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Analysis of symmetric key establishment based on reciprocal channel quantization

Analysis of symmetric key establishment based on reciprocal channel quantization

Key establishment rates received considerable attention in the past [6-21]. In general, the achievable key refreshing rates depend on channel decorrelation in time. If key refreshing rates are too fast, the channel doesn’t decorrelate sufficiently to ensure that successive channel estimates and subsequent generated secret bits are uncorrelated. The strength of the key is diminished if successive secret bits are correlated. Past reported work on achievable key refreshing rates applied an information-theoretic approach based on the secrecy capacity. Using this approach, the achievable key rates largely depend on channel conditions. For example, in a single antennas system if the capacity of the channel from transmitter to eavesdropper is higher than that from transmitter to receiver, the secrecy capacity is zero and secure key establishment is not possible. In this contribution we present a generic approach to evaluate achievable key establishing rates of practical methods making use of reciprocal quantization of channel parameters. We treat the sequence of generated secret bits as the output of a Random Number Generator (RNG). Assuming the eavesdropper is sufficiently far from the communicating parties to render a proximity attack ineffective, we are left with the need to validate the output of our channel-based RNG. To this end we use the NIST statistical test suite [23] in its entirety as was previously done for other novel RNGs.
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Symmetric Groups of Authentications and Key Management with Session Based Automated Key Updation

Symmetric Groups of Authentications and Key Management with Session Based Automated Key Updation

applicable for commercial use. The Multi-dimensional password is a multifactor authentication scheme that combines these various authentication schemes into a single 3-D virtual environment. Therefore, the resulted password space becomes very large compared to any existing authentication schemes. The design of the 3-D virtual environment, the selections of objects inside the environment, and the object’s type reflect the resulted password space. Additionally, designing a simple and easy to use 3-D virtual environment is a factor that leads to a higher user acceptability of a multi factor authenticated system. A user who prefers to remember and recall a password might choose textual and graphical passwords. For more security bio-metric is also used for secure transaction. This system is user friendly so everyone can use easily. Proper documentation is provided. The end user can easily understand how the whole system is implemented by going through the documentation. The system is tested, implemented and the performance is found to be satisfactory. All necessary output is generated. Thus, the project is completed successfully.
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An Automatic Generated Symmetric Key Based Technique For Encryption And Decryption Of Text Data

An Automatic Generated Symmetric Key Based Technique For Encryption And Decryption Of Text Data

A cryptography system is mainly classified into threetypes 1. Symmetric key cryptography, 2. Asymmetric keycryptography 3. Hash functions. A symmetric keycryptography uses same secret key by sender and receiverfor encryption and decryption respectively. Asymmetric orpublic key cryptography uses public key by sender forencryption which is known to all and private key whichknown by the receiver for decryption for example.The hash function usesmathematical transformation to irreversibly encryptinformation. Fig 2illustrates types of cryptographic techniques.
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Symmetric Private Key Encryption and Decryption based on Matrix

Symmetric Private Key Encryption and Decryption based on Matrix

Authentication is the foundation technology for protecting networks, servers, client systems, data, and applications from improper disclosure, tampering, destruction, and other forms of interference. The essence of an authentication system is discovering and confirming the identity of a person, an organization, a device, or more generally, of any software process on the network. Users can be authenticated by something they know, something they have, or something they are.

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Key Management Schemes in MANET: A Review

Key Management Schemes in MANET: A Review

Cryptographic algorithms are security primitives that are widely used for the purposes of authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Most cryptographic systems require an underlying secure, robust, and efficient key management system. Key management is a central part of any secure communication and is the weakest point of system security and the protocol design. A key is a piece of input information for cryptographic algorithms. If the key was released, the encrypted information would be disclosed. The secrecy of the symmetric key and private key must always be assured locally. The Key Encryption Key (KEK) approach could be used at local hosts to protect the secrecy of keys. To break the cycle (use key to encrypt the data, and use key to encrypt key) some non-cryptographic approaches need to be used, e.g. smart card, or biometric identity, such as fingerprint, etc. Key distribution and key agreement over an insecure channel are at high risk and suffer from potential attacks. In the traditional digital envelop approach, a session key is generated at one side and is encrypted by the public-key algorithm. Then it is delivered and recovered at the other end. In the Diffie-Hellman (DH) scheme, the communication parties at both sides exchange some public information and generate a session key on both ends. Several enhanced DH schemes have been invented to counter man-in the- middle attacks. In addition, a multi-way challenge response protocol, such as Needham-Schroeder, can also be used. Kerberos, which is based on a variant of Needham-Schroeder, is an authentication protocol used in many real systems, including Microsoft Windows. However, in MANETs, the lack of a central control facility, the limited computing resources, dynamic network topology, and the difficulty of network synchronization all contribute
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Tree based symmetric key broadcast encryption

