Teaching Turkish As A Foreign Language

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Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

Listening Skills Development in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language and The Usage of Metacognitive Strategies

There are certain findings indicating that teaching of metacognitive strategies has various benefits in listening training. These strategies help language learners to become more self-confident and motivated, and less anxious. It positively affects listening performance and contributes to the listening potentials of poor listeners to be better. However, it is clear that more research on the role of teaching the metacognitive strategies is needed (Goh, 2008: 197). As a result of two studies conducted by Vandergrift (2007) and Zeng (2007), it was found out that there is a statistically clear correlation between metacognitive strategy teaching and the improvement of listening performance (Quoted by Goh, 2008). As a result of the study conducted by Thompson and Rubin (1996) with students learning Russian as a foreign language, it was found out that strategy teaching in listening training improves the listening comprehension skills of students. No study was encountered on the use of metacognitive strategies and the effect of these strategies on listening performance for improving the listening skill in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. In this context, what kind of a path teachers of Turkish as a foreign language follow in the process of developing the listening skill and whether they can ensure the use of metacognitive strategies that will enrich this process are an important subject. The process of introducing the language skills in teaching Turkish to the Syrians coming to Turkey is of great importance, as well. Especially, in order to support the integration of Syrian children into the Turkish education system, it is necessary to raise awareness of how to organize language teaching activities, and it is required to develop the listening skill, which is a significant comprehension skill, using various methods. It was thought that which arrangements are needed to teach metacognitive strategies in the process of developing the listening skill in teaching Turkish as a foreign language will be possible to determine using the data to be obtained by means of research. Thus, it is hoped that Syrian students will learn Turkish effectively and that the listening skill which will help them to adapt to the culture together with the language will also be improved in a more effective manner. Based on this significance, the aim of the present study is to determine the state of using metacognitive strategies for the development of listening skills in the teaching of Turkish as a foreign language to Syrian children. To this end, the answers to the following questions were sought:
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Language Need Analysis of Teaching Turkish Language as a Foreign Language in the Georgian Universities

Language Need Analysis of Teaching Turkish Language as a Foreign Language in the Georgian Universities

On taking a look at the need analysis in teaching Turkish as a foreign language in Georgian universities, individual interest and education are considered influential and materials should be prepared according to this. Factors that result in more inter- est in big cities, availability of Turkish Philology departments and private institutions as well as language teaching centres opened by the Turkish government should be evaluated well and interest in Turkey can be enhanced by organising travels to Turkey. Considering the special interest in Turkish by the learners that can already speak more than two languages, Turkish teaching materials can be prepared according to this (Touristic Turkish, Business Turkish etc.). Interest in Turkish soap opera can be instructively utilized from in the classroom.
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Determining the Significance Level of Vocabulary Teaching Tools and Activities in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language through Analytical Hierarchy Process

Determining the Significance Level of Vocabulary Teaching Tools and Activities in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language through Analytical Hierarchy Process

As vocabulary is an important component of language teaching and there exist certain problems in students’ vocabulary skills, traditional and modern teaching methods used in Turkish as a foreign language teaching are discussed in the article. The frequency of use and the success rates were taken into consideration in the determination of the methods. In this context, a survey was developed and administered within Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for teachers of Turkish to foreigners in order to determine the significance level of vocabulary teaching methods in Turkish as a foreign language. The survey consisted of comparative questions for determining the significance levels of vocabulary acquisition methods used in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The data collected in this research were analyzed in Microsoft Excel program and the results were presented as statistical tables. According to the findings, the significance level of communicative teaching methods conducted through visual and auditory tools and activities were determined to be the first in vocabulary acquisition in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Videos and movies were seen to be the first in the order of significance level within vocabulary teaching through visual and audio tools. Role-play activities were determined to be the first in the order of significance of level. Interactive course CDs and smart boards became the most effective tools in teaching vocabulary in terms of educational technologies. Course-books and workbooks were identified as the most preferred tools in printed publications. According to the results of the study, the tools applied by students that address multi-senses were seen to be the most preferred techniques in vocabulary acquisition in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The results of this research will contribute to updating the methods to be used in teaching / learning Turkish as a foreign language vocabulary. In addition, they will help to improve the course-books and other materials to be developed.
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The views of teachers and students on slang in teaching Turkish as a foreign language

