The first post office in India was established by East India Company in the year 1688 in Bombay followed by Calcutta and Madras. It was named as „Company Mail‟. The Post Office Department of the East India Company was first established on March 31, 1774 at Calcutta, followed in 1778 at Madras and in 1792 at Bombay. The present type of post office came in to being in the year 1854 under the post office Act of 1854. The Indian post office has a huge network of branches with an unique outreach in rural areas. In the year 1861 total number of post offices in India were 889. The number of post offices in India increase from 23,344 in 1947 to 1, 54,866 as on 31-03-2011. Out of total post offices in India 1,39,040 numbers post offices are in rural areas which accounts for 89.78% of India‟s total post office and remaining 15,826 numbers of post offices situated in urban areas which is only 10.22% of total numbers of post offices. Apart from providing regular postal service‟s the post offices in India are also providing financial services to the public through Post Office Savings Bank. The Indian Post starts Postal Life Insurance in the year 1984 as a welfare scheme for the employees of the Post and Telegram Department due to huge demand of the scheme latter on it was opened for employees of other departments and finally in the year 1995 it was opened for all people. In addition to these services post office also provide money transfer services. Post Office Savings Bank which was establish with an objective of encouraging saving habit and thrift among the masses has now become a medium of mobilizing a huge amount of funds.
contribution to running costs. In this case, the shop was not technically a charity, and operated as a social enterprise CLG. The informants stated that it was probably accidental that the shop had not become a CBS as a culture of charitable trading for public benefit was dominant. The PO counter was important because it encouraged greater footfall. The volunteer co-ordinator said “having the post office there brings people in who spend money for the shop,” but promoting PO sales was not, as the chair put it, “something that we would expect from our location.” All the informants agreed that both shop and PO were primarily regarded as community resources. Interestingly, the shop had received a loan where the return on investment was delivered solely in social outputs. The PO counter was one of the social returns. Case 3 integrated a PO counter into a village pub owned by a CBS. The pub ran a café, and a small shop during the day alongside the PO. Whilst there was agreement the PO should contribute towards the CBS’s profitability, the 60 hour / week opening hours made this challenging because someone trained to handle PO computer-based transactions needed to be on duty at all times. The PO manager said
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The Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (Prime Minister People Money Scheme) created a record opening up of bank accounts in India in a very short span. The utility of the bank accounts is great for the financial inclusion and which was demonstrated across India in various ways. However, there are some concerns on the utilisation of the bank accounts, as some studies pointing out the dormant bank accounts and overburden on the banking system with large number of accounts with little or no transaction for a longer period. There is also a case of using the wide post office network for the financial inclusion, which are reachable to every villager without any cost to government as well as the beneficiaries. This study focuses on the utilisation pattern of the post office and bank accounts in India by using the Global Findex data collected by the World Bank in year 2011 and draw some lessons on how to increase utility of the bank accounts to general public without excessively burdening the banking system. The sample drawn is nationally representative with the sample size of 3518 adult members 1837 male and 1679 female. We find that post offices are relatively more likely than traditional banks to provide accounts to individuals who are most likely to be financially excluded such as the poor, less educated and those out of the labour force. Even though over all use of the bank accounts is low, they play a greater role in increasing savings habits and likely to play a greater role in direct cash transfer under different government welfare programmes.
R. Ganapathi and S. Anbu Malar (2010) 1 Studied Investors Attitudes towards Post office Deposit Schemes. The post Office has long been known as a medium to inculcate the habit of thrift and savings among the agricultural workers. But over time, its role has changed and it has grown to become one of the best avenues to channel investment from even the wealthy investors and use them fruitfully in nation building activities. There has been introduction of several types of deposit schemes that cater to the differing needs of different classes of investors. They are well-known for their tax saving schemes, high interest rates and the safety and liquidity that they offer. This has enabled them to compete successfully with the other avenues of investment available to investors like commerce, etc. This study is an attempt to identify the awareness, preference and attitudes of investors towards various deposit schemes offered by the Post Office among 300 respondents of the Coimbatore District.
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This project mainly studies about the queuing system in post office where the purpose is to observe the current queuing situation and to propose further improvement for the management. The number of booths in the post office ought to be optimized to so that the customer waiting time can be reduced. The post office selected is located at Ayer Keroh, Melaka. Currently the post office contains five booths where each booth provides one or more services to the customers. The services include normal posting, Pos express, Pos Laju and others. The operating time for the post office is from 8.30am to 5.00pm.
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Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of letters and parcels; provision of post office boxes; and sale of postage stamps, packaging, and stationery. Today the governments of many countries use their postal systems to provide a range of services that often have no direct connection with the traditional function of exchanging letters. Assured and speedy delivery of goods by the Postman is possible with the help of speed post service. To provide for the collection, transport, and delivery of letters throughout a country, it has been necessary to establish a network of post offices extending into the remotest areas. The post office provides postal and non-postal services. For more than 150 years post office has been the backbone of country. Over the time the role of post office has been grown to provide the best investment avenue options to the investors with a very nominal amount on opening account. It plays a significant role in developing economy. Financial inclusion has been the key element of developing society and socio-economic development. The role of post office is very important in developing the economy by providing various services to all the sections of the society. The services offered by Indian Post are as per the requirement of the customers. It serves to both rural as well as urban clientele. The financial services offered by post offices includes saving schemes, postal life insurance, rural postal life insurance. The post office small savings schemes provides a secure, risk free, attractive, investment option for small investment and offers the saving products across 155000 post offices. POSB are the oldest savings bank in India and the largest in banking system. The post office is universally recognised as facilitator of communication. The postal runs through all odds but discharge and perform all their duties. It is pioneer in retail services and provides a diverse range of services through wide networks. Mail order introduced in 1877 and 1880, it reached to doorstep of customers. Post Office Saving Bank was introduced its banking services in 1882 and in 1884 Postal Life Insurance was started for government employees.
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countenancing of buttocks, or at least of one set to one cheek thereof, across the Irish sea, between Dublin and Ireland, from GPO to MMM, between a post- office built by a British imperial mail system and an asylum employing an indelibly Dublin exile renders problematic or at least causes a hesitation, for me at least, just as Miss Counihan stumbles into “er fen and er glen”, the reading of Beckett’s engagement with the rhetoric and/or legacy of the twilighters and the clamorous and contending voices of Irish nationalism in the 1930s. The façade of one deathly construction (edifice, occupants both in absentia and in presentia) reverberates with the other. Neary, or Neary’s skull is the link between both deadly constructions; the same head he dashes against the dying hero’s buttocks conjures Clonmachnois from the mortuary slab. (Or Leibniz’s skull, or its representative the splendid garret (Monas Monadum), could equally be thought of as the sounding chamber for these incompossible worlds).
Routine tasks need routine procedures if you want to stay organized and keep things running smoothly. Set up routines for handling paperwork and office systems. For instance every piece of paper that comes into your office should be handled once, acted upon and filed- not haphazardly piled on a desk. Office systems such as computer will need both administration panic mode procedures. When any system crashes or a computer related piece of equipment fails, everyone in your office needs to know who to call and what not to do.
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consists of six components: subjects and their attributes, objects and their attributes, rights, authorizations, obligations, and conditions. The authorizations, obligations, and conditions are the components of the UCON decisions. UCON extends the traditional access-control models in one aspect, in that the control decision depends not only on authorizations, but also on obligations and conditions. Obligations are activities that are performed by the sub- jects or by the system. For example, playing a licensed music file requires a user to click an advertisement and register in the authors web page. Such an action can be required before or during the playing process. Conditions are system and environmental restrictions that are not directly related to subject or object attributes, such as the system clock, the location, system load, system mode, etc. Another way in which UCON extends traditional access con- trol models is the concepts of continuity and mutability. A complete usage process consists of three phases through time: before usage, ongoing usage, and after usage. The control- decision components are checked and enforced in the first two phases, named pre-decisions and ongoing decisions, respectively. The presence of ongoing decisions is called continuity. Mutability means that the subject or object attribute value may be updated to a new value as a result of accessing. Along with the three phases, there are three kinds of updates: pre- updates, ongoing updates, and post-updates. All these updates are performed and monitored by the security system as the access is being attempted by the subject to the object. Changing subject and object attributes has an impact on other ongoing or future usage of permissions involving this subject or object. This aspect of mutability makes UCON very powerful. The new expressive power brought in by UCON is very germane to the automated and seamless security administration required in environments.
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CHIVA is a hemodynamic strategy, which requires an ade- quate tactic. The procedures of the OB-CHIVA here described to fit the tactic to the office environment could show in this experimentation inadequate results, compared to classic CHIVA interventions. It is better to declare a substantial difference between CHIVA and OB-CHIVA. The latter is not only a technical but rather a conceptual variation of CHIVA, thus they cannot be considered the same thing.
Part II, “Preparing and Producing Professional Results,” is all about the core applications and the documents, databases, and communications you’ll create using them. Chapter 4, “Create Professional Documents with Office Word 2007,” spotlights the features you’ll use during the concept-to-completion process of creating a high-quality, professional document. Find out about the new built-in PDF and XPS features, create a professional and consistent look with new themes, let the Document Inspector help you check your work, and learn to work collab- oratively to create a team project in Office Word. Chapter 5, “Extend Your Insight with Office Excel 2007,” shows you how to make the most of a wide range of new and improved features, including improved formatting, styles, and charting tools; the new SmartArt diagramming tool; faster calculations and a larger worksheet; enhanced sorting and filtering features; and seamless integration with Excel Services. Chapter 6, “Design Attention-Getting Presentations with Office PowerPoint 2007,” introduces you to the eye-popping new custom layouts, slide libraries, improved styles, and more. Chapter 7, “Produce Quality Business Materials with Office Publisher 2007,” shows you how you can produce high-quality professional marketing materials, which rival those created by top marketing firms, for a fraction of the cost (and time!). Chapter 8, “Gather, Find, and Share Information with Microsoft Office OneNote 2007,” shows you how to create and work with multiple notebooks, capture text, audio, and ink notes—and include file attachments, tables, and more--whether you’re working solo or as part of a team. Chapter 9, “Track Information Quickly and Effectively with Office Access 2007,” shows you the amazing new changes in Office Access and demonstrates the assort- ment of new built-in templates and easy-to-find tools, ready to help you manage all kinds of business data management needs.
