Thick-film static and dynamic force sensors have been investigated for their suitability to measure the grip forces exerted upon an object held by a prosthetic hand, and to detect and correspondingly react to the possible slip of a gripped item. The static force sensors exploit the piezoresistive characteristics of commercially available thick-film pastes whilst the dynamic slip sensors utilize the piezoelectric behaviour of proprietary PZT (lead zirconate titanate) pastes. The sensors are located upon stainless steel cantilever type structures that will be placed at the fingertips of each digit of the prosthetic hand. Temperaturesensors are also included to provide temperature compensation for the force sensors and to prevent accidental thermal damage to the prosthesis. Results have shown that the static force sensor is capable of measuring fingertip forces in excess of 100 N, with an electrical half-bridge configuration sensitivity approaching 10 µV V −1 N −1 (with scope for improvement) and maximum hysteresis below 4% of full scale, depending on the manner in which the cantilever sensor array is attached to the finger. Failure in the bonding mechanism that secures the PZT layer to the stainless steel cantilever meant that the proposed dynamic force sensor could not be evaluated. However, investigations using the same sensor design fabricated on an alumina substrate have shown the potential of the PZT dynamic force sensor to measure the vibration and hence
Ferrites are materials of relatively low cost which are applicable to several kinds of sensors to probe, such as current , magnetic field , mechanical stresses , gas concentrations [4, 5], and temperature . Ferrite temperaturesensors for biological applications have been developed, which can monitor human body temperature  and also have biochemical applications [8, 9].
Spindle bearings have small space for installing sensors, except the uneven temperature field distribution, its temperature also has problems that hard to pre- dict and monitor in real-time. This research has been focused on for a long time and needs to make a big breakthrough urgently. Traditional temperaturesensors, such as thermal resistance, etc., are vulnerable to electromagnetic interference and exits logging phenomenon, so those sensors are not beneficial to the distributed temperature measurement, and cannot meet the requirement of the spindle bearing temperature measurement. Lokesh A.Gupta used wireless temperaturesensors to monitor the temperature field of bearing, but as the limited of the quality and volume of the sensors, some temperature measuring points cannot react to the change of the bearing state quickly .
Abstract Hyporheic exchange is of great significance for evaluating and developing water resources, as well as protecting ecosystem health. Temperature monitoring is one of the powerful tools for recognizing the hyporheic flux with high precision, low cost and great convenience. The streambed temperature at different depths (0 to 1.00 m), and the air and stream water temperatures at Dawen River, Jining City, were monitored using distributed temperaturesensors (DTS). The temperature series were used to estimate the hyporheic flux through the analytical solution of the governing one-dimensional heat transport equation. The temporal patterns of flux along the vertical profile were analysed. The results indicated that surface water and air temperatures fluctuated approximately sinusoidally, and the groundwater temperature was relatively stable over time. The hyporheic flux at different depths showed different temporal patterns. Moreover, the dynamic curves of hyporheic flux were depth-dependent and probably controlled by the stream water level and groundwater field.
System design framework is shown as Fig.1, from which we can see the system consists of PIC, temperaturesensors, PC machine and an indicator. In which RTD, Thermocouple, LM35 DS18B20 are the temperature collection components and pressure gauge and BMP180 are the pressure collection components, responsible for the actual temperature and pressure sensitiveness, and sending the collected data to master chip PIC16F877A by a single bus. The main chip processes the received data and converts it into standard units. Simultaneously, on the one hand, send them to the host computer PC through its serial communication. An indicator is provided for checking the PIC functioning.
Ultrasonic thermometers address some weaknesses of conventional temperaturesensors in several unique ways. These thermometers measure the temperature of the medium of interest instead of the temperature of the sensor itself, featuring negligible response time. They average temperature across the complete ultrasonic pathway instead of sensing at a single point, potentially easing the design of process and climate controllers. They can also provide very high resolution, down to a hundredth of a centigrade [6, 7]. We believe that oscillating ultrasonic temperaturesensors (UOTS) are most suitable for measurements of process temperatures in pipes with diameters of around 100 mm .
