The **graph** model is constructed and called as interference **graph** since the access points are interfering with some other access points in the same region. The **graph** is called as interference **graph**, which is constructed by the access points as nodes. An undirected edge is connecting these nodes if the nodes interfere with each other when using the same channel. Now, the channel allocation problem is converted into **graph** coloring problem. i.e vertex coloring problem. A vertex coloring function f :v(G)C where C is the set of colors corresponds to the channels on the access points. These channels are preferably non overlapping edges. A coloring algorithm is developed by the authors called DSATUR (Degree of Saturation) for coloring purpose. The algorithm is a heuristic search. i.e It finds vertices with largest number of differently colored neighbours. If this subset contains only one vertex it is chosen for coloring. If the subset contains more than one vertex then the coloring is done based on the order of decreasing number of uncolored neighbours. If more than one candidate vertex is available then the final selection is replaced by a deterministic selection function to select the vertex. The protocol operation is done by identifying the neighbours by means of listening the messages generated by the access points. The protocol operation finishes when a message is rebroadcasted by the access points. After finishing this, the interference **graph** is constructed and the coloring algorithm is applied. The correspondence between the channels and the **graph** is that as the channels listen the messages in regular intervals as the same way the coloring algorithm should be kept running at regular intervals.

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By virtue of the gradual research was done in **graph** **theory**, **graph** **theory** has become relatively vast subject in mathematics. **Graph** **theory** includes different types of graphs, each having basic **graph** properties and some additional properties. These properties separate a **graph** from there type of graphs. These properties arrange vertex and edges of a **graph** is some specific structure. There are different operations that can be performed over various types of **graph**. Therefore, **graph** **theory** can be considered the large and complicated subject. On the other side, graphs are used in more **applications** as a powerful tool to solve large and complicated problems. The problems that can be solved by graphs cover many fields such as Chemistry, Biology, **Computer** **Science** and Operational Research. Hence, