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Social Networks and Social Ties: Changing Trends among Urban Dwellers in Bangladesh

Social Networks and Social Ties: Changing Trends among Urban Dwellers in Bangladesh

This paper entitled “Social Networks and Social Ties: Changing Trends among Urban Dwellers in Bangladesh” discussed the impact of using social network sites on social ties. The main aim of the article is to reveal how inter- net and social networking sites reshapes our social relations especially in ur- ban settings. The study followed qualitative way of analyzing social relations and its dynamics. Using empirical data, the article reveals how technological development is changing the contemporary world very rapidly. Changes are taking place in all spheres of life and ultimately these situations change our own society, conventional social thinking patterns and cultural beliefs. The internet is offering new forms of social relations and ties in both private and public sphere through social networking sites like—Facebook, Skype, Twitter, Viber, WeChat, WhatsApp and Imo etc.—that affect the pattern of our day-to-day interaction and relationships within families, communities and so- ciety at large. For these changes, human behavior is also changing and there- fore, the study is becoming more important in the preset interpersonal rela- tionship. Our contemporary way of living is demanding too much time away from natural social relationships because of technological advancement which is playing a major role for these changes and has a definite consequence on the social and cultural area of Bangladesh.

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Informal Housing Options and Locations for Poor Urban Dwellers in Dar es Salaam City

Informal Housing Options and Locations for Poor Urban Dwellers in Dar es Salaam City

The information for the paper has been gleaned from two studies carried out in Dar es Salaam in informal housing areas in an area with high proximity to the Central Business District (CBD) called Msimbazi Valley, (i.e. about 4 km away). Forty-two (42) purposefully selected households were interviewed in the area using a non- structured, interview guide. The second study that has provided information for the paper was carried between 2006- 2008 in 3 informal settlements selected on the basis of their location relative to the CBD. Only one area was used for the paper, namely Mbagala Rangi Tatu located in the peri-urban zone of the city (20km). Twenty-four (24) respondents were purposefully selected and a non-structured interview guide was also used in this case. In both cases a qualitative approach was deemed appropriate because the purpose was not to generalise to a larger population but rather to gain in-depth understanding of the housing and location experiences of selected urban dwellers.

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Sanitation Attitudes of Urban Dwellers and their Influence on Sanitation Practices in Central Region of Ghana

Sanitation Attitudes of Urban Dwellers and their Influence on Sanitation Practices in Central Region of Ghana

The campaign for improved sanitation is increasingly threatened as people’s attitudes seem not to promote proper sanitation practices. The study examined attitudes of urban dwellers in some communities in Central Region of Ghana towards sanitation and their influence on sanitation practices. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 360 inhabitants in three urban communities. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A significant number of respondents (76.4 %) had good attitudes towards sanitation whilst 58.0 % of respondents had good standard of sanitation practices. About half of the respondents (49.8 %) disposed of their solid waste daily through open dumping and three out of every ten persons disposed of their solid waste through open burning. Respondents’ attitudes towards sanitation weakly influenced their sanitation practices (r = 0.058, p = 0.269). This is because respondents’ attitudes towards sanitation contributed only by 5.8% in their sanitation practices. The findings of the study led to a conclusion that the high level of sanitation attitudes among urban dwellers in some communities in Central Region of Ghana could not be translated into actual practice. There was a gap between respondents’ attitudes towards sanitation and their standard of practices. It is recommended that the Central Regional Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate should embark on a comprehensive campaign on health benefits of good sanitation practices and enforce a more robust environmental sanitation approach and health education to help translate the high sanitation attitudes among urban dwellers into actual practice.

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Attitude Of Urban Dwellers To Waste Management And Control In Ogun State, Nigeria: A Developmental Challenge And Concern

Attitude Of Urban Dwellers To Waste Management And Control In Ogun State, Nigeria: A Developmental Challenge And Concern

The embarrassment this situation has caused the successive governments must have informed the Monthly Environmental Sanitation Exercise put in place by the State Government (Military and Civil) in the last two decades or more. The exercise seems to have failed to address the problem as expected, as the state will qualify as a dirty state going by its inability to manage her waste generated by individuals, households, groups and industries. Corroborating this position, Oloyede et.al (2014) [10] observed that ‘Despite various efforts at enforcing environmental sanitation in Nigeria at both national, state and local government council levels and the benefits of these efforts in terms of providing employment, alleviating poverty, improving public health and sanitation as well as a reduction in environmental pollution, there is still the issue of continuous increase in uncollected residential solid waste’. Failure of the efforts may be connected with the present attitude of seeing ‘waste as waste’ and not ‘waste as wealth’. More worrisome about the attitude of urban dwellers on waste issues is the tendency to cohabit with waste in their neighborhoods and across the city in spite of the danger it poses to human existence. Further to that, the obvious incapacity to know the hidden potentials of waste to generate wealth in order to alleviate the squalor and poverty prevalent in the state are gradually becoming an issue of concern in academia and needs to be explored. Besides, several studies have addressed problems associated with housing and waste management in Ogun and Lagos States, South-West Nigeria, (Ayedun, et al., 2018; Durotoye, et al., 2018; Atayero, et al., 2019)[11-13], but such efforts failed to capture the: waste constituents, behavioural patterns in waste disposal at the household level and categories of waste as well as its disposal methods. Also, neglected in these studies that need to be addressed are issues relating to urban dwellers waste sorting attitudes and practices. Moreover, the valuable information concerning the monthly environmental sanitation exercise: A government response to waste management in these states were ignored. It is on this note this paper was conceived. The study intends to address these flaws in knowledge. The paper is divided into three sections: Introduction, material and methods and findings.

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Prehypertension, Hypertension and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Adult Congolese Urban Dwellers: Results of the Vitaraa Study

Prehypertension, Hypertension and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Adult Congolese Urban Dwellers: Results of the Vitaraa Study

Objective: To assess the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, their determinants and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Congolese urban dwellers. Methods: From July 2007 to March 2008, we collected information on lifestyle habits, medical history and anthropometric data in 1292 household members of Adoula Quarter, Kinshasa, aged 20 years or more, 731 women (56.6%). We obtained measurements of BP, blood glucose, serum lipids and qualitative protein- uria. We defined blood pressure categories according to JNC7 classification and used logistic regression analyses to assess their independent determinants. We obtained age adjustment of continuous and categorical variables using GLM and Genmod procedures, respectively. Results: Prehypertension was observed in 30.3% of subjects, 34.9% of men and 26.7% of women (P = 0.0045). The prevalence of hypertension amounted to 30.9% with no difference between genders. Participants with prehypertension had average age, BMI and waist circumference intermediate between those with normal BP and hypertensive subjects. Their glucose and lipids levels were

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Perception of Urban Dwellers on Street Interlocking in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Perception of Urban Dwellers on Street Interlocking in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

In recent years the implementation of interlocking concrete pavement has gained significant popularity due to the advantages it offers to the urban environment. There is strong relationship existing between the urban dwellers and the urban landscape. The relationship is so strong as a result of increase awareness and understanding about the value and benefits of urban landscape. This article aims to assess the perception of urban dwellers concerning street interlocking. The study focused on four wards within the study area where 200 questionnaires were administered. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze information collected. From the study it was found that the respondents perceived street interlocking construction in the study area as a welcome idea because of it benefits to the environment. The street interlocking was not found lacking negative impacts on the environment.

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Correlates of Tobacco and Marijuana Use among Urban Dwellers in Enugu, Nigeria

Correlates of Tobacco and Marijuana Use among Urban Dwellers in Enugu, Nigeria

Introduction: Tobacco and marijuana use is a public health challenge all over the world and especially in Sub Saharan Africa. The combination of low so- cioeconomic status and substance use can be described as a social and eco- nomic disaster for many poor families of Africa. While majority of studies concentrated on cigarette smoking, few studies in Nigeria has been conducted on non-smoke forms of tobacco. The burden of marijuana abuse is also rising in the Nigeria. Similar to cigarette smoking, cannabis use is more common among males. Knowledge of the pattern of tobacco and cannabis use in the community is important considering the public health implications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco (cigarette smoking and snuff) and cannabis use among adults in an urban communities Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study con- ducted in urban slum settlements in Enugu, the capital of Enugu State, south- east Nigeria. Using a semi structured questionnaire, we collected data selected socio-demographic characteristics, including tobacco use and cannabis use in the last 30 days. The study was conducted between August and December 2013. For database management and statistical analyses, we used the SPSS version 23. Results: The total number of individuals recruited in the study was 1572; 844 (52.8%) females and 728 (45.5%) males with a male to female ratio of 0.9:1. Tobacco was used by a total of 270 (17.2%) individuals within the last 4 weeks and marijuana by 23 (1.5%) of the population. Overall, 280 (17.8%) used either one or both tobacco and marijuana. While snuff was How to cite this paper: Donatus, O.O.,

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Urban dwellers` satisfaction on public bus passenger transport in Sri Lanka

