UDP is a simpler message- based connectionless protocol. Connectionless protocols do not set up a dedicated end-to-end connection. Communication is achieved by transmitting information in one direction from source to destination without verifying the readiness or state of the receiver. However, one primary benefit of UDP over TCP is the application to VoIP where latency and jitter are the primary concerns. It is assumed in VoIP UDP that the end users provide any necessary real time confirmation that the message has been received.
Table 1: Traffic flows from application to link layer Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  and UserDatagramprotocol (UDP)  are no longer suitable as the transport protocol since they present several problems when working with modern real time applications and networks. They are also does not use a standardized way to adjust for congestion. TCP has its own limitations, for example it rather focuses on ensuring data transmission. With UDP having noconnection state, firewalls will often not allow traffic through which means that media applications will revert to using TCP. This is becoming a bigger problem as home users switch to broadband connections
implementation of UDKP much easier because it uses a similar message structure as that in TLS protocol. UDKP uses fewer handshake messages than TLS, but the rest of the UDKP sub-protocols have comparable sub-protocols in TLS, including SSL Change Cipher Spec Protocol, The SSL Alert Protocol, and SSL Application Data Protocol. In this section, we will give an overview of the TLS protocol details before describing the technical details of the UDKP protocol. TLS is usually implemented on top of Transport Layer protocols. It has been historically used primarily with Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); however, it has also been implemented with datagram-oriented transport protocols, such as the UserDatagramProtocol (UDP) and the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP). The TLS protocol is placed between the transport and application layers (see figure 7), and it has two sub-layers. The lower layer is based on either TCP or UDP protocol and essentially comprises the SSL Record Protocol that is used for the encapsulation of higher-layer protocol data. The higher layer consists of the following sub-protocols :
The key role of traffic meter for quality of service admission control internet is to control the amount of traffic injected into the differentiated service network so that congestion can be avoided to the barest minimum in order to meet certain performance requirements. This paper presents performance evaluation and analysis of two traffic meters: token bucket marker (TBM) and two rate three color marker (srTCM) QoS admission control using userdatagramprotocol (UDP) and transport control protocol (TCP) traffic agents. The performance measures used for the evaluation and analysis were throughput, fairness and losses.
A. Flood attacks aim to deplete the victim’s network resource such as network bandwidth by flooding it using UserDatagramProtocol (UDP) Flood or Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Flood until the victim can no longer receive the legitimate traffic. While UDP Flood  attack is an attack that used a huge number of UDP packets (random or same port) to overwhelming the victim (Figure-1), ICMP Flood uses the ICMP  (Ping) echo request packets for disrupt the legitimate traffic reach the victim (see Figure-2).
The data transmission protocol that was used in this experiment was UDP (UserDatagramProtocol). Unlike TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP is sending every single data packet in one time, without resending and notification when data packet has arrived. UDP is widely used in applications with streaming data transmission characteristic such as VOIP (Voice over IP) and monitoring system. NCS application also required sending data continuously without retransmission for the same data since there are always new data. In this experimentation is used the application such as Traffic Generator, UDP tool and Packet builder to transmit data in UDP passion.
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new IP transport protocol, existing at an equivalent level with UDP (UserDatagramProtocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which provide transport layer functions to many Internet applications. SCTP has been approved by the IETF as a Proposed Standard .The error check algorithm has since been modified . Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a reliable datagram-oriented IP transport protocol, specified by RFC 2960. It provides the layer between an SCTP user application and an unreliable end-to-end datagram service such as IP. The basic service offered by SCTP is the reliable transfer of user datagrams between peer SCTP users. It performs this service within the context of an association between two SCTP hosts.
Singh et al. describe the Userdatagramprotocol (UDP) and transmission control protocol (TCP) are two popular transport layer protocols in infrastructure networks . The behavior of these transport layer protocol with different mobility models and routing protocols is still not very clear. In this paper, compared the performance of userdatagramprotocol (UDP) and transmission control protocol (TCP) in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) for optimized link state routing (OLSR), and temporarily ordered routing algorithm (TORA) routing protocols with different mobility models like random waypoint, reference point group, and Manhattan mobility models. Simulations is to be done in NS2 to analyses results using the performance metrics, such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay by for different types of data traffic and mobility models. The MANET performance is analyses under the effect of simulation time, number of nodes, and speed of mobile nodes. Our work indicates that TCP performs well for throughput in some mobility model and different routing protocols than UDP. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the different protocols behave differently under different parameters.
LAN Local Area Network FTP File Transfer Protocol UDP UserDatagramProtocol PDML Packet Details Markup Language XML Extensible Markup Language NetPDL Network Protocols Description Language USM University Science Malaysia
Abstract--- Major revolution takes place in technology today is the digital technology taking over analog technology and converting it into centralized cloud and wireless systems. With the rapid advancements in wireless technology, small devices began to be utilized in almost all parts of various regions in day to day life. These small devices are equipped for sensing, computation and communication. This technological invention is widely known as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This advanced sensor technology is used in various application scenarios such as environment, agriculture and healthcare too. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a vital role in Internet of Things (IoT) and different types of real time applications such as military surveillance, healthcare monitoring and manufacturing. Although the advancements in WSN, it has security threats. Authentication is the very important part in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) only authenticated user is allowed to access the real- time sensing information. In this paper we propose an effective and secure three-factor authentication and key agreement scheme for WSN.
This architecture is designed by embedding components of H.323 standard and those of Ambient Intelligence devices. H.323 applications mainly work on the basis of IP addresses, in order to either setup a communication link or to suspend or delete the link. To establish a multi-user environment, we have designed the architecture based on IP addresses and multi-point control units. Since we focused on communication, after the decision manager Module, we maintain a multi-point control unit. Each and every registered user will be given devices like mobile receivers and other related devices. Every user will be assigned with a unique IP address. Whenever a user wants to communicate with other users or central server, he poses a request to the gate-keeper module. The gateway checks whether the user is a registered one or not. If he is a registered user, then the Gatekeeper assigns a link with the other users or to the other user, whomever he wants, else, if the user is not a registered user, then connection will be discarded automatically. Advantage of assigning IP address is that the central server can contact (communicate) with any number of users either individually or as a group. Whenever users want to communicate with the central server, they can pose request to the server similar to a call setup through Gateways and they can establish communication link. In the architecture we used a centralized multi- point control unit in establishing multi-point communication.
As an extension to this work, we develop a hybrid relaying protocol for bandwidth and power allocation. A suboptimal low complexity power and subcarrier allocation algorithm is then proposed considering the interfe- rence constraint imposed by the cognitive network to the primary user. In hybrid relaying protocol , a relay SU uses the AF relaying protocolonly if it cannot reliably decode the source data. Otherwise, a relay SU uses the DF relaying protocol. A greedy algorithm is used to select the relay. The effect of interference introduced by the primary user signal to the CR signal is analyzed in terms of the false alarm probability . Then the joint pow- er and subcarrier allocation problem is solved.
The whole network may be logically segregated into three major parts: (1) mobile stations employed by the end user for accessing the network, (2) the access service network (ASN) consisting of one or more base stations and one or more ASN gateways forming the radio access network on the edge, and (3) the connectivity service network (CSN) for providing IP connectivity and entire IP core network functions. A basic demonstration of IP-based WiMAX network architecture is shown in Figure 1. The following architecture allows for three distinct business articles: (1) network access provider (NAP), which owns and operates the ASN; (2) network services provider (NSP), that provides the IP connectivity and WiMAX services to users by utilizing the ASN infrastructure which is provided by one or more NAPs; and (3) application service provider (ASP), that can provide various value-added services such as multimedia applications using IMS (IP multimedia subsystem) and corporate VPN (virtual private networks)
The attacker in WSN is disturbing the actual functioning of routing protocol. The routing protocol are not able to handle the attacker misbehavior because attacker is behaves like as normal node when the sender node is call connection establishment procedure with receiver. The receiver is not known the attacker is generating the fake information of actual route to sender. The sender is not known the reply is generated by wormhole attacker and it trusts the intermediate nodes and starts the data transmission. The wormhole attacker is dropping the all packets that are routed through them. The proposed IDS scheme is designed for identifying the wormhole attack and also protect the network from attack by block the misbehavior activities of mobile nodes. The IDS is based on the data forwarding of intermediate nodes that means the hop count information of each intermediate node. The attacker is never being sender and receiver because their function is not changed. The IDS is actively check the route information or routing of data to each hop count in between sender to receiver if any discrepancy is identified then check the reliability of nodes connected to that link. The whole procedure of detection and prevention from attacker is mentioned in proposed IDS algorithm.