The views of teachers and students on slang in teaching Turkish as a foreign language

The aim of this study is to determine the views of teachers and students about the teaching and learning of slang in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The student-based working group of the study, using a screening model of quantitative research methods, is composed of B1, B2 and C1 level students who learn Turkish as a foreign language reached by means of easily accessible status sampling method of purposeful sampling methods and the teacher-based working group of the study, using a screening model of quantitative research methods, is composed of teachers reached by the same method. The data of the study were collected by two separate questionnaires prepared by the researchers to determine the opinions of teachers and students. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the majority of teachers and students generally had a positive opinion about the learning and teaching of slang words in Turkish and it was concluded that the students wanted to learn slang words because of “better communication with the Turks”, “hearing too many slang words on the street”, “living in Turkey”, “being curious” and “just learning more words”. In addition to this result, teachers stated that this situation which students use without knowing the meaning of some words may cause problems in their social environment. For this reason, it is concluded from the teachers' opinions that either a separate book for the use of slang should be published or the other slang words except for swearword should be taught in the lessons.
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Proficiency exams in teaching Turkish as a foreign language in TÖMER (Turkish and foreign languages research and application centers)

Proficiency exams in teaching Turkish as a foreign language in TÖMER (Turkish and foreign languages research and application centers)

Turkish and Foreign Languages Research and Application Center (TÖMER) is one of the important institutions for learning Turkish as a foreign language. In these institutions, proficiency tests are applied at the end of each level. However, test applications in TÖMERs vary between each center as there is no shared program in teaching Turkish as a foreign language in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to examine the tests offered in TÖMER in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The study engages a qualitative design. As the data sources include documents related to exams offered in TÖMERs, a document analysis was completed. The data consist of proficiency tests offered in 13 different TÖMERs that agreed to provide sample proficiency tests. In analyzing the data, a deductive approach used to look for themes and then codes. The main finding of the study is that the proficiency tests for each level are not compatible with each other. This incompatibility results from the types of questions on skills, the number of reading texts and the number of words in texts, the limit on word count in writing skills and the diversity of questions, the presence or absence of grammar questions and their placement in the exam, and not meeting the phases of skill development according to CEFR. In order to reduce these incompatibilities, there is a need for a program for teaching Turkish as a foreign language that would be followed by all TÖMERs.
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Analysis of problems encountered by instructors teaching Turkish as a foreign language to Syrian children and their opinions on their participation in the certification program for teaching Turkish as a foreign language

Analysis of problems encountered by instructors teaching Turkish as a foreign language to Syrian children and their opinions on their participation in the certification program for teaching Turkish as a foreign language

Arabic and Turkish belong to different language families. Arabic belongs to the Semitic branch of the Hamitic-Semitic language family (Bilgegil, 2009, p. 12), is a member of the Semitic sub-group of the Afro-Asiatic group of languages (Buran-Yüksel Çak, 2012, p. 176) and an inflected language (Karaağaç, 2013, p. 71). On the other hand, Turkish belongs to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic language family (Ergin, 1998, p. 9) and is an agglutinative language (Demir, 2004, p. 23). The difference between these two languages in regard to structure and origin leads to certain disadvantages in teaching Turkish to Arabic people as a foreign language. Indeed, the grammatical structure of these two languages are considerably different from each other. Perceiving Turkish as a language totally different from Arabic while learning Turkish mostly prevents negative transfer. A Turkish sentence follows the subject- object-verb order. The sentence structure in Arabic is substantially different from that in Turkish. In Arabic, a sentence starting with a noun is called “a nominal sentence” while a sentence starting with a verb is called “a verbal sentence” (as cited in Aydın, 2007; İşler & Yıldız, 2002). In Büyükikiz’s (2014) study, one of the Syrian participants mentioned the problems arising due to the sentence structure of Turkish and reflected that “My native language is Arabic. Verbs are at the end of the sentence in Turkish while they are at the beginning in Arabic…” and “I do not have any difficulty. Since Arabic and Turkish are similar in terms of words. I have some difficulty only in verbs because the sentence structure in Arabic and Turkish is very different.”
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The Effect of Computer Aided Education on the Skill of Word Stressing in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

