The bottom halves of the two figures, showing commodity-specific data at the two-digit SITC level, present both a potentially more promising picture for the middle-income countries and a more challenging one for low-income countries. Middle-income countries have moved strongly into the dynamic fruits and vegetables sector, while the volatile coffee, tea, cocoa, and spices category still dominates for low-income countries. For both groups of coun- tries, cereals are the second most important category, though most devel- oping countries are net importers of cereals, with vegetable oils another of the temperate products that developingcountries export. In the case of the low-income countries, however, these exports are relatively concentrated and often not in direct competition with those of rich countries. The cereal exports are largely accounted for by rice exports from India, Pakistan, and Vietnam to other developingcountries, while the vegetable oil exports are mostly palm and coconut oil from Indonesia. Figure 4.1b also indicates that meat is relatively important for middle-income countries, but three- quarters of total meat exports from developingcountries are accounted for by Brazil, China, Thailand, and Argentina. Moreover, pork and poultry, which the rich countries support less than beef, are important for all these countries except Argentina.
These problems are not new. The original Alma Ata Declaration of
with its commitment to integrated health service delivery, a commitment that is encapsulated in the WHO concept of primary healthcare, was a reaction to the perception that investments in selective primary healthcare and other vertical interventions had undermined the development of developing country health sectors. In the s, the pendulum swung back, as growing frustration with actual progress in developing primary healthcare, and the apparent in- ability to deal with increases in devastating and costly communicable diseases, led to increased investments in vertical programs. The G has been on both sides of this debate, committing to supporting overall health systems but also investing heavily in vertical programs through such channels as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). However, it is now readily apparent that greater focus is needed to assist countries to strengthen their overall health systems and integrated delivery, as the Global Fund and other initiatives run up against the limitations of weak health systems with often restricted capacity for scaling up. This is a significant motivation for the WHO’s new call to refocus on primary healthcare in its World Health Report
Students love to celebrate. Another strategy in implementing multicultural concepts is to capitalize on national celebrations of multicultural peoples. Such celebrations include Eid, Diwali, Pateti, and Natal. A multicultural classroom can produce a rich and creative learning environment for both the students and the teacher. As the world becomes more interconnected, it is common for contemporary classrooms to be culturally diverse. A culturally diverse classroom presents the teacher with a number of challenges. The goal is to use a multicultural classroom to enhance the educational experience of all the students while avoiding the risk of stereotyping students or thinking in terms of cultural clichés.
Source: Rosegrant, M.W. et al. 2006
The scenario I seeks to predict the situation in 2020 if the current aggressive policy decisions and strategies in regards to the expansion of biofuels, using first-generation feedstocks, are implemented in developed as well as developingcountries. The resulting impact on food prices is astounding from the perspective of biofuel producers, and it will be certainly devastating from the perspective of poor consumers. The expected rise of food prices by 2020 will be in the range of 25 % to 135 %, depending on the crop. In scenario II, with the use of cellulosic biofuel, the impact of biofuel expansion on food prices is less dramatic. Cellulosic biofuel will not compete so strongly with the production of food and feed, as much of it can be supplied by the forestry sector from non-arable land or from byproducts of the agricultural sector. Even in scenario III, which assumes rapid technological progress in agricultural production as well as energy conversion, food prices are estimated to rise in the range of 10 % to 54 %. These scenarios indicate that the good old days of the past 200 years, where food and energy prices were only loosely connected, are finally over. We are returning to the basic Malthusian type of economic relationship between food and energy that has influenced human kind during much of our existence. Figure 3 indicates that this relationship has already started to emerge with the high oil prices during recent years.
this system was primarily to provide natural resources (in particular, petro- leum and metals) and agricultural products (namely, cotton and grain) to the processing industries and principal markets located in today’s Russia and Ukraine. Accordingly, transport corridors were developed during the Soviet era mainly to connect the individual republics with Russia and Ukraine, rather than with their neighbours. As a result of this, the Eastern European and Central Asian landlocked countries face three main transit problems in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union. First, such corridors were built well before today’s international borders were drawn. Important domestic transport arteries now often pass through neighbouring countries, which can result in long delays and additional costs. Some countries are now building costly alternative routes to mitigate this problem. Second, connections through China, Iran, and Afghanistan are limited and poorly developed. The consequent dependence on Russian and Ukrainian transport links is said to be used by Russia and Ukraine for political leverage, seriously constraining landlocked countries’ ability to increase their oil and gas exports. Third, the Soviet command economy’s allocation of specific economic roles to each region led to poor diversification of exports for a number of these countries.