Urban dwellers` satisfaction on public bus passenger transport in Sri Lanka

The public passenger transport service in Sri Lanka is often criticized as low in quality. The quality depends on a wider range of service elements and attributes pertinent to the service. The aim of this paper is to identify the crucial service elements and attributes in determining passenger satisfaction based on perceptions of dwellers in urban Colombo. Using quantitative data and also analytical techniques, the study found that 17 service elements, majority being related to professionalism and service delivery qualities, were integral for ensuring passenger satisfaction. It emphasizes that these service elements should be given priority by policy makers and service providers when allocating their scarce resources in this service. An equal allocation of resources to improve the quality of the 33 elements is not effective and meaningful. It also shows that more than half of the significant service elements or attributes are mostly the man- related elements which can be improved by training. In addition, safety, time and information related service attributes, which have been significant, may also be indirectly and partly related to the behaviour of the frontline staff.

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Assessment of New Urban Poverty of Vulnerable Urban Dwellers in the Context of Sub-Urbanization in Bangladesh

Assessment of New Urban Poverty of Vulnerable Urban Dwellers in the Context of Sub-Urbanization in Bangladesh

The suburban poor of Savar area is mostly involved in a variety of occupations in urban informal sectors. And due to a lack of education, employment training, job insecurity and low skill they usually do not enter the more competitive formal sectors of the suburban job. The gender difference is available in the pattern of employment of the suburban poor. Male respondents are generally involved in labour intensive and high risk involved jobs in garments workers, driving and transport work and small shopkeeper (World Bank, 2007). Whereas female respondents are mostly involved in garment factories, personal services and domestic works. The majority (55%) of the total respondents are employed in garment works in the areas. Most of these workers are illiterate and have no formal employment training. Another 5% and 15% of the total respondents are involved in transport driving and small shopkeeper. These shopkeepers are temporary and they have no registration from the government authorities. And they mostly do their business with the help of family members like son or daughter. There are many poor who have no job here. It is revealed that 25% of the total respondent has no job. The table also shows that about 30% male and 80% female are working in a garment, 10% men are driving transport but 40% male and 10% female have no employment, 20% male and10% female work as shopkeepers. In the words of a women respondent,

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Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers

Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers

Several factors were recorded hindering the use of bed nets in the population, including feeling hot when sleep- ing under a net, not using nets regularly, not possessing a net. Up to 38% of people not using nets reported not possessing a net. Similar observations were reported in previous surveys [14]. These factors highlight the need for additional measures in order to improve bed net own- ership and utilization. In Zambia, door-to-door delivery of ITNs to households in remote areas associated with net hanging and face-to-face health education on ITN use and ways of reducing net wear and tear were prac- ticed and allowed higher coverage rates [37]. Drafting of key messages to disseminate information and their appropriate delivery through interpersonal communi- cation, mass and print media coupled with hands-on instructions to householders on net hanging and main- tenance was also found to increase community awareness and uptake of malaria interventions [38]. Furthermore, because the usage of treated nets varied according to dis- tricts, mapping the urban domain according to the usage rate of treated nets could be helpful for targeting districts needing further sensitization. Interventions in schools could also be an interesting option for sensitization since they are well distributed geographically and thus pro- vide access to a large proportion of the targeted group. Moreover, children are considered as changed agents and targeting them can potentially lead to improved ITN use within the household [37, 39].

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Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers

Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers

Several factors were recorded hindering the use of bed nets in the population, including feeling hot when sleep- ing under a net, not using nets regularly, not possessing a net. Up to 38% of people not using nets reported not possessing a net. Similar observations were reported in previous surveys [14]. These factors highlight the need for additional measures in order to improve bed net own- ership and utilization. In Zambia, door-to-door delivery of ITNs to households in remote areas associated with net hanging and face-to-face health education on ITN use and ways of reducing net wear and tear were prac- ticed and allowed higher coverage rates [37]. Drafting of key messages to disseminate information and their appropriate delivery through interpersonal communi- cation, mass and print media coupled with hands-on instructions to householders on net hanging and main- tenance was also found to increase community awareness and uptake of malaria interventions [38]. Furthermore, because the usage of treated nets varied according to dis- tricts, mapping the urban domain according to the usage rate of treated nets could be helpful for targeting districts needing further sensitization. Interventions in schools could also be an interesting option for sensitization since they are well distributed geographically and thus pro- vide access to a large proportion of the targeted group. Moreover, children are considered as changed agents and targeting them can potentially lead to improved ITN use within the household [37, 39].