There are several classes of potentially useful fluorescent materials now available for fluorescence lifetime-based temperature sensing. They include rare-earth doped silica fibres, fluorescence oxide powers and a variety of rare-earth ion and transition metal ion doped crystal of high optical grade quality. Clearly, the choice of sensor materials determines the performance of a fluorescence-based thermometer, in term of temperature range, sensitivity, and stability, to a great extent. To achieve stable operation, the sensor material should be chosen to be stable over a specified temperature range for a long operation lifetime. As the selection of fluorescence materials is not a main topic of this work, hereby the fluorescence materials used for temperaturesensors are only briefly listed below according to their material classification. Further information can be found in the text book by Grattsn and Zhang  and other related literatures [9,10].
analog output signals i.e. current-output signals or voltage-output signal. In order to interface between the analog sensor and the digital environment, ADC (analog to digital converter) has been developed to output digital signals. Because of its reliable performance in most low- frequency applications, more than half of CMOS sensors are using sigma-delta A/D converters . However, despite of its excellent performance, sigma-delta A/D converters have complex structures and are not area-efficient. Therefore, many digital temperaturesensors have been designed with different ADC schemes. Several research groups are dealing with the design of ring-oscillator-based temperaturesensors. For example, a temperature- dependent resistor can be use to control the charging/discharging current of the oscillator stages . In this way, the temperature data is converted to a shift in the oscillation frequency. Another example is a time-digital-converter-based temperature sensor . It is proposed for low-cost, low-power and high-accuracy on-chip integrations. One of its delay lines consists of multiple temperature compensated delay cells to reduce the thermal sensitivity. In contrast, another delay line is composed of an even number of NOT gates (or multiple equivalent delay buffers) without thermal compensation. A counter is used to count the circulation times of the input interval and generates the corresponding digital output.
temperature may greatly help the study of gene expression, enzyme reaction, and other cellular activities [26, 27]. For instance, Okabe et al. found that the temperature of nu- cleus and centrosome of many cells was higher than that of cytoplasm by 0.7–0.9 K in different cycle stages , indi- cating that a lot more was unknown in cell biology at the sub-cell level. With more and more doubts rising about the intracellular temperature measured with the non-contact techniques , contact sensors with high temperature sen- sitivity and high spatial resolution which can verify the intracellular temperature are in great demand. Though solid temperaturesensors (working with contact mode) such as thermocouples usually show a high temperature sensitivity, they often have a large size much more than 1 μm and are therefore not considered as the first choice for temperature sensing at the submicron scale. For appli- cation at the submicron and nanoscales, solid temperaturesensors should be made into smaller size meanwhile kept the high sensitivity. Recently, Wang et al. fabricated a novel tip-shaped thermocouple and successfully detected a weak change in intracellular temperatures of individual cells .
all is because of its exceptional mechanical, thermal and electronic properties . Depending on the chirality of the tube, carbon nanotubes are electronically categorized as semiconducting (wide or small bandgap) and metallic [4, 5]. The CNTs in the form of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled tubes have been studied as an active material for various types of sensors [3, 6-14]. Because of their piezoresistive nature, CNTs are interesting for electromechanical sensors like accelerometer, pressure sensors, displacement sensors and strain sensors. Due to their temperature dependent resistivity carbon nano tubes are also considered very promising active material for temperaturesensors , that can offer extensive miniaturization, low power consumption, high sensitivity and quick response [16, 17]. These sensors may be used in MEMS, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, mechanical, nuclear and aerospace industries.
Sensing temperature is essential for the appropriate control of industrial processes in many industries (e.g., in the food and petrochemical industries) and domestic appliances (e.g., domestic heaters and refrigerators). The world market of temperaturesensors was estimated to be worth over US $5 billion in 2016 . Conventional sensors consist of an encased sensing element that needs to be brought to thermal equilibrium with the environment before taking any measurements. The typical settling times of these sensors are in the range of several seconds, which introduces unwelcome lag when monitoring processes of interest. By their very operating principle, conventional sensors sense temperature at a single point only. For this reason, many sensors need to be procured, installed, wired, serviced, and interrogated if the average temperature in a process vessel or industrial freezer is to be controlled or maintained.
