus flavus under the influence of magneticfield and under solid state fermentation. The fungus was exposed to the north pole and then compared its effect with the control treatment (without the magneticfield energy). The substrates used for the growth of A. flavus (corn, wheat, rice and wheat flour) were obtained from the local market and sterilized by autoclaving. A staticmagneticfield of 100 Gauss was subjected to the A. flavus for (7, 14 and 21) days of fermentation at 28°C and 25% moisture content. The concentration of aflatoxin B1 has been determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). At the end of each fermentation period and according to the extraction procedure provided with the ELISA kit. The extract was tested for the aflatoxin B1 concentration and the results were statistically analyzed. The results showed that the north pole significantly decreased the aflatoxin B1 concentration for the corn during (7, 14 and 21) days. The north pole also significantly decreased the aflatoxin B1 concentration for the wheat for the two periods (7and 14) days, but there were no significant differences in the last period (21days). While for the rice, the north pole significantly decreased the aflatoxin B1 concentration for the three periods (7, 14 and 21) days, but there are no significant differences in the last period (21days) between the control and the north pole treatment. There was no effect of the north pole for the wheat flour with some rise in the proportion of aflatoxin B1 as compared with control treatment and this would be due to the low moisture content in the three periods (7,14, 21) days. This study clearly demonstrated that there are significant effects of the staticmagneticfield in decreasing the aflatoxin B1 concentration produced by Aspergillus flavus.
In terms of pollutants degradation using magnetic technology, Jung et al.  showed that the efficiency of phenol biodegradation rate increased to 30% by applying a magneticfield of 450 mT as compared to the control system. Łebkowska et al.  found that a staticmagneticfield of 7 mT could enhance formaldehyde biodegradation and decrease in COD concentration by greater 30% and 26% respectively, in comparison with the control. Zhu et al.  noted that the significant biodegradation rate of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was at 11 mT of magneticfield which exposed in the famine period. Meanwhile, Liu et al.  found a maximum 50% increase on nitrogen removal at the value of 75 mT. These investigations indicated that the application of magneticfield on activated sludge could enhance the growth of microbes and also improve the removal efficiencies of some pollutants. It is believed that magneticfield assisted the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. This is because iron compounds can be magnetized when exposed to magneticfield. This helped to enlarge the flocs size when the iron compounds were assembled together under the influence of magneticfield . Thus, more microbes aggregated, and growth resulted more biogranules were formed and increased the efficiencies of the removal performance.
Device heating is caused primarily by the RF field, a rapidly varying (10’s to 100’s of MHz) electromagnetic field with a magneticfield component applied perpendicularly to the staticmagneticfield for imaging purposes. The RF field deposits power in the human body even under normal circumstances (no device present), quantified by the specific absorption rate (SAR), measured in W/kg . When a conducting medical device is present, the interactions are much stronger and the RF field can induce significant current flow in the device which can cause device heating , –. Medical devices can also cause increased electric fields around the device, leading to higher levels of SAR; causing heating in patient tissue in the vicinity of the device . Heating is also caused by the gradient magnetic fields, which are spatially and temporally varying (kHz frequency range) magnetic fields used in imaging, applied along (alone or in combination) x-, y- and z-axes. These time varying gradient fields can also induce currents within medical devices, which also causes device heating , , . RF heating is most prominent in long, extended devices which are of a resonant length for the RF frequency used. Gradient heating is more significant in devices with significant cross-sectional area, and there is no significant resonant effect .