Tree based symmetric key broadcast encryption

[NNL01, NNL02]. Almost every known symmetric key broadcast encryption scheme falls under this framework. It has three phases namely, initiation, encryption and decryption. In the initiation phase, a collection S of subsets of N is created. Each subset in S is assigned a secret key. A user gets the secret information which enables it to compute the secret keys of all subsets S of users such that it is a member of S and S ∈ S. Once this initiation phase is over, the system is ready for secured broadcasting. The broadcast messages are sent to the users in blocks. Each block goes with a new session. For each session, the center knows the set of revoked users R. It finds the set of subsets S c = {S i 1 , S i 2 , . . . , S i h } ⊂ S from the collection S such that each privileged user is in
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Block Cipher Symmetric Key Based Encryption Algorithm
                 

Block Cipher Symmetric Key Based Encryption Algorithm  

service, security mechanism, and security attack. Security service refers to a service that increases the processing of data, system security and information transfers of an organization. Security mechanisms are those which are designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attacks. Security attack means any action that can cause harm to the security of data possessed by an organization. Encryption is the technique that covers all these aspects and is a process of converting plaintext to cipher text. To do this it encryption process involves a key. A key is a small or large string of characters that allows a sender to encode the data. Also this key allows the receiver to decode messages sent to him or her. There are certain types of encryption techniques. These include classical techniques, modern techniques, and public-key encryption techniques. Classical techniques are again categorized as substitution and transposition techniques. Substitution techniques are again subdivided in Caesar cipher, mono-alphabetic cipher and poly alphabetic cipher. Block cipher, stream cipher and DES algorithm comes under the modern techniques. In Public-key encryption the RSA algorithm is there. Digital Signatures is also a part of cryptography that looks like in functionality as the hand-written signature and digital certificates are related to an ID -card or some other official documents. There are several applications of cryptography based on communication, identification, secret sharing, electronic commerce, key recovery and remote access. For securing information and protecting data, modern cryptography provides essential techniques.
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Tree  Based  Symmetric  Key  Broadcast  Encryption

Tree Based Symmetric Key Broadcast Encryption

The Subset-Cover framework for broadcast encryption was proposed in [NNL01]. Almost every known sym- metric key broadcast encryption scheme falls under this framework. It has three phases namely, initiation, encryption and decryption. In the initiation phase, a collection S of subsets of N is created. Each subset in S is assigned a secret key. A user gets the secret information which enables it to compute the secret keys of all subsets S of users such that it is a member of S and S ∈ S . Once this initiation phase is over, the system is ready for secured broadcasting. The broadcast messages are sent to the users in blocks. Each block goes with a new session. For each session, the center knows the set of revoked users R. It finds the set of subsets S c = {S i 1 , S i 2 , . . . , S i h } ⊂ S from the collection S such that each privileged user is in some subset in S c . In other
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Safeguarding and Protecting contents related to Client’s Location Server Data

Safeguarding and Protecting contents related to Client’s Location Server Data

A solution to one of the location based query problems is proposed, which is used for securing the user’s location that can be obtained from Global Positioning System devices which helps to find the user’s exact location. We implement the system by providing security to the position data which will be communicated in encrypted format. A symmetric key encryption will be used for encrypting the user’s data and then the data can be decrypted using a key once it reaches the location server. The system will be used for to-and-fro communication during an exchange of data between server and client. Also, the concept of optimal searching based on the user's behavior and the past search strategies will be added. The concept of ranking will also be added as additional feature. The paper describes a system that consists of a standalone software which will provide a good interface and will be user friendly and it will analyze the outgoing traffic when we are going to use proxy server and will recognize critical information or your personal information if it is accessed by the proxy server or not further on after the recognition it will protect our critical data to be accessed from the illegal sources. The most important thing is to have a proper internet connection because this proposed system completely works on sending and receiving data from client and server. The general system flow is shown in fig.1.
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Attacks  to  a  proxy-mediated  key  agreement  protocol  based  on  symmetric  encryption