At some point, the country’s devel- opment will have progressed to the
extent that further growth will increas- ingly depend on highly-innovative entrepreneurship. For this, a shift from being interventionists and selective, towards being less interventionist is needed, as this is often a requirement for creativity and innovation to flour- ish. Many countries embark on trade liberalization during this phase. Exam- ples include the EU, the USA and India. China’s two-track approach since 1978 can be seen as a variant of this shift, whereby the shift is gradually introduced by allowing a more liberal- ized private-sector economy to develop without dismantling state-owned enterprises. China’s growing class of entrepreneurs has also had an impact on policy—a form of “institutional”
Second, the intersection between the problems of tax competition and tax dodging comes about because some jurisdictions are on the supply side of tax avoidance and evasion schemes, deliberately providing tax rules and secrecy in order to compete for paper profits and illicit wealth. The OECD attempted unsuccessfully to emphasise this point at the turn of the century, propounding then abandoning the concept of ‘harmful tax competition’, as opposed to legitimate measures designed to attract real economic activity. Several authors within these volumes are keen to revive the idea, if not the term, to emphasise how elements of the tax systems of large capital-exporting states, adopted for tax competition purposes, can be just as harmful to developingcountries as those of the more stereotypical tax havens. This concern is taken up by Markus Meinzer at the end of his chapter in Global Tax Governance, where he argues that ‘many advanced economies are invested in international tax rules allowing for tax-base-poaching and -luring’ (GTG p271).
Indeed, deficiency and lack of structural coordination in urban transportation system in Nigeria, like most African countries result either in slowing down or even in complete breakdown of election management in urban centers. Electorates and electoral officers find it difficult to arrive at the polling station to vote or distribute electoral materials to facilitate the voting process respectively. Therefore, the late arrival and in some cases the non-availability of electoral materials such as voters cards, electoral registers, ballot boxes and even personnel grossly affect the voting process resulting in voters staying on the queues for longer hours. Those that could not endure the stress, often out of frustration abandon the voting process, leading to disenfranchisement of many voters. Such structural defects and disenfranchisement brings about doubts, acrimony and even instigate racial conflicts that make democracy lose its values and relevance in the urban centers. Also, the urban dwellers apprehensive of the fact that electoral materials and officers always arrive late, develop a social behavior of lateness to the polling stations, thereby making electoral officers to extend the voting hours to dusk which then gives room for electoral malpractices and the election of candidates who are ever suspicious of political opponents and fear circumstances that could lead to their loss of political power. Such elected representatives speak of political rights, but they are careful not to elaborate a specific notion of rights in any detail for fear of setting in motion calls for liberalization and true democracy.
The issue of the environment has been topical since the eighties, and has been a major subject of research and international attention since the mid-eighties. There is a belief that countries do, or should, only pay attention to the environment and Endeavour to protect it when they attain a high level of socio-economic development. However, the issue of preserving the environment should be of even greater interest to developingcountries since they face severe environment-related problems (UNCHS, 1996). Most of these countries have fragile environments, and are faced with high levels of land degradation (erosion, aridity, desertification, drought, flooding, alkalinisation and Stalinization). Many of them also experience acute shortages of fresh water, a situation which is expected to worsen, and possibly lead to conflict among nations. The developingcountries are also losing their forests at a very fast rate. The countries also face rapid urbanization with its associated problems of air pollution and pressure on existing infrastructure such as waste management systems.
2 Ministry of Education Technical and Vocational Education and Training, Sudan
*E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system can play a significant role in providing human resources to enhance the structure of economic development in developingcountries. However, despite the introduction of this kind of education in as early as 1902, there is still no significant progress and achievement in as far as Sudanese TVET system is concerned. This paper attempts to address the challenges and opportunities in developingcountries, a case study of Sudan. The study was done in technical secondary schools and vocational training centres in Khartoum, Sudan. The sample size was 7 participants which was obtained through purposive sampling. The data was analysed qualitatively basing on thematic analysis. Both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were collected through open-ended interview from 2 ministerial experts in TVET, 4 students and 1 parent. Secondary data involved the contextual analysis from empirical studies. The findings revealed that; although in developingcountries, governments persistently call for TVET development, there is still a number of restrictions hindering this field to attain the required standards and success such as; management system, teacher/instructors and training program, curriculum and pedagogy, financial support, the misconception of society and technology integration. Finally, the study recommended that TVET administration should implement what has been drawn internationally.
