• Manufacturing manager: name, last name, plant.
4.1 Transformation of the business processmodel
The transformation is made initially identifying the infor- mation objects that composes the activity diagram. In our case of study, the information objects which could be immediately identiﬁca as classes (to represent concepts of the business model) are: order, catalog, manufactur- ing template, special product, order work. The objects instanced several times but diﬀer on their state, in the activity diagram, are considered as a single class. For instance, order has several states: proposed, evaluated, etc. but it represents the same information object.
Figure 1: Levels in Modelling Enterprise Systems
From our project experiences in developing and modelling large enterprise applications, it is necessary to integrate applications on the business and conceptual level as well. Nevertheless, standardisations on modelling languages and model exchange formats (incl. their industrial implementation) still can rarely be found. Almost the only, but prominent, example is the UML and XMI for modelling object-oriented systems [10, 11]. Other examples from industrial research area are BPML/BPMN [2, 3] and UEML . In addition, the OMG community started to establish a relatively new vision with the Meta Object Facility (MOF) and the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) to improve productivity in software development, applying object-orientation, meta level concepts and modelling [12, 14]. Because of today’s diversity of models and heterogeneous modelling languages for developing enterprise applications, we apply the Enterprise Model Integration (EMI) approach . This approach is based on object-oriented metamodelling concepts to describe context-specific, integrated modelling languages and on modeltransformation concepts for model exchange.
of platform independent models and the support of model transformations. Consequently, the software development process can be viewed as a chain of model transformations.
Web Engineering is a concrete domain where MDD can be helpful, particularly in addressing the problems of evolution and adaptation of Web software to continuously emerging new platforms and changes in technologies. During the last years the Web engineering community has proposed several languages, architectures, methods and processes for the development of Web applications. In particular, methods for modeling such systems were developed, such as Hera , OOHDM , OO-H , OOWS , UWE , WebML , and W2000 . They focus on the specification of analysis and design models for Web systems, such as the construction of navigation or adaptation models. However, the modeltransformation aspects were neglected by most of these methods.
The results show, which barriers are existing in a transformationprocess in the energy sector and how they can be categorised. On the one hand the technological progress in the energy sector promises decreasing costs and innovative business models and on the other hand high investment costs are required to accomplish a successful business modeltransformation. These include the high upfront investments as well as the lack of governmental financial support. Governmental incentives for example to promote renewable energies, often do not operate at the local level, are misguided or do not fit to complex energy networks. Regarding the Change Management, there are internal barriers at the management level by holding on to traditional structures and business models. At the technical level, there is a lack of staff who owns the right skills and motivation. In the area of technological shortcomings, the suitability and reliability of new energy capacities is mentioned as another obstacle. Batteries are therefore a risk because of their lack of reliability as an instrument of flexibility. The lack of network capacity for information and energy exchange and the fluctuating energy production as a risk to grid stability was also mentioned. Furthermore, the major actors in the energy industry are trying to keep the market as a monopole as they concern about their profitability.
GRAI-GIM (GRAI Integrated Method) is a method based on enterprise model- ing to design or redesign the manufacturing systems. This method focuses mostly on the decision-making level in a company. Its main goal is to improve the global enterprise performances . This method can be applied in several domains such as: manufacturing systems engineering, industrial strategy development, knowledge management. . . The GIM methodology suggests new concepts to describe the decision making systems such as: the GRAI grille and the GRAI network . The GRAI grille is a table. The columns represent the enterprise functions and the lines represent the decision-making levels for the diﬀerent types of decision such as strategic, tactical and operational decisions with their periods and horizons. The GRAI network is a local representation of the making-decision center. It deﬁnes the activities, the initial states and the trigger events of the decision-making process .
This processmodel was deductively created by reviewing and synthesizing elements from several relating theoretical domains. Some models that were used and integrated into the processmodel of this thesis however, have not yet been previously ‘tested’. Therefore, although the aim is partly to verify the constructed processmodel, this study is also largely concerned with complementing it. The methods used in this study therefore, were chosen to facilitate both the verification of the theoretical processmodel as well as leaving room to gain additional knowledge of the actual process to check whether or not parts seem to be missing. A qualitative approach is hence the preferred one, as it is better equipped to collect a broader spectrum of information about the described process. In short, one could say that the processmodel that was subtracted from theory is verified and additional information will be included if it seems to be lacking in the theoretical processmodel. In doing so, the result of this study will then also provide a better, deeper and more complete understanding of the development processmodel depicted in figure 16, both for theory building and practical application.
Our rather generic processmodel can be more easily implemented in other organizations. In so doing, our lessons learned will help organizations to improve their readiness to adapt to the new requirements of digitalization. This underlines our two-fold contributions. First, our processmodel answers the needs of digital transformation. It will help not only public sector IT management but may also help the private sector when they design and develop their own practices and processes. Second, our lessons learned become valuable for refining this model, and implementing it or other IT management models to other contexts. Especially the broadness of the change in the IT department, so that it touches all business units, and makes the change difficult to plan, design, and execute. These issues are directly usable by practitioners, but also researchers benefit from them when developing new frameworks and instructions, and possibly theorizing the change.
Abstract— Creating Sequence diagrams with UML tools can be incomplete, inconsistent, and incorrect. It also requires expertise, effort, and time. With modeltransformation technology, this paper presents an approach to automate the generation of UML Sequence diagrams from Use Case Description and Class diagrams. ATL is used as the modeltransformation language for converting the source metamodels of Use Case description and Class diagrams to the target metamodel of Sequence diagram. The resulting file in XMI format is then transformed by XSLT to another XMI file that suits for rendering the image of Sequence diagram as the final output. The proposed method would result in the improvement of software process. Rather than constructing the models from scratch during the different development life cycle stages, model transformations enable the reuse of information that was once modeled, as well as enhance the consistency among the models representing different views of the system.
The paper extends the work presented previously on the application of generic process models in Business Process Re-engineering (Childe et al 1995). The construction of business process models is contextualised by a five stage composite methodology for BPR. Following an analysis of various process architectures the potential of generic process models is presented. The development of such a model is described. The application of this model in a small manufacturing company is discussed and the areas in which the model proved to be useful are shown. The paper challenges traditional sequential methodologies and suggests a non- sequential orientation and the systemic consideration of six fundamental issues. The paper reports on the current thinking in the area of delivery mechanism development for BPR methodologies. This thinking focuses predominantly on learning and the transfer of relevant expertise to practitioners.
In today's rapidly evolving world, one of the most important resource of organizations is the time. The time cost of the activities that determine the organization's competitiveness and vulnerability. Organizations increasingly use information systems and want to quickly and efficiently create. Most importantly, seek to improve the organization's activities and to meet the requirements and help achieve our goals. Organizations are able to manage themselves and model their own processes. Thus, they can shape the requirements for the information system. However, the IS developers taking over the organization consisting of process models do not provide the full match. Because creating an information system, they can not use models and concluded the information contained therein. This should eliminate the gap between business processmodeltransformation of the operational services. Manual transformation requires specific knowledge and tangible time-consuming. Possible reasons for the success made Generation: a lack of knowledge of specific, time-consuming limitations of price and programming code errors; cases translation differences, other external factors. To reduce the risk, it is necessary to automate the business processmodel, extended business rules, transformation of business services. This will ensure consistency of performance rendering process in the form of program code, speeding up the transformation of (reduced time cost) and to ensure, conveyed by the process, transforming fullness of detail and increased security.
This value discipline can apply to nearly all process industries.
For instance, a catalyst supplier to refineries might leverage cloud-based applications and services to improve catalyst yield, run-length, and selectivity. A shared data historian and process simulator based on first principles could provide model-centric technical support, troubleshooting, and optimization at the right time, delivering superior scheduling, planning, end-use performance, and differentiation through customer intimacy. Similarly, a specialty chemical company that supplies chemicals to the pulp and paper industry could dynamically adjust their batch process to prevent foaming.
Thus, researchers audited a total of 434 records. They included both the electronic and paper health records. The study's findings indicated that electronic health records enhanced efficiency in documentation due to its proper structure and process compared to paper-based. However, paperwork has some advantages over EHRs. For instance, they found out that paper-based records were better in terms of quantity and quality.
Time-stamped data was extracted from Westfield’s enterprise data warehouse and from the CCC logs to generate arrival patterns by channel. The current claims organizational structure was used to derive staffing levels for each resource type by office. In addition to the typical issues encountered with any simulation project such as non-stationary Poisson arrivals and a diverse resource pool, there were many unique features that the simulation model needed to mimic. These included 1) a never before seen queu- ing rule at the data entry vendor, 2) self-reported work hours for the allocation specialist, 3) re-seizing the same adjuster after information is returned to the adjuster, 4) accounting for the amount of time the adjuster spends driving to locations 5) using anomaly detection to determine when the CCC was in a storm situation versus business as usual, 6) processing the features that make up a claim, 7) using modi- fied hybrid resources in the CCC, and 8) call abandonment in the CCC.