Attacks to a proxy-mediated key agreement protocol based on symmetric encryption

The protocol we analyze in this paper is an example of authenticated key exchange (AKE), one of the most recurring topics in the literature when it comes to security protocols. It is also the basis for most Internet applications that relay on secure channels, as it is embedded in TLS and IPSEC. We can clearly distinguish two research trends in this area, one based on public-key cryptography, where Diffie-Hellman [11] is the current “standard”, and the other on secret key cryptography. With respect to the latter, most proposals rely on a Key Distribution Center (KDC) that shares a secret key with all users in the system and supports them on agreeing on a session key. Since 1978, when the Needham-Schroeder symmetric protocol [20] was proposed, several authors have attempted to propose better symmetric AKE protocols, usually showing how previous ones can be attacked and fixing their weaknesses. For example, one of the weaknesses of the original Needham-Schroeder protocol was the inability to prove the freshness of the session key. Denning and Sacco [10] proposed the use of Timestamps as a way fix this problem. Later, the Kerberos protocol [21], also built on the idea of using timestamps, was proposed as the current “standard” AKE solution in the symmetric set-up. In the last years, new assumptions on the capabilities of the attackers have been defined as well as new application scenarios, security requirements and constrains that make this problem still an interesting research topic, particularly in those environment where public-key cryptography is not viable. Some recent works show that Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) can be run in most wireless sensor platforms [18], although there are still some highly-constrained of devices, such as passive RFID, that are not yet capable of using PKC and would then require the use of symmetric AKE protocols.
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Privacy Preserving on Location Based Queries Using Symmetric Key

Privacy Preserving on Location Based Queries Using Symmetric Key

ABSTRACT: Location based system are used for finding out Point Of Interests (POI) from a specific location. Usually a GPS latitude and longitude is sent as an input to the location servers and based on the GPS coordinate the point of interests can be served back to the client from the location server. To solve problems associated with the location data. The user does not want to send his location data (GPS coordinate) to the server directly, since doing so the server can find the user’s location preferences and use that data for advertising the user’s privacy is lost. The second part is like the server wants to protect its data from the user query. The server want to return back only relevant data to the user .The server cannot sent back other sensitive data to the user. A major enhancement upon previous solutions by introducing a two stage approach, where the first step is based on Symmetric key Transfer and the second step is based on Private Information based on Symmetric key Retrieval, to achieve a secure solution for both parties. The solution is efficient and practical in many scenarios. Implement the solution using a real cloud location server and android mobile application.
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A Two Round Block Cipher Symmetric Key Cryptography based on Key Stream

A Two Round Block Cipher Symmetric Key Cryptography based on Key Stream

The proposed procedures are implemented in .net(c#) platform for its available in-built cryptography functionalities. The procedures are implemented successfully for the specified sized input plain texts. Initially, there were constraints for large files such as images or videos where the required primary memory of the system could create a problem in the execution and conversion of the plain text into cipher text. But, later on that problem are also resolved by simply dividing the large file into fixed sized sub-files and then performing the swapping while encoding and decoding. The following table represents the data sets that are obtained during the testing and analysis of the proposed procedure. For the analysis purpose tested results are considered using (k1 = 14, k2 = 8, k3 = 700, k4 = ((k1 ^ k2) ^ (k3 % 256) ) ) the following Dataset:
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A Recent Study of Various Symmetric Key Based Cryptographic Methods

A Recent Study of Various Symmetric Key Based Cryptographic Methods

In 2012 Aarti Soni, Suyash Agrawal proposed “Using Genetic Algorithm for Symmetric key Cryptography”. Genetic algorithms are a class of optimization algorithms. Many problems can be solved using genetic algorithms through modeling a simplified version of genetic processes. They proposed a method based on Genetic Algorithm which is used to generate key by the help of pseudo random number generator. Random number will be generated on the basis of current time of the system. Using Genetic Algorithm they keep the strength of the key to be good, still make the whole algorithm good enough. Symmetric key algorithm AES has been proposed for encrypting the image as it is very secure method for symmetric key encryption[2].
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Frame Based Symmetric Key Cryptography

Frame Based Symmetric Key Cryptography

Table 6: Average time required for exhaustive key search Analysis Results are shown for two binary sizes. The 56-bits key size is used with the DES (Data Encryption Standard) algorithm, 64-bit key size is used for our proposed algorithm. For each key size the results are shown assuming that it takes 1 µs perform a single decryption, which is a reasonable order of magnitude for today’s machine. Within the use of massively parallel organizations of microprocessors, it may be possible to achieve processing rates may orders of magnitude greater. The final column of the table 6 considers the result for a system that can process a 1(one) millions keys per microsecond. As the key size increases, the complexity of exhaustive search becomes infeasible to crack encryption directly.Algorithm with key of 56 bits (DES) is taken 1142 years and our proposed algorithm needs 2.9*10 5 years (of considering 64 bits) to search appropriate key to crack encryption. As one can see at this performance level (considering above Table 6), DES can no longer be considered computationally secure compare to our proposed algorithm. Even, increasing reference frame size (of 128 bits, 160 bits or 168 bits etc) we able to achieve more security level comparing with other available existing standard algorithms.
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Efficiency key generation management in a big organization for symmetric cryptography system