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Comparing Ecosystem Service preferences between urban and rural dwellers

Comparing Ecosystem Service preferences between urban and rural dwellers

The supply and demand of provi- sioning ES in urban areas differ from those in rural areas in three ways. First, the supply of provisioning ES (e.g., agri- cultural production) is usually low in urban areas and could result in a lack of direct experience with these services by urban dwellers. Second, infrastructure and manufactured goods can substitute part of the demand for provisioning ES (e.g., processed food and synthetic building materials; Cumming et  al. 2014). Casado-Arzuaga and colleagues (2013), for example, found that urban dwellers knew that the food they ate tended not to come from local eco- systems. Third, the ability of people to afford alternatives to provisioning ES is likely to increase in urban areas in which incomes are generally higher than in rural areas (Henderson 2010). Conversely, the fact that rural dwellers valued provisioning ES more highly than did urban dwellers could be attributed to the higher supply of some provisioning ES in rural areas and their importance for the livelihoods of the people living in rural areas (i.e., by providing food and material either directly or through occu- pations that depend on these services).

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Prevalence and Correlates of Glucose Homeostasis Abnormalities in the  Far North Region Cameroon

Prevalence and Correlates of Glucose Homeostasis Abnormalities in the Far North Region Cameroon

Our findings show that glucose homeostasis abnormalities are alarmingly highly prevalent in rural and urban dwellers of the Far-North region of Cameroon, as compared to national diabetes prevalence. Diabetes and IFG rates were similar between urban and rural groups, and significantly increased with age, even though the figures slightly decreased somewhat beyond the age of 55. This sur- vey also provides phenotypic markers for high-risk groups based on known risk factors for glucose homeostasis abnormalities, such as ageing, overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity and hypertension. Risk-based interventions could be cost-effective as regards public health strategies to prevent incident diabetes in this population.

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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Study on the prevalence of brancroftian filariasis among sub-urban dwellers of Edim Otop Community in Calabar, Nigeria was carried out between April and November, 2009. Two hundred and twenty two willing participants within the age range of 15-55 years, from 5 designated zones were randomly selected for the collection of day and night blood samples for screening by ICT card test and Knott’s concentration methods respectively for Wuchereria bancroftian antigen and microfilaria. The participants were made up of 129 males (56.31%) and 92 females (43.69%). The numbers of positive cases obtained by the highly sensitive ICT card test were 38 (17.20%). There was no positive case by the conventional Knott’s concentration method. The highest number of positive cases (4.5%) was obtained from Edim Otop Close and Bassey Oqua zones with 40 and 38 participants, while the least number of positive cases (2.2%) were obtained from Edim Otop Crescent and University of Calabar Satellite town as compared to other zones of the study. . The highest (15.85%) antigenaemia were observed within the ages of 37-47 and the least (0.9%) within 15-25 years old participants. A higher percentage of positive cases were recorded among male participants (57.89%) than females (42.11%). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the distribution of parasites according to age and gender in the study area using Chi square methods. Edim Otop Community in Calabar, Cross River State is presented in this study as having shown positive cases of antigenaemia due to Wuchereria bancrofti.

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New Technologies and Automakers Have the Potential to Eliminate Transportation as a Major Factor Contributing to Health Disparities, and Provide Additional Benefits

New Technologies and Automakers Have the Potential to Eliminate Transportation as a Major Factor Contributing to Health Disparities, and Provide Additional Benefits

Parking in urban areas is a huge waste of land use in U.S. cities. According to the Alta- rum Institute, in some cities parking takes up a whopping one-third of all land areas, usually occupying prime locations. Autonomous cars are more likely in the future to be used by more than one person. In effect, they would be used more frequently and be on the route transporting people rather than being parked at one location. Therefore, some space that is now used for parking lots can be used to build affordable housing for low-income families. Or, the space can be used to build factories or businesses that can hire urban dwellers, thus reducing the high rates of unemployment, which is a known cause of health disparities because the unemployed are not covered by health insurance and don’t have money for daily amenities. The lack of these amenities exacerbates the decline in their health status.

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Viewing health expenditures, payment and coping mechanisms with an equity lens in Nigeria

Viewing health expenditures, payment and coping mechanisms with an equity lens in Nigeria

This study shows that most of the respondents paid for health care using OOPS without reimbursement. It showed a statistically significant relationship between use of OOPS and living in an urban area compared to a rural area. This means that urban dwellers were 47% less likely than rural dwellers to use OOPS to finance health services after controlling for the confounding effects of the variables listed above. This points to inequity in the use of OOPS because in an equitable system, protective mechanisms should be in place to prevent the poor and rural dwellers from such a regressive payment mechan- ism. This reveals that government efforts to promote pre-payment mechanisms by introduction of NHIS was yet to bear fruits as health insurance was rarely used as seen from this study. Over 90% of the ill respondents reported the use of OOPS in a country where about 64.4% of its citizens live on less than US$1 a day [4], in- dicating the catastrophic effects of OOPS on the poor people more than the rich. This was also shown in Thailand where OOPS consumed about 2.1% of the an- nual income of the richest group compared to 21.2% of Table 4 Geographic differences in payment and coping mechanisms

