The central zone of Tabuk city consists of green to brownish silt shale layers often abundantly micaceous, oriented and laminated, flaky, interbedded with thin lamination of sandstone and lenses of gypsum. The depths of the layers range from 0 m to 20 m (Figure 4). Lateral and vertical extend of shale layers increase towards the north. Shale founds on the surface and some localities overlies by clayey sand, calcareous clayey sand, sandy clay and/or calcareous clayey sand with rock fragments layers, with thickness range from 0.5 - 3 m (Figure 4). Shale represents the subsurface layer of the center districts of Tabuk city such as Al Qadsiyah, Arrwdah, Al Masief, El Nakil, Annahdhah, and buildings are constructed directly on shale layers (Figure 3(a)) which represent the expansive soils.
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In the KSA, there is no national surveillance system of AMR and health care-acquired infections. To date, no study has been conducted in Tabuk (North Western region) to assess the knowledge and awareness of people regard- ing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the results of this study will provide data concerning the knowledge regard- ing AMR in Tabuk. In addition, this study will help the medical service division in planning and formulating new educational strategies and interventions to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics among the general popula- tion to minimize the escalating rate of AMR in this region. Therefore, we designed this study to determine the level of knowledge regarding AMR in the general population in Tabuk city. The locality of the study is shown in Figure 1.
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Tabuk city is located within the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba active tectonic environment where it has ex- perienced considerable earthquakes in the historical and instrumental period. Recently, Tabuk city is ex- pected to become one of the future economic communities in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, assessment of seismic hazard of Tabuk city plays an important role to minimize earthquake damage and to anticipate the future safe development for the strategic projects. For this purposes, earthquake data were collected from local and regional data centers to construct earthquake catalogue. The earthquake source zones that affect Tabuk city, maximum magnitude and closest distance have been identified. The stochastic approach has been applied through this study for seismic hazard assessment in terms of peak ground acceleration and the response spectra. The results illustrated that, the maximum peak ground acceleration resulted from Tabuk source zone with moment magnitude (M w ) of 7.5. The calculated peak ground acceleration of 218
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of this work from the Deanship of Scientific Research(DSR), University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Under grant number (S-025-1439). Also, we would like to acknowl- edge Mustafa Hassan Elfarrag, Consultant Family Medicine, Head of Diabetes Center, King Fahd Specialty Hospital, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, andIman Mohsen AbutalebQisi,Diabetes Instructor, Diabetes Center, King Fahd Specialty Hospital, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia for their continuous support during the data collection.
Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey has been conducted at Tabuk Military Hospital family medicine department, Air Base clinic, and peripheral clinics in Tabuk city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It included all general practitioners except those who are on leave at specific time working (n=77 physicians). A questionnaire modified from studies of international literature in overweight and obesity management in primary care has been developed for data collection. Results: Of the 77 questionnaire distributed, 67 were returned complete with response rate of 87%. Majority (80%) of GPs were aged 30-49 years old, 55(82%) were males. The prevalence of overweight among GPs (37.3%) was close to that of Saudi populations (36%) and prevalence of obesity (35.8%) is comparable obesity prevalence among populations of Saudi Arabia (35.6%). Less than one half (42%) of the GPs consider their eating habits to be unhealthy. Less than one half (45%) had some sort of exercise weekly at least weekly. Counseling about nutrition was ranked as very important in (35.8%) and as quite important by (56.7%), followed closely by
The current study was conducted at the two leading hospitals managed by the ministry of health in the Tabuk city, King Khalid hospital and king Fahad specialist hospital. The number of ophthalmology consultants is five (Three are general ophthalmologists, one oculoplastic and a vitreoretinal) (Figure 1), nine ophthalmology specialist, six ophthalmology residents, ten optometrist, four technicians, five nurses and there are no orthoptists and ophthalmic assistants.
In the context of Saudi Arabia, a recent review by Al Juaid et al. (2014) has demonstrated that not enough information has been gathered by prior studies in rela- tion to building an understanding of breastfeeding habits within Saudi Arabia that would enable the measurement of progress, or to plan and design programs to promote and encourage breastfeeding . Unfortunately, no data have been gathered on breastfeeding or, specifically, on the potential factors influencing breastfeeding in Tabuk city (in the North-west region of Saudi Arabia). It is therefore difficult to identify which areas most require intervention among this community.
This study was conducted at the University of Tabuk, Tabuk city, Saudi Arabia. A random sample of undergraduate students from all faculties was invited to participate in the study. It was carried out as a descriptive cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. A validated self-administered online questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students. Multiple choice and true-false questions were framed to obtain information about respondents’ knowledge and awareness about ocular allergy along with their demographic characteristics such as age and gender, year of study, and college major.
Methodology: A 50 diabetic patients who attend the diabetic center at King Khalid hospital in Tabuk city were enrolled in this study .The participants were given the options not to participate in the study if they wanted. Then by interview technique we collected the pre-test, give heath education section and collect post-test data.
This research has tried to project the urban sustainability concepts on the urban form. The performance of urban fabric when new schemes are implemented in the development process may be difficult to predict. The urban fabric itself is put up by socio-economic interactions within it. The ecological and environmental aspects of the city are also affected by new schemes. The results obtained from the investigation could be further broken down into the different aspects of urban design like street design, public spaces, landscape and building clusters. Other indicators of urban form like regularity, fractility, sky-view factor and confinement [49-52] were aggregated in the outlook of the study. The more general and intrinsic values inherent in the urban form like resilience and adaptability were used to define the urban form. Generally, the urban sustainability concepts are likely to have far reaching positive effects on the urban form if implementation is well adapted in different contexts.
The current study demonstrated that age and gender are possible etiologic factors of change periodontal diseases severity in Aseer and Tabuk regions, Sau- di Arabia. These factors should be included in the diagnostic aids, to identify the types and severity of periodontal diseases. New methods of studies are necessary not only to distinguish other potential etiologic factors for periodontal diseases in Aseer region and Tabuk region but also to identify the effects of environmen- tal, societal and lifestyle in these regions in Saudi Arabia on these possible fac- tors and to evaluate their effects on the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.
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During pregnancy, severe cases of pregnant women of iron deficiency have poor outcome of neonates as low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, birth asphyxia and intrauterine death . Anemia in the third world affects 30% of population and IDA accounts for 75% of all types . In Saudi Arabia, the country prevalence of IDA was 30–56% . A hospital-based study conducted by AlQuaiz et al. Found that 37% of women are suffering from anemia in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia . Also, another study by Alzaheb and Al- Amer, found that prevalence of IDA among its sample of healthy young Saudi female university students in Tabuk is 12.5% .
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The experimental design was used to answer the research questions and meet the objectives of the study. In this research, students were not selected randomly. There were 800 students in the preparatory year program at faculty of Business Administration at the University of Tabuk. Students were distributed into 16 groups. Each group had from 40-55 students. Two groups (A & B) of them were purposefully chosen based on their mean score in the first-semester English subject results. Of the two groups, group ‘B’ was chose purposely based on students’ positive feeling to the program than section ‘A’. Each group had 42 students and score an average point among 16 groups.
Source: Primary and Secondary Data Analysis, 2019 The results of the strategies above, the policies to support the management of the Tabuk river water must involve the community and the government in paying attention to the sustainability of natural resources, such as: 1) Monitoring and maintaining water quality in the Tabuk River Sub-Watershed during low tide and tidal conditions at many community activities.
In conducting communication strategy, the government of Bandung City uses publicity and personal selling. Publicity undertaken by the government of Bandung as a brand implementation of Bandung City is the development of brand park where there is a building in the form of a logo of Bandung City in the square of Bandung City. In line with the city branding, Kartajaya (2005) argued that the local government now needs to metamorphose into a customer- oriented regional government and be equally responsible to all stakeholders. In terms of management and development of regional economies through tourism for example, then local governments also need to shift from a bureaucratic approach to a strategic entrepreneurial approach. This approach demands three basic elements in regional planning, namely the determination of the vision and long-term goals of the region, the effort to build an entrepreneurial culture on local human resources as well as the formulation of a solid regional strategy. This regional strategy called Kartajaya with Strategic Place Triangle includes the determination of Positioning, the development of differentiation and the effort to build the brand (brand) area. In an effort to implement the brand in detail can be seen in the picture branding strategy that connects between strategy and tactical as well as between consumers and products. This strategy includes Positioning (P), in terms of nature (strategy) and focus (consumer) Differentiation (D) nature (tactical) and focus (product) and Branding (B) include the nature (value / reputation) and focus (perception / image). Branding is part of a promotion that branding consists of awareness, interest and advertising including desire and selling is action.
There is a good number of studies concern the diversity and distribution of wild plants in Saudi Arabia including Tabuk region (AL-Mutairi et al., 2016). However, very limited ecological information is known about diversity and distribution of weed species in Saudi Arabia. The study of Chaudhary and Akram (1987) is considered as a comprehensive study detailed the weed species and their habitats in Saudi Arabia. Besides that, there are other few studies which were conducted at small scale. For instance, diversity of weeds in the date palm farms in Al- Hassa Oasis in the eastern Saudi Arabia was demonstrated by Shaltout and El-Halawany (1992) and El- Halawany and Shaltout (1993). In the center of Saudi Arabia, a description of weeds species was reported by Al-Yemeny (1999) and Sher and Al- Yemeni (2011). Gazar (2011) studied the diversity and distribution of weeds in the dates palm in Al- Qassim region in associated with various physical and chemical variables of soil. However, Gomaa (2017) investigated the species composition and diversity of weeds in citrus orchards in the Al-Jouf region which is located in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia.
We present panel estimates in Table 9. The first specification reports estimates in a pooled sample, including year fixed effects (column 1). Column 2 introduces city fixed effects and thus shows the within-city effect of railroad access in one year on subsequent additional population growth. The dummy variable indicating railroad access switches from 0 to 1 when a city becomes connected to the railroad network. The results indicate that railroad access additionally increases urban population levels by 4.7 percent over a period of three years. At an annual rate of 1.6 percent, this coefficient is very close in magnitude to the ones derived in the cross-sectional settings. Interestingly, the coefficient estimated in the fixed-effects model is also very close to the pooled sample, indicating low levels of unobserved heterogeneity at the city level.
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The participants in this study were selected based on convenience sampling from the total population of Preparatory Year students at University of Tabuk 2017/2018. The number of male and female students’ population is almost (3800) students. The study sample consisted of eight groups from the intermediate level, four male groups (128 students) and four female groups (128). Two of the male groups were taught by Native Speaker and two groups were taught by Non Native Speakers and the same situation in the female section. That is, the sample of the study consisted of 256 students. Each group consisted of 32 students. All of these students finished the first semester of the academic year 2017 / 2018. All of these student’s study fifteen hours of English per week and all of them came from the secondary school to the university directly. This study used a random sampling process for the Preparatory Year students at the English Language Course at the University of Tabuk in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to answer the research questions. All the individuals in the defined population have equal and independent chance of being selected.
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Recognising that adopting quality assurance standards is an important part of the success of any e-learning program, a lot of research has been done in the U.S. and other countries about e-learning and distance education quality standards and measures (Alhawiti, 2011). However, there is still no significant effort focused on establishing such standards and elements for measuring conformance to the standards in Saudi Arabia. Thus, this study seeks to assist the University of Tabuk and other Saudi universities to better deliver e-learning programs by developing a model for assessing the quality and the rigor of such programs.
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The present study showed that the excessive daytime sleepiness was prevalent among the medical students, The University of Tabuk, no significant statistical differences was found between the students with the excessive daytime sleepiness and others without this serious sleep disorder regarding age, sex, hours spent in Technology/day, coffee intake, use of sleep medications, and chronic diseases. The current data showed that the use of Technology was higher among those with excessive daytime sleepiness. It is a well-established fact that attentiveness during class time is a significant determinant of academic achievement; excessive daytime sleepiness could lead to fatigue and substantially impair attention. 6 The situation of excessive daytime