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Sustainable building performance and its assessment have earned increased attention in recent years, especially with respect to retrofitting buildings. Retrofitting the commercial office building has been identified as having a key potential in addressing improvement of the building green features, less concern is given for occupants expectation of sustainability in the process of retrofitting to enhance their productivity (Gou et al., 2012; Zhang and Altan, 2011; Frontczak et al., 2012; Danatzko et al., 2013). It, however, became imperative that improved productivity and accountability in building performance become significant to ensure that commercial office buildings produce significantly the much needed enhancement towards the occupants‘ needs and prospects.
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This study explores the alignment of managers’ competencies with their job functions in the South African Post Office. Before alignment was explored, managers’ competencies were determined through self-assessments by managers and peer- assessments by subordinates. Fifty-five managers across four levels of management and 74 direct subordinates participated in the survey. Forty-four job profiles of managers were utilised to determine the job competencies of managers at SAPO. Twenty competencies were identified as job competencies against which the competencies of managers are aligned. Not only are the competencies of managers aligned to their job functions and competencies, but their job competencies are also aligned to researched competency models for management. This quantitative research study contains valuable information regarding the competencies of managers at SAPO and could contribute positively to leadership development, not only at SAPO, but also to other similar state-owned enterprises. Based on the results of the research recommendations are made for leadership development, performance management and an on-boarding programme for new managers at SAPO.
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The aim of this research is to explain differences in the political priorities of mayors. As mentioned above, political prioritization includes those themes mayors consider to be important in performing their job. By definition, prioritization falls within the scope of issues management as latter “is the process through which an organization manages its policy, and identifies potential problems, issues, or trends that could impact it in the future” (Bowen, Rawlings & Martin, 2012: p. 115). According to this, mayors operate issues management while setting priorities among current local themes. Bigelow, Fahey, and Mahon (1993) link the prioritization of issues to the values and interests of stakeholders involved. As mayors also act within the sphere of stakeholders (Grunig, 1984), the values of mayors are considered to be a motive for prioritizing certain themes in office.
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The five targets in the JP scheme involved very different measurement precision. The main quantity target, job entry productivity, was measured most precisely and directly from the management information database, at office level, monthly. By contrast, the quality of service to job-seekers and employers and business delivery were measured through a sample survey and a sample of cases, only at district level and on a quarterly basis. This greater level of aggregation over both time and space gives a noisier measure of how a worker’s effort maps into output on these tasks. The enforcement of effort levels is also more difficult for the tasks measured at district level. When performance outcomes are low the district manager does not know which office is under-performing, making the coordination and monitoring more difficult and therefore free-riding across offices harder to tackle.
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The post-office was built almost hundred and five years ago and it handled all the mail, money orders, telegrams send by the frontier officials of the British empire, tea garden officials and labourers, missionaries, military officials of the British Government. It is still working. It is located just beside the river. It carried letters then which had travelled across continents.
for YAs across the autism spectrum. Families often feel there was only cursory effort on the part of the public schools to prepare them for transition. Once engaging with post–high school systems, whether an agency running a day program, a vocational rehabilitation service, or a college Disability Support office, they frequently find these were not designed with the complexities of ASD in mind. Young people on the autism spectrum generally have multiple needs no matter their level of cognitive functioning, and when the social blindness and repetitive behaviors of ASD are combined with seizures, aggression, anxiety, EF issues, or other challenges, appropriate support provided by adequately trained people is difficult to secure.
According to Mr K. Shakthisrinivasan and Devi Lakshmi 1 , Indian post was no alternative than any leverage infrastructure, trust and related services into a much larger role in e- Commerce and e-Government. The humble post is fighting a battle the swanky technology driven new age banks.
The Post Offices in India through the Department of Post are not only providing communication services but are also providing many differential services to its customers in the form of postal banking service. The 'Department of Post' which came to be called as 'India Post' are providing this service as a sort of an agency service under the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. The working of India Post is tuned to the investment needs of rural and urban customers. The India Post has come to offer a wide variety of services like mail service, postal insurance services, remittance services and postal banking services. Postal bank services comprises of Savings Account, Recurring Deposit Account, Time Deposit Account, Senior Citizen Savings Scheme, Payment Banks etc.,. The post office banks are trustworthy and offer risk - free investment avenues backed up by the Government of India; several products are offered to meet the different investment requirements of customers.
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the building is needed in order to identify the building performance. Hence, to identify the JPA‘s building performance, Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) is needed. There are a few methods available to measure the building performance like Building Quality Assessment, Real Estate Norm and Architectural Feasibility. However, all this methods only focus on the physical condition of the building and focus on operation cost like utility bill only and involving the experts judgement (Woon, 2016). All this methods do not consider the social or human aspect. POE is the only method that involving the feedback from the users of the building, management and the designers. It reflects the comprehensive environmental performance and operation effect, feedback the design and provide improvement basis for developer (Yu et al., 2015).
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