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Convention on biological diversity and rural-urban connections with reference to Kenya

Convention on biological diversity and rural-urban connections with reference to Kenya

trainings take place within the PAs. For example the trainings of the Horse Unit where horses are trained to go to hilly areas so that data on threats and other challenges can be obtained are carried out in areas like Longonot and Tsavo National Parks. To add to this, the KWS Law Enforcement Academy which provides paramilitary training to rangers from other countries like Somalia and South Sudan so as to combat poaching is in the rural setting of the Tsavo West National Park in Manyani (KWS, 2013). Also, there is evidence to show that research takes place in both urban and rural settings especially where there are transboundary resources. For example, in 2012 the KWS research scientists in the Maasai Mara ecosystem undertook Bovine tuberculosis epidemiological study in non-human primates with the assistance from the German Research Foundation (KWS, 2013). In the same year, KWS researchers undertook research on the record breaking depth of Lake Nakuru which had reached 6.1 metres (KWS, 2013). However, there are still loopholes in research and training and improvement is required as indicated in Shah’s (2016) research which showed that it was not possible for all PAs especially in rural set ups like Lake Bogoria to have their staff trained annually and there were hardly

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Elderly Dwellers of Urban and Rural Areas and the Access to the Education: The Case of the Rio Pardo Valley

Elderly Dwellers of Urban and Rural Areas and the Access to the Education: The Case of the Rio Pardo Valley

In Brazil and in Rio Grande do Sul, related to the environment in which seniors live and their level of education, as can be seen in Table 3(Attachment), the schooling rates in the RS are higher than in Brazil, both in rural as in urban. In Brazil, the elderly who have elementary school complete in the year 2000 amounted to 77.,675 (0.91%) urban dwellers and 32.025 (0.03%) in rural areas. In RS there are 62.938 elderly (1.10%) in urban and 4.999 (0.09%) in rural areas. This difference was also noted in the Vale do Rio Pardo, where the largest number of elderly with elementary school complete was in urban areas, with 1,333 (0.33%) elderly to 295 (0.07%) in rural areas, and the highest number is of elderly women (773 to 0.19%) living in this area. Therefore, it realizes that the challenges that it imposes in Brazilian society involve: literacy and education of adults and illiterate elderly and/or with insufficient schooling; education for leisure; and investment in education stressing the importance of prejudices break toward old age. (CACHIONI; FALCÃO, 2009). Brazil is a country where there are still many inequalities in gender, ethnicity and class. Thus, Brazilian reality shows that, at the same time, there are people with privileged access to material and spiritual goods, as well as opportunities in health and education, while there are other people who live in situations of deprivation and disadvantage. (PEREIRA, 2005).

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Forests play many diverse and complicated roles in our lives. Besides the production of biological resources and provision of societal benefits and service functions, forests are renewable natural assets. Thus, with good policies and protective planning, they can be increased and sustained. Psychologist, sociologist and mass media agree on the view that the quality of urban life depends largely on the amount and quality of green areas within [6,7]. Trees and shrubs provide their own inherent beauty in all settings. It’s the aesthetic and recreational values of trees, forest, and parks that are directly identified by most urban dwellers. Trees fulfill certain psychological, social and cultural needs of urban dwellers [8]. They

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THE STATUS OF HOUSING OF SLUMS IN KOTKAPURA CITY

THE STATUS OF HOUSING OF SLUMS IN KOTKAPURA CITY

The Housing conditions of the sample slum dwellers reveals that most of them have come from downtrodden sections of the society. The poor economic status is the main reason for staying in slums. Most of the slum dwellers are living in single room houses. This is leading for lack of privacy for parents and the children are exposed to sexual attractions at the tender age itself. The problem of slum dwellers are same like as all over India, socio economic condition of slum dwellers of kotkapura Town is clearly define in present study. Mostly slum dwellers migrate from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh because there is so much unemployment in these states. So for the fulfilled the basic needs they migrate to Punjab and in this Town. Here they are also unemployed, they live near the railway tracks and road banks in kaccha and semi kaccha houses. And interesting fact is that majority of respondents are live for above years long time period. Annual income is not so much high. They have no money for saving, because they just fulfill their basic needs like food, cloths etc.

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