which lowers the output power. The energy conversion efficiency is increased by reduction on the reflection of incident light by; use of antireflective coating and optical confinement of incident light with textured surface. Abstract: Abundance of solar energy presents solar PV as the best energy solution for most developing countries to meet the energy needs of their growing population. Solar PV technology is rarely used as the major power source in most countries; this is due to their poor conversion efficiencies which are less than 30% and high production cost. This study reports variance of PV parameters for polycrystalline (pc-Si) module when subjected to a staticmagneticfield equivalent in magnitude to the earth‟s magneticfield. The magnitude of the magneticfield was varied from 0.00mT to 0.08mT. The Solar cell output current and voltage were obtained under indoor conditions then normalized to outdoor environmental conditions for both Standard Testing Conditions (STC) and Typical Module Operating Temperatures (TMOT). Experimental results showed that maximum power (P MPP ) obtainable from the module decreased
In our study, histo-pathological evaluations revealed that fibrocyte population was significantly higher (p<0.05) in fibroblast-magnet group than those of no substance, magnet, and culture medium groups. Most probably, it’s due to injection of fibroblasts in the defected area. However, simultaneous application of culture substance and staticmagneticfield might have a positive effect on cell proliferation by disposing nutrients and direct fibroblast stimulation. 41 Collagen
This study was designed to investigate the effects of applying 1 mT staticmagneticfield (SMF) during the vitrification process, on the viability of ovarian follicles after vitrification- warming and autotransplantation. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, ovaries of female NMRI mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: 1- Freshly isolated ovaries fixed in Bouin solution (control group), 2- Ovaries vitrified-warmed without exposure to magneticfield (V1 group) and 3- Ovaries exposed to magneticfield during equilibration step of the vitrification process (V2 group). In the second phase, the vitrified (V1 and V2 groups) and fresh ovarian tissues were autografted into the back muscles of the mice from which the ovaries were extracted. In both phases, morphological aspects and molecular characteristics of active-apoptotic caspase-3 antibody were evaluated. Results indicated the lower percentages of morphologically intact primordial, primary and antral follicles in the V1 group (67.6, 49.5 and 17.6%, respectively) than those of control (97.3, 85.4 and 42.1%, respectively) and V2 (94.1, 78.8 and 40.9%, respectively) groups. In addition, the mean percentages of morphologically intact follicles in the V1 group were statistically lower than those in other groups, after transplantation. The rate of apoptosis in preantral follicles of the V1 group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. It was concluded that exposure of mice ovaries to SMF during vitrification resulted in greater resistance to injuries.
Finally, we believe that experimental verification of the predic- tions from either the relativistic or the nonrelativistic equation on quasi-atomic quantized energy levels of electrons traversing a strong staticmagneticfield would be very desirable. Such measurements can be performed by studying, for example, Compton scattering of laser light with electrons when both beams move parallel along the magneticfield lines. Registration of radiated photons, caused by elec- tron transitions from higher to lower orbits, and the measurement of their energy spectrum should allow to resolve the difference between the relativistic and nonrelativistic predictions and should also be a good test for the way we choose to add the interaction terms to the Dirac equation.
Twenty-one male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus albinus) were used in this randomized experimental study, aiming at the use of permanent magnetic fields buried in vivo. The animals were six-months old and weighed in average 450 grams. They were divided into three experimental and control groups, which were analyzed on days 15, 45 and 60 after beginning of the experiment.
In this study, we presented a method for estimating the SLP in magnetic hyperthermia in the presence of both the AMF and SMF, which was derived by solving the magneti- zation relaxation equation of Shliomis  numerically. We also presented the results obtained by simulation studies under various conditions of MNPs, AMF, and SMF. Our results shown in Figure 4 to Figure 7 suggest that the SLP in magnetic hyperthermia can be controlled using the SMF and that our method will be useful for selecting the optimal parameters for controlling the temperature rise in magnetic hyperthermia in order to reduce the risk of overheating surrounding healthy tissues.
according to the guidelines proposed by Lu et al.  to achieve a more controlled and stable blowout of the elec- trons, with no self-injection. In order to limit the computa- tional requirements of our PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simula- tions the propagation of the pump pulse will not exceed 1 cm, moreover we restrict our study to 2Dx3Dv (two- di- mensional space and three-dimensional velocity). We fo- cus on wakefield acceleration in the presence of an exter- nal, initially homogenous, magneticfield and we study its influence through PIC simulations. In the first part of this paper, we will give the simulation setup and we will spec- ify how the plasma is magnetized. Then, in the second part, the main findings induced by the magneticfield will be detailed. Attention will be paid to self-consistent amplifi- cation of the magneticfield at the rear of the bubble. The emittance of the accelerated beam will be compared with or without B 0 field. In the third part, the influence of the
The magneticfield produced for the in planta portable NMR experiments results in a compromise between the generation of a homogenous magneticfield on the one side and self- heating to avoid heating stress of the plant on the other side (it is assumed that the local surrounding sorghum stem tem- perature increase should remain < 1T (K) = 10 K). In our case, the choice of the intensity of magneticfield at 8 mT was based on a compromise between the SNR closed to the one demonstrated in pioneer work (Asfour, 2011) and the portability of the device in fields. The use of SHS coils al- lows us to seek the best compromise thanks to the splitting of the dissipated power over several coils. Lastly, the appli- cation requires access to the center of the coil and has led us to consider a constrained design option.