The Effect of Computer Aided Education on the Skill of Word Stressing in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

Abstract The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of computer aided education on the skill of word stressing in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Single group pre-test and post-test experimental design was used in the study. The group of the study consisted of 23 foreign students in Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University School of Foreign Languages Turkish Preparatory Program in 2014-2015 academic year. To improve the skill of word stressing, computer-assisted prosody training was applied to the students for 5 weeks. Data of the study was obtained from the “Word Stressing Measurement Tool” and the audio recordings of the students. In addition to these, words and compound words in the “Word Stressing Measurement Tool” were grouped according to the rules of Turkish word stress. The audio recordings taken from the students to determine the level of students’ success in word stressing was examined and assessed in terms of fundamental frequency on Praat 3.8.47 speech analysis program. These results were analyzed using paired samples t-test on SPSS 20.0 statistical package software. Whether there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the students in the groups of the words and compound words in the “Word Stressing Measurement Tool” formed in terms of the rules of Turkish word stress and in the groups of the participants formed according to their mother tongue or the official language spoken in their countries were found out. As a result of the research, it was found that there was a significant increase in the participants’ success of word stressing. These results indicated that computer aided word stress training has an effect on improving the skill of word stressing in teaching Turkish as a foreign language.
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Teaching Turkish as a foreign language: extrapolating from experimental psychology

Teaching Turkish as a foreign language: extrapolating from experimental psychology

So far, a snapshot of the auditory-visual speech perception in the context of cross-language investigations has been presented. The main aim of this paper is to link this predominantly experimental psychological enterprise to an applied setting: L2 instruction. Recently, Erdener (2016) has outlined the main avenues through which research in auditory-visual speech perception can be utilised in the context of L2 instruction. Broadly speaking, this paper aims the same issue; however, specifically speaking, the focus of interest here is the rather neglected area of Turkish as an L2. Even more specifically, the rest of the paper will deal with Turkish instruction as an L2 in relation to auditory-visual speech perception research. The amount of auditory-visual speech perception research is extremely limited to less than a handful of studies. Therefore the paper will first present these small number of studies, then present the current methods of Turkish instruction as an L2 and propose two lines of research and hypotheses: (a) more auditory-visual speech perception research focusing on language-specific features of Turkish such as its relatively complex morphology; (b) methods of instruction beyond auditory-only channels – namely how auditory-visual speech perception research can and should be exploited to teach Turkish whose non-native learners will surely increase as part of the global and economic migratory movements and the high number of refugees expressed in millions from the Middle East who took shelter permanently or long-term in both Turkey and Cyprus. Next, attention will be paid to the language-specific features of Turkish whose instruction may be enhanced by means of auditory-visual methods rather than auditory-only methods.
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Certain Basic Concepts of Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

Certain Basic Concepts of Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

The concept of language acquisition was mostly tackled within the concept of mother tongue. However, nowadays it has become a concept field that is tackled independently, and studies are conducted about this subject. The concept of language acquisition has also been included in the literature within the scope of foreign language acquisition as well as the scope of mother tongue acquisition. Language acquisition means the individual's acquiring the language rules, vocal properties and words spontaneously since birth. Language acquisition starts in a natural process spontaneously. It takes place with the vicinity of language that is closely contacted by the individual. Language acquisition is completed to a great extent until the school age period. After school age, it still continues relatively on a low level but systematically. Foreign language acquisition emerges when people acquire any other language as well as the native language.
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Using Films in Vocabulary Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Using Films in Vocabulary Teaching of Turkish as a Foreign Language