Many organizations are studying security solutions for ATM. Chuang[Chu95]) considered what cryptographic tools or protocols are necessary to offer these security services. The MCNC group [SHB95] built secure ATM switch prototypes with Digital’s DES chips [Ebe92] to support link encryption. The ATM forum technical committee [PH95, PTH95] is currently developing a security architecture [ATM96] for ATM networking services. The ATM specification draft, which is still in progress, divides the security problem into User plane security (end to end or switch to switch), Control and Management plane security, and Access control.
In the beginning, Samba servers were managed solely by a text configuration file named smb.conf. Today settings are mixed between the smb.conf file and local data- base files in /usr/local/samba/var/locks (or the location specified by the lock directory setting in smb.conf). The database (tdb) files are normally managed through com- mand-line tools such as pdbedit or net and Windows management tools such as User Manager or MMC plug-ins. There are several editing tools for smb.conf, such as SWAT, but most administrators still prefer to fire up their favorite text editor. In previous chapters, we introduced some of the basic smb.conf settings, yet we have so far barely scratched the surface. At last count, there are more than 360 configura- tion options defined in the Samba source code. Though this sounds intimidating, approximately 90 percent of installations require less than one-quarter of the avail- able options (or parameters; we use these terms interchangeably). Consider how much functionality we were able to obtain with fewer than a dozen in Chapter 2. For this reason, we do not discuss every option. Rather, our approach is present the com- mon and necessary parameters in the context of a working server. If you require a full reference, the smb.conf manpage, available both in the documentation and on the Samba web site, contains an alphabetical index of all the configuration options and their meanings.
We suppose that user join and leave events are independently and identically distributed in each attribute group in G following Poisson distribution. The membership duration time for an attribute is assumed to follow an exponential distribution. We set the inter arrival time between users as 20 minutes (˜λ = 3) and the average membership duration time as 20 hours (1/μ = 20). Fig. 4 represents the number of users in a single attribute group during 100 hours. The solid line and dotted line represent the number of current valid users and accumulated revoked users in an attribute group, respectively. Fig. 5 shows the total communication costs in log scale that the data owner or the data storing center needs to send on a membership change in the network system. It includes the ciphertext and rekeying messages for non-revoked users. It is measured in bits. For a fair comparison with regard to the security perspective, we set the rekeying periods in BSW as 1/˜λ minutes. In this simulation, the total number of users in the network is 9150 and the number of attributes to be updated in the system is 30(= t). We set u = 100. To achieve an 80- bit security level, we set C0 = 512, Cp = 160. C1 and CT are not added to the simulation result because they are common in all of the schemes. As it is shown in Fig. 5, YWRL requires the largest amount of communication cost because the rekeying message increases linear to the size of the attribute universe in the whole system. The communication cost in BCP-ABE2 is the lowest in the beginning of the simulation time. However, as the time elapses, it increases conspicuously because the number of revoked users also increases accumulatively. The communication costs in BSW and proposed scheme are almost the same through the time.
In Mobile adhoc network(MANET) there are no centralized entities. MANETs are basically infrastructure less networks in which each node acts as a router. Voice applications on MANETs will have various advantages especially in emergency situations like natural disasters (storms, hurricanes) when the infrastructure networks are no longer working. They can provide help to the relief operations communication. Session initiation protocol is a widely used protocol for creating and managing sessions to facilitate voice and other multimedia communications. SIP is adapted to MANETs as it is very robust.
It is a two-party authentication protocol. To hide transmitted data from unauthorized users, this protocol uses quantum superpositioned states instead of quantum entangled states. To authenticate a specific user (the most common use of authentication protocols) within a group of many using quantum entangled states is a difficult problem. This protocol works well under the assumption that both parties already share a secret key (K . Furthermore, it was shown that the superposition states can be realized using current technologies (e.g., linear polarizers and Faraday rotators). This protocol is secure against the beam splitting attack and the Intercept/resend attack. But this protocol in the multi-user setting will involve the storage of a large number of pre-shared keys per user in the network .