To recognize opportunity and create the will to act, financial institutions must look past institutional biases and cost. When the aggregate back office is viewed in terms of its role in revenue generation and profit enhancement, the benefits of shifting from a product-centric to a process-centric back-office operating model are truly compelling. An experienced partner can guide the organization in the disciplined pursuit of the benefits of process-centric back office transformation.
Buyers continue to attach significant importance to in-house expertise available and peer group experience in choosing transformation initiatives. As buyers move towards a global sourcing model they can find the right partner to supplement the in-house expertise.
Analysts and advisors overwhelmingly identify aligning processes to industry best practices as the most significant transformation initiative. This is perhaps in line with their focus on the scale of benefit rather than immediacy of benefits.
dimensions based on the type of company. Dimensions of manufacturing companies are diversified based on what they produce. Another missing part is the maturity level index comparison for all dimensions. They find some level for all dimensions but when they determine the latest maturity index, they only focus on the dimension of having a lower maturity index. However, lower maturity indices should not be the only case to consider. Another crucial component is bringing all maturity levels to the same level; however, no researcher adopts this perspective. For instance, if there is a substantial difference between the maturity level of production planning and logistics, the connection between these two dimensions will fail and all digitalization process will be affected by these disturbances. Furthermore, in , they define three dimensions which they considered as more important than others. They extracted other dimensions without any test(s) and the effect(s) of other dimensions were also omitted. If they want to choose the most important dimensions, they should make a hypothesis test and then select the most important factors for maturity via the R-square value. Furthermore,  does not define any dimension. The researchers only show how to evaluate the current situation with determined levels. In addition,  and  use the same dimensions as does  for a specialized case study. These dimensions are the example of  in implementing real life situations. Also, some papers only focus on a particular strategic dimension based on their areas. For instance,  and  only are concerned with data management,  as well as  on organizational structure, and  mostly focuses on software and IT systems. However, considering only one dimension is insufficient for the transition process of digitalization. Even if a company has all the technologies in its working area, if the company does not have true strategy, organization and skilled labor, digitalization does not proceed. All the dimensions should be considered together for successful transition process.
receive the corresponding CSP variables and a set of constraints, and if they are solved, also the corresponding pattern matching problem is solved. This solution is used in implementation of AGG language .
The previously described solutions are trying to find the corresponding model fragment in time, which depends on the size of the model (number of instances) and on the size of the pattern (number of pattern elements). Incremental pattern matching allows finding the corresponding model fragment for a pattern in constant time. The basic idea of this method is cache the fragments corresponding to the pattern, and when model changes, update this information. But cache requires additional memory resources. In this case changing the model is inefficient, because in case of any change, the information about the model fragments corresponding to the pattern must be updated. The typical MDSD transformationmodel is being changed constantly. There must be created the corresponding element in the target model practically for each element of the source model. It must be noted that before the execution of the transformation, when loading the model into the memory, the cache process must be performed and it needs a definite time of execution. Because of these reasons incremental pattern matching is not suitable for MOLA language. This approach is implemented in VIATRA language  and it works very successfully in solving tasks when the number of transformations is small and local. VIATRA incremental pattern matcher is built by using RETE networks .
Political transformation scholars identified a new object of research through the course of the so-called “Arab Spring” that began in 2010 - the democratization of Arab countries. However, Tunisia is the only country in which the transformationprocess resulted in a democratic political system with constitutional rights and free elections, achievements that remain to this day. This paper investigates the importance and role of civil society during the transformationprocess in Tunisia. Theoretically, this paper integrates a participative framework of civil society with a three-stage-model of democratic transformation, inspired by French philosopher Montesquieu. In the descriptive empirical section, events are summarized that took place between 2000 and 2017. In the subsequent sections, the paper frames events from this period in a historical and sociological context: from the Ottomans until the authoritarian ruler Ben Ali, thereby drawing special attention to the unique evolution of Tunisia’s civil society. The third empirical section investigates the powerful role of the civil society organization and national trade union center Union Générale des Travailleurs Tunisiens (UGTT). Through an interpretive case study, this master thesis demonstrates UGTT’s important role throughout the democratic transformationprocess in Tunisia.