Although teaching Turkish as a foreign language started to develop in the last 20-25 years, due to the increasing international position and power of Turkey, it is necessary to recognize Turkey, Turks, and therefore Turkish culture and communicate more effectively with Turks. The number of people who want to learn Turkish abroad is rapidly increasing. In order to meet this demand and to promote Turkey in international arena, the issue of teaching Turkish to foreigners should be meticulously addressed. Büyükikiz and Hasırcı (2013) also have the following suggestions in teaching Turkish as a foreign language: The target group should be well-recognized and the materials should be prepared according to the target group. In the course materials prepared according to the target group, the basic vocabulary should be given as a whole in a way that is related to each other. While the word is determined, care must be taken to ensure that the words are prepared at three basic levels (basic), B (intermediate) and C (upper). All meanings of the words should be taken into consideration; the needs of the student must be taken into account.
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Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

Turkish as a foreign language learners’ use of vocabulary learning strategies

The importance of vocabulary becomes more apparent when it comes to teaching a language as a foreign or second language. One of the essential elements of foreign language education and competence in a foreign language is the vocabulary (Çelikkaya, 2012; Tanyer & Öztürk, 2014). As Thornbury (2002) stated, words play an important role in language teaching for the reason that language is built upon words. According to Wilkins (1972), while little can be conveyed without grammar knowledge, nothing can be conveyed without words. Vocabulary —an important constituent of foreign language teaching— is regarded as the base for communicative competence and foreign language acquisition, and vocabulary deficiencies pose obstacles for language learning (Susanto, 2017). Since the lack of vocabulary knowledge would hinder effective communication, vocabulary knowledge is regarded as a key element for foreign language learners (Alqahtani, 2015). In this sense, foreign language learning can be considered as closely related to vocabulary (Nassaji, 2006). The facts that vocabulary directly contributes to a learner in different areas and, as stated by Özdemir (2017), vocabulary teaching is directly related to all language skills make vocabulary teaching important in foreign language teaching. According to Bölükbaş (2013), teaching and enhancing word knowledge have multi-dimensions and require a long time since it is possible to merely conceptualize the words if seen for the first time and it is possible to forget the word(s) unless they are transferred to long-term memory. Learners learn words explicitly or incidentally inside or outside school in language teaching process. Besides, learners also learn words by using different strategies as independent learners.
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Teaching case suffixes with the aid of the usage of Turkish folk literature in teaching Turkish to the foreign students

Teaching case suffixes with the aid of the usage of Turkish folk literature in teaching Turkish to the foreign students

The texts chosen to teach cultural elements are of a high importance. It is especially important to choose suitable texts for student taking into consideration their age and language level. The main purpose of this work is teaching case suffixes. Consequently, it will have modestly been contributed in teaching grammar topics. Grammar topics have to be taught properly without being underestimated because in order to communicate correctly one needs to build a sentence correctly.

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Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Turkish as a Foreign Language Context

Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Turkish as a Foreign Language Context

Since the 15th century, when the Turkish language initiated its adventure as a taught foreign language, we have come a long way. In a parallel way, with the increasing demand of Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL), Turkish language pedagogy has been continuing to improve adjusting to the new trends in language teaching in the world. The ultimate aim of learning a language is that effective communication cannot be actualised without knowledge of substantial vocabulary. Vocabulary learning and teaching, from a ‘grammaticalized lexis (Lewis, 1993)’ perspective, forms a crucial part of foreign language development, and thus, Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) - rooted in cognitive and psycholinguistic research paradigms - are of utmost importance (Lewis, 1993; Nyikos and Fan, 2007). With all these in mind, this study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies employed by 155 international students studying Turkish preparatory year programme at the Turkish Language Learning Centre (TÖMER) of a state university in Turkey. Descriptive results reveal that lower proficiency groups (A1 and A2) employ VLS strategies more than B2 level group does. Memory, Affective and Social Strategies are found to be the most frequently used strategies. One-way ANOVA results reveal that there is a statistically significant difference among proficiency levels of the participants. With respect to gender, t-test results show a difference for one type of strategy employed. The results are discussed in terms of significance and association with previous research. In the end, suggestions and implications are given for stakeholders of learning and teaching TFL.
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Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students’ Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students’ Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