2 Durban University of Technology, South Africa
3, 4 Dept. Of Computer Science, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Abstract: Clinicians want a very useful, portable, and handy tool to use in their practice, which improves workflow and becomes a convenient connectivity channel for applications and information resources. Mobile devices respond to this need by allowing physicians anywhere and anytime, but there are few guidelines to help decide on the acquisition and implementation of large- scale technology in healthcare systems. Upon review of the literature on eHealth, a critical question is raised: why has eHealth projects not been scaled-up across several developingcountries? Although research has established that eHealth tools have the potential to affect the healthcare outcomes positively. Using the case of Mobile Technology for Community Health (MOTECH) in Ghana, a theoretical model is used to appraise the critical factors affecting the scalability of eHealth systems. This study focused on the problems from medical officers, community health nurses, volunteers and beneficiary patients’ perspective and tried to bring out the issues that are fundamental in rolling out a successful eHealth solution to the public. The study did not focus only on the technological aspect, but also on the behavioural aspect of eHealth technology, in which the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was extended to appreciate the challenges. The model identified technical support, resistance to change and financial constraints as the main obstacles to the adoption and scalability of eHealth systems. The research contributes to the literature by identifying important areas where results can have a positive effect or can be used by health policymakers in Ghana and other developingcountries. This can help them understand their concerns and weaknesses when planning the adoption and implementation of m-health systems.
Source: Bank of New York.
Internationalization of Emerging Stock Markets
The figures illustrate the amount of equity capital raised by developingcountries in international capital markets and the volume traded by developingcountries ADRs during the 1990s. In these figures, the top six developingcountries include Argentina, Brazil, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico; these countries were selected in accordance to their total capital raised during the period 1980-2000. High-income countries include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom. Middle-income countries include Bahrain, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malta, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Low-income countries include Ghana, Indonesia, Malawi, and Pakistan.
direct and indirect exposure. Animals get infected mostly through environmental exposure, but venereal transmis- sion is also common in some mammal species. Humans get infected when they come into contact with these motile bacteria – through direct contact of skin lesions or mucous membranes with the urine of a carrier animal or, more fre- quently, through contact with freshwater bodies or watered soil contaminated by urine. Human-to-human transmission is exceptional. Leptospirosis takes a heavy toll in precarious and farming populations in developingcountries from tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In humans, leptospirosis first presents as an acute fever with headache and myalgia and accounts for one of the numerous possible etiologies of acute fevers in medical settings. If left untreated, it can degenerate into severe forms, with kidney and/or liver dam- age as well as severe pulmonary hemorrhage. Case fatality rates range from less than 5% to more than 30% depending on the clinical presentation and the case management. In developingcountries, leptospirosis poses a number of chal- lenges not only in the fields of public health (prevention and education, preparedness, intervention) but also in the fields of medical and biological diagnosis and case management.
On the other hand, India is the world’s fifth largest energy consumer and is expected to become the third largest by 2030. Its rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic growth have increased the energy requirements, resulting in a dramatic rise in oil imports from 21 million tons since the early 1990s to 111 million tons in 2006-07 [31, 32]. This energy demand is very substantial for developing and emerging economies, such as India, in maintaining their societal metabolism, and it is expected to increase unceasingly (Ariza-Montobbio and [31, 32, 29]. In addressing the concern about energy security, the Indian government has promoted biofuel as an alternative energy source by making it obligatory to blend gasoline with biofuels, aided by a policy incentive designed to facilitate optimum development and exploitation of indigenous renewable biomass feedstock . The other reasons behind biofuel promotion in India include the mitigation of climate changes due to the emission of Green House Gases (GHGs); environmentally sustainable development; and increased opportunity for new employment . In 2003, the National Mission on Biofuel was launched by the Indian government in two phases with specific targets, (i) the cultivation of 400,000 ha of land, the establishment of research networks in 42 public universities, and the achievement of a 5% blending target (phase I); and (ii) the achievement of a 20% blending target by 2011-2012 (phase II) .
They have declared in favour of a number of progressive goals that can potentially benefit developingcountries by ensuring that they can generate enough revenues to finance their development strategies. Any decisions about what European Institutions might do to help developingcountries realise these progressive goals needs to be informed by an understanding of the broader context, notably the number of other international organisations that are seeking to promote similar goals. These include the G8 and the G20, of which Europe is a member. The most important organisations, especially in the technical sense, are the OECD and the IMF. All these organisations are currently cooperating to change the rules of the global tax system, with at least some significant regard for the interests of developingcountries. Amongst the various initiatives at the global level, the two most important ones are the transparency and information exchange agenda, and the BEPS agenda (see section 4 for more details). In both cases, primary responsibility for developing the technical agenda lies with the OECD. The OECD is currently in the process of developing the BEPS program and, through the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange Information for Tax Purposes, advancing the objective of improving the flow of information between national tax agencies. Arguably, the distinctive contribution of the European institutions is the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) program, which is the only concrete plan in existence at present to make mandatory country-by-country reporting by transnational corporations. In the long term, the extension of country-by-country reporting is likely to benefit developingcountries. However, the current CCCTB proposals have only a marginal impact on developingcountries. Compared to the OECD and the IMF in particular, the European institutions do not have the advantage of strong institutional and personal links with tax institutions in developingcountries. It is noticeable that the membership of the EU Platform for Tax Good Governance is entirely European. Strengthening these linkages might be almost a precondition for effective action to support revenue raising and anti-evasion activities in developingcountries.