Corrosion free 30% glass filled polycarbonate enclosure designed to withstand temperature extremes, mechanical shock and vibration. 304 SS probe crimp attached to the enclosure flange for a low profile mating surface, external mounting bracket to conform to irregular surfaces, single screw cover attachment, are some of the features which improve reliability and lower installation cost. TE-702-A temperaturesensors provide a cost effective and reliable solution for air handlers, fan coil units, ducts, plenums, furnaces or any other application which does not require conduit wiring.
their efforts on the development of diverse techniques capa- ble of achieving thermal sensing with sub-micrometric reso- lution in both micro-fluidics and bio systems. 12,13 Most of these techniques are based on the incorporation into the sys- tem to be measured (microfluidics or living cells) of sub- micrometric sized materials, whose structural or optical properties are strongly temperature dependent in such a way that they constitute sub-micrometric thermal sensors. 4,12–15 The list of sub-micrometric materials already used for ther- mal sensing at the nanoscale has been boosted by the fast development of Nanotechnology and nowadays includes a large variety of materials such as carbon nanotubes, 16 silver nanospheres, 17 organic dyes, 18 and quantum dots. 19,20 How- ever, such approaches also exhibit some drawbacks, since the nanomaterials pervade the whole measurement volume. For applications including microreactor (where the presence of organic dye could interfere with chemical reactions) and biological applications involving the use of permeable cells (where toxicity plays a crucial role), the massive and non-selective incorporation of nano-materials could be problematic.
evaluated from the local slopes of the transfer characteristics in the linear regions. As shown in Figure 3(c), the temperature dependence of mobility can be divided into two regions, and the mobility are clearly thermally ac- tivated with thermal activation energy E a , which was calculated by Arrhenius behavior as µ ∝ exp ( − E a k T B ) . At temperatures over 200 K, the value of E a is 40.1 meV, similar to that of the single layer device . At temperatures ranging from 100 to 200 K, we have a second regime with a much lower E a of 16.3 meV, where the charge transport is dominated by shallow traps. The temperature dependence of V T for the pn heterojunc- tion device is given in Figure 3(d). At temperatures above 200 K, V T increases linearly with decreasing tem- perature. The variation of V T of 0.185 V/K is larger than the variation of V T (~0.02 V/K) in the single
PSoC1 devices can contain up to four programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) with quite a wide range of available discrete gain settings. The PGAs can be cascaded and used for the loss compensation and adjustment of the signal loop gain. Fig. 5 presents the experimental results for the output frequency of an ultrasonic temperature sensor with ultrasonic pathway of around 50 mm. An amplifier that featured two cas- caded PGAs and a band pass filter. The gain of the first stage G1 was fixed to the value shown in the figure legend, and the gain of the second stage G2 was varied to obtain all of the curves presented in Fig. 5.
Broderick et al. investigated the number of sensors necessary to make estimates of attitude and the error introduced by the sinusoidal assumption . The physics-based model and approximate model are shown in Figure 2 using a 35° FOV. While this is not the optimal FOV, it represents the available hardware at the time of data collection presented below.
With increasing temperature according to Equation (5), n increases. From Equation (6) it is noticed that whenever there is a temperature increase, α increases accordingly. Hence, in Equation (4) the first term is increased because of n and α. As described the second term is increased due to increase in the dn/dT. In comparing the results for the pure silica and other glasses it is noticed that the effect of the first term (nα) is very smaller than the second term (dn/dT) for the silica while this is reverse for the composite glasses. The reason is the existence of the metal oxide in the composite of other glasses that show higher α value. As a result the first term in Equation(4) for pure silica is much less than the other composite glasses. For example, the ratio of the first term of EDF to that of silica (SI) is about 15. On the other hand, for the same glasses, the second term for EDF is about 6.1×10 -6
Measurement Specialities’ range of stable thermistor components support a wide number of applications within the biomedical sector and are used in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of various medical conditions. Applications include DNA sequencing machines and temperature control for blood analyzers and samplers. The products listed below outline some of our capabilities and are available in a range of resistance/temperature (R/T) curves, electrical tolerances and mechanical housings.
PRT 02........................................................ 200 kPa PRT 03........................................................ 105 kPa PRT 06........................................................ 250 kPa Operating temperature range .................. -40 to 125 °C Response time ....................................... less than 7 ms Accuracy (including non-linearity, hysteresis