This descriptive quantitative study was carried out in the correlational survey model. The population of the study involved the university students at Fırat University who were already enrolled to study at various engineering departments, and thus were receiving compulsory English prep-class education during the academic year of 2012-2013. As one of the researchers was teaching these students at the time, the method of convenience sampling, in which members of the target population are selected for the purpose of the study if they meet certain practical criteria, such as geographical proximity, availability at a certain time, or easy accessibility (Dörnyei, 2010), was used. The sample consisted 271 students who voluntarily wanted to take part and answer the questionnaires administered by the researchers. These students were subjected, by the school of Foreign Languages at Fırat University, to take a foreign language achievement test before they could start receiving education in the departments they had already gained right to study. Those having failed in this exam went on to attend a one-year prep-class education. The students took a summative achievement test at the end of the prep-education. The academic achievement criteria were 70 for both exams. Those graded with 70 and over from these exams were exempt from the foreign language prep-class education. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale developed by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) was used. The latest validity-reliability of this scale was conducted by Gürsu (2011), in which the three-factor structure of the original scale was confirmed. These factors were relabeled by Gürsu (2011) as speaking anxiety in language class, interest towards language class and anxiety of talking with native speaker. The test-retest
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An analysis of native and foreign language competence of Turkish young learners

An analysis of native and foreign language competence of Turkish young learners

Language acquisition is used for the process where a language is acquired as a result of natural and largely random exposure to language, whereas the term language learning refers to the exposure structured through language teaching. Children acquire language from 18 months to puberty. The child‟s grammar is semantically based. Children reflect their competence through their performance. The aim of this study is to analyse their competence in both native and foreign language written texts they produced. Additionally, this study discuss if there is a significant difference between their performative competence level in Turkish and English. Therefore, 28 fourth graders were given a coloured picture representing a daily life of a family and they were asked to depict the picture in English and Turkish. Their written texts were discussed by Content Analysis and a corpus analysis. It has been found that how language acquirers write a text in Turkish and how well they reflect their foreign competence. It has been also shown that they were unable to use required foreign language competence because of lack of native language competence. Besides, they committed some spelling errors in foreign language.
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Foreign Language Teaching: A Problem in Turkish Education

Foreign Language Teaching: A Problem in Turkish Education

One of the functions of Turkish Educational system is to prepare enough and qualified manpower , required by economics. In order to be able to open the ways for this qualified manpower , for economic and social improvement and change, it became more important to know even more than one foreign language. But Turkey , in this area, in spite of so much efforts given ever increased financial burden, besides some schools and universities having instructions in a foreign language, doesn’t seem very successful. But, as a candidate for European Union, this problem is one of the urgent one to be solved. To identify the problems faced very often is important to be able to choose the “urgent” ones. The problem statement of this study is identified as “ How often Senior students and staff at English class face with the problems related to foreign language teaching?” 6 staff and 117 senior students from Department of Teaching of English and 41 instructor from Language Teaching and Practicing Center of Abant İzzet Baysal University are included in this study. By examining the related literature and working with 14 volunteer ,the problems which they are faced during their foreign language study.20 problems which were the “same” with the ones in related “literature”, identified .
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Instructors' Problems and Solution Suggestions in the Process of Teaching Turkish Language to Foreign Students

Instructors' Problems and Solution Suggestions in the Process of Teaching Turkish Language to Foreign Students

This study was designed according to the qualitative research method aiming to determine the problems of instructors faced in the process of teaching Turkish to foreigners and the solutions proposed by them. Seven instructors working at YYU TÖMER have been participated in the study. Some of the instructors have experience of Turkish teaching to foreigners in different institutions and in different countries. The data were collected by interview technique, which is a qualitative data collection tool, analyzed by descriptive analysis and exemplified by the opinions of the participants. When examining the problems of instructors faced in the process of Turkish teaching to foreigners and the sources of these problems, it is confronted that these problems are conduced from students, the mother tongue of target group, the structure of Turkish, materials and learning environments. The most difficult skills that instructors encounter during the teaching Turkish to foreigners are grammar, writing, speaking and reading. Considering the most difficult subjects in teaching, metaphor, idioms and proverbs are in the lead. When the suggestions that the instructors have developed for furthering the success of teaching Turkish to foreigners are examined, these suggestions are directed to centers of teaching Turkish, textbooks, texts, other teaching materials, institutions, academicians, instructors conducting the courses and applied methodologies.
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SOURCES OF TURKISH EFL LEARNERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING ANXIETY