6.06 billion in 2000 will grow to 7.2 billion in 2015, 8.3 billion in 2030 and 9.3 billion by 2050, thus increasing the demand for food.
An important aspect of the demographic change in populations that influences trends in food consumption is the change in the demographic pyramids of countries in the developing world. As a result of better health and nutrition, infant and childhood survival is improving, causing a shift in the age structure of the population in most developingcountries. In the early stages of this transition the dependency ratio increases, the increase being reversed at later stages of the process. Such shifts have implications for development and poverty reduction as well as for dietary consumption patterns. Early in the transition – with many more children than adults (i.e. a high dependency ratio) and rapid population growth – the demographic structure handicaps poverty reduction. The situation reverses later in the transition, when the age structure is less heavily weighted towards the very young with more representation from young adults in the demographic pyramid. Indeed, countries in the later stages of the demographic transition have been the most successful in bringing down mass poverty as an increasing number of young adults, most of them in the economically productive group, make up a larger share of the population.
Achieving quality education is a challenge for many developingcountries. One of the problems leading to this challenge is the inability of governments to invest in the development and management of effective school libraries. The school library is a hub of knowledge for students and teachers. Thus, it plays a paramount role in the ability of students to achieve the desired level of literacy and numeracy. As a result, school libraries need to be fully equipped and have effective library services to support the teaching and learning process. This paper enumerates the problems that hinder effective school library services in developingcountries. The main aim is to provide a picture of the status of school libraries in developingcountries. Of which, if the situation is not addressed it will be difficult for developingcountries to reach their desired level of development and be knowledge based economies. These challenges include; poor staffing practices, poor funding, lack of a library policy, poor ICT infrastructure, poor library facilities, and lack of awareness of the importance of school libraries. The findings in this paper are based on literature review and author’s own experience/observations. Only current sources which are within the 10 year window of publication were selected.
2. Reasons for Increase in Medical Tourism
Medical care for some procedures in countries such as India, Mexico, Thailand and Singapore can cost as little as ten percent of the cost of comparable care in the U.S. The price is remarkably lower for a variety of services and often includes airfare and stay in a resort hotel making interest in medical tourism strong and positive (Keckley and Underwood, 2008). For example, in 2005 the average cost of a procedure such as the “Heart Bypass” was $27,000 in the U.K, $23,000 in France, $24,000 in the U.S. while the cost in India was only $7600 as reported by a student in his unpublished class project on healthcare costs in 2007. The average cost of hip replacement was reported to be $16,000 in the U.K, $14,000 in France, $28,000 in the U.S. while the cost in India was $5700. For a procedure such as the cataract surgery, the cost was $5,000 in the U.K, $3,000 in France, $4,000 in the U.S. while the cost in India was only $1200. Table 1 provides a brief comparison of the costs of few of the dental procedures between USA and India. Table 2 shows a comparison of costs of certain selected procedures for UK and India while Table 3 illustrates comparison of costs for a variety of countries such as Mexico, Costa Rica, India, Thailand and Korea with the United States. Finally, Table 4 offers a basic comparison of common procedure pricing between U.S. and “Overseas Hospitals.” This clearly shows that cost savings could be easily achieved if a person is willing to travel for medical care.
But this is only part of the story and much more is required in order to reap the benefits of IT. In essence, these countries need to create the necessary institutions that provide incentives for and externalities necessary for domestic learning, which we define as "learning within the domestic economy, by both national and foreign actors”. Learning efficiency is critically dependent on the existence of such institutions. They are shaped by the interaction of policies, firm strategies ( including those pursued by inter-firm networks) and “markets”. Such institutions need time to develop and there is no single optimum solution. Each individual country has to find the idiosyncratic mix of policies, market structure and firm organization that best fits its own strengths and weaknesses. Nor is there any guarantee for success: Institutions can also experience malignant growth 64 or they can get stuck with obsolete features that once were useful, but now have become barriers to a further upgrading of local capabilities. In short, the dynamics of change of institutions matters; but nothing is predetermined about the outcome of these processes, in terms of their impact on capability formation 65 .