Moderate intensity SMF is characterized by permanent magnet which produces the magneticfield limit of 1mT-1T. Normal whole human body safety exposure limit were set up to 400mT of moderate intensity SMF (ICNIRP, 2009). Number of the studies were conducted between these exposure limit cause biological effects on most of the system in rodents. According to researchers (Gorczynska and Wegrzynowicz 1991, Elferchichi et al ., 2011, Laszlo et al ., 2011, Amara et al ., 2006, Elferchichi et al ., 2010, Lahbib et al ., 2010), experiment conducted by using magneticfield less than 200mT is suitable for metabolic alteration in living organism. In the past decade, there has been substantial and growing evidence that moderate intensity Staticmagnetic fields (SMF) ranging 1mT-1T (Rosen, 2010) can influence physiological processes.
An image can then be generated by manipulation of the magnetization using RF signals with the same frequency as the Larmor frequency. This will flip the magnetization so it deviates from the aligned direction for a measurable time. The magnetization density and response time will vary for different tissues, which is used to distinguish different organs from each other. The higher the staticmagneticfield of the scanner is, the more hydrogen protons are aligned, and the stronger the signal will be, leading to an improved signal to noise ratio and a shorter scan time. In order to spatially excite and localize signals from different areas in the body, switched gradients are used to designate each spatial position with a unique Larmor frequency to be excited with RF signals.
extracellular electron transfer (EET) and facilitated exo- electrogens (Geobacter) enrichment on the anode surface of MFCs resulting in high power generation . The growth of microorganisms can be stimulated or inhibited depending on the intensity of a MF , and the appro- priate range of a MF intensity that would serve to enrich exoelectrogens, thus enhancing the power generation of MFCs, has not yet been elucidated. As such, the use of MFs in BESs still needs to be explored further. Addition- ally, the direction and intensity of a pulsed magneticfield are constantly changing, which can affect the aggregation of microorganisms and, in turn, affect the stability of exo- electrogens. In contrast, a staticmagneticfield (SMF) pro- vided by a magnet is stable in both direction and intensity, which could be conducive to the stability of the microor- ganisms present in BESs. Magnets have good conductivity and can be constructed at different sizes and thicknesses according to the application requirements. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on MFC performance and the formation of exoelectrogens directly, we constructed MFCs utilizing magnets as anodes. The magnets of dif- ferent SMF intensities were obtained utilizing different thermal-demagnetizing temperatures. The response of exoelectrogenic communities to different intensities of SMFs in MFCs was analyzed based on Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons.
Normally, the distribution of magneticfield flux in the region of stable magneticfield in electromagnet is nearly homogeneous, which means that only exist a very small gradient of magneticfield at most. However, due to the electrode’s magnetic properties, an inhomogeneous magneticfield should be induced on the electrode surface after the ferromagnetic electrodes were placed in a staticmagneticfield. The magnetic flux was distorted and tend to concentrate into the area near electrode surface, and created a strong magnetic gradient B (Figure 7a). When imposing a weak magneticfield, the ferromagnetic Fe-30wt%Si particles in solution will move preferentially towards the locations of higher B . As the result, the 30wt%Si particles will be self-assembled into rod-like structures with a predominant orientation lengthwise along the field direction(Figure 7b).
3. Relatively speaking in the third method where vertical electrostatic field in parallel with staticmagneticfield is used capacitance is developed between the two contacts and charged particle moves in a region where both the magnetic and electric field is present. The instantaneous current due to this is then measured, hence overcoming the drawback of logarithmic amplifiers, but this method is useful for the Double Ceramic VI only which can provide shielding electrode link at outer periphery.