Efficiency key generation management in a big organization for symmetric cryptography system

Nowadays big organizations have complex administrative structure with scattered offices to face with serious problems related to key management like financial and security problems based on symmetric encryption system. This project proposes an efficient solution related to symmetric key crypto system to solve this problem and provide the opportunity for the organization have a secure, affordable, efficient, easier and faster symmetric key crypto system. Symmetric key cryptography with the less key size have more secure in comparison to asymmetric cryptography. Therefore using symmetric key cryptography is more secure and Advantageous. The speed of processing symmetric cryptography is higher than asymmetric cryptography. The purpose of this project is to product the software for all of the employees in the organization to have the secret symmetric key cryptography to have communicatation to each other through the secret key. However, the security of symmetric key cryptography is higher than asymmetric key cryptography. Key derivations algorithm which used in this project is very important for symmetric cryptosystems in comparison with other algorithm because one key can be derived to the others. This Method is chosen by key derivation one-way function and implemented by Delphi programming language. This implemented method give the manager of the organization an opportunity to generate the secret key for all of the employees and so each employee has the symmetric secret key and if the employees need to communicate with each other their request will be sent to the manager. This project has been done in three phases and one of the outcomes of this project is an application which generates random key, according to hierarchy of organization.
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Electronic Document Secure Management System Based on Content Analysis for Enterprise

Electronic Document Secure Management System Based on Content Analysis for Enterprise

Abstract. Electronic document management system is a critical component of enterprise. To enhance the security of the management system was not only by Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), such as public key, private key, and symmetric key based encryption and decryption, digital signature, and the key and certificate automatic management, but also by intelligent text analysis, which extracted word weight info automatically to generate security level of the doc using centroid-based classification and integration with experts’ experience, and combined file’s attributes to classify the electronic docs into the managed directory and database, and to locate the electronic docs, while checking the security level of the doc to control the access. Meantime, we used the plugin for the doc transparent encryption and decryption, and the digest signature with system-side private key for all docs. Furthermore, we utilized the user interface (UI) for users’ convenience, which employed a partial submission strategy, improving the efficiency of the doc management.
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Public Key Cryptology – An Art of Keeping Secrecy and Authenticity

Public Key Cryptology – An Art of Keeping Secrecy and Authenticity

Encryption and digital signatures are the critical primitives in cryptography. Encryption ensures the confidentiality of the data while digital signature sustains the authentication and non-repudiation. Modern cryptosystems are broadly classified in to secret key (symmetric) and public key (asymmetric) cryptosystems based up on the type of the key. These cryptosystems help us to achieve different security goals such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and access control. This motivate us for a detailed study on various categories of modern cryptosystems especially on public key cryptosystems which overcome security hurdles and provide security services.
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Cross-Domain  Password-Based  Authenticated  Key  Exchange  Revisited

Cross-Domain Password-Based Authenticated Key Exchange Revisited

There are many cross-domain communication scenarios, such as email communication, mobile phone com- munication, and instant messaging, where the information being communicated may need to be protected against both passive and active attackers. In these scenarios, a user is typically registered to some kind of domain server, such as email exchange server or home location register (in the cases of email and mobile phone communications, respectively). Moreover, two communicating parties from different domains very often neither share a password nor possess a public key certificate. Hence, although two-party and three- party authenticated key exchange protocols have been extensively studied and widely deployed in the real world, see for example [1, 6, 11, 26, 32], it is not clear how they can be directly applied to establish a secure cross-domain communication channel.
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Designing of a Symmetric Key Algorithm

Designing of a Symmetric Key Algorithm

Cryptographic algorithm is a mathematical method to encrypt or decrypt the messages. Cryptographic algorithm works with the KEY (i.e. can be combination of letters, numbers, symbols etc.) used for encrypt the plain text and it will be converted into cipher text. The security of the encrypted data is entirely depend on two things: How much algorithm is strong and secrecy of the key. But a common thumb rule is that “Make algorithm to public and the key to private”

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MoL 2018 04: 
  Quantum Plaintext Non Malleability

MoL 2018 04: Quantum Plaintext Non Malleability

Non-malleability has been researched extensively in the non-quantum setting, for example in [BS99], however it has been introduced in the field of quantum computing only recently, in [AM17] and [ABW09]. The research done in the quantum setting focuses on symmetric- key encryption, where both the sender and receiver must share the same key. In this thesis, we will attempt to provide some insight into the public-key case, where only the receiver holds a secret key and the sender holds a different key, which is publicly known. Furthermore, we provide a weaker version of the non-malleability defined in [AM17], which intuitively provides a similar level of security but might be easier to satisfy.
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