SOURCES OF TURKISH EFL LEARNERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE READING ANXIETY

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of reading anxiety experienced by Turkish EFL learners. The participants of the study were 50 first year university students studying at the English Language Teaching program of a public university in Turkey. The study employed the explanatory sequential mixed methods design. First, the quantitative data were collected through Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS), and then the qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews for the purpose of better understanding quantitative data findings. For analyzing the quantitative data, each participant‟s mean score from FLRAS was computed. As for the qualitative data, the transcribed interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method, for which the researcher identified the recurring themes through coding, prioritizing and connecting the pieces of data. Results indicated that the participants of the study, in general, experience a moderate level of FL reading anxiety. The following three main categories of FL reading anxiety sources were identified with their ten sub-categories: (1) personal factors (inappropriate reading strategy use, lack of self-confidence, high expectations), (2) features of the reading text (topic familiarity, unknown vocabulary, complex reading structure, text length, figurative language), and (3) reading course (compulsory reading, exam).
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An Overall Analysis of Teaching Compulsory Foreign Language at Turkish State Universities

An Overall Analysis of Teaching Compulsory Foreign Language at Turkish State Universities

c) Syllabus: Planning a successful programme involves consideration factors that go beyond mere content and presentation of teaching material (Richards et al, 1985:11). The syllabus of the institution needs to be determined before starting to teach. The syllabi may vary according to the needs of the institutions and learners. It is clearly important to be familiar with the syllabus the institution has for the levels that are being taught. The teacher will have to be sure in general terms that he can cover the majority of the syllabus where possible. Although the objectives have been determined by YÖK, the syllabus for English course at state universities is not clearly specified. To achieve the objectives, an intensified syllabus, which is impossible to manage in 60 hour-annual programme, need to be designed. However, at most of the state universities, the syllabus is designed by the related course teachers considering the length of the course, need of the students, and usually the textbook elected to be followed.
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Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Process by Using the Methods Used in Turkish Language Teaching as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

Evaluation of the Grammar Teaching Process by Using the Methods Used in Turkish Language Teaching as a Foreign Language: A Case Study

As it is seen in Table 7, most of the lecturers expressed that they used the communicative method in grammar teaching. This is followed by the eclectic, audio-lingual, cognitive, grammar-translation and natural methods. When these results were compared with the methods used by lecturers in language teaching, they showed that the lecturers used the methods based on teaching rules such as grammar-translation, audio-lingual and cognitive methods more in grammar teaching. It was also determined that there were lecturers who agreed with the item “Grammar rules should be taught directly…”, the item “In grammar teaching, a newly-taught rule should be associated with previously-learned rules…” and the item “To make use of various structures through memorization of dialogues in grammar teaching…” in Table 6, supporting this result. In other words, some lecturers oppose the perspective of the communicative method in grammar teaching and think that grammar rules should be taught directly. It has been determined that this result is compatible with the results of some studies carried out abroad. For example, the results of the case study carried out by Yoon, Hoshi and Zhao suggest that students consider grammar teaching necessary for academic purposes. Colombian students learning the English language as a foreign language, it was determined those students had a positive attitude to learning grammar and preferred explicit grammar teaching. In addition to this, in various studies on the opinions of teachers and students about grammar teaching [2], in the relevant literature, imitation, memorization and pattern practices are stated to be useful for a person who has just started to learn a language, supporting these results. A person who has just started to learn a language cannot suddenly comprehend all the rules of the language he has learned in a meaningful way. These rules and some sentence patterns can be memorized at first, and then made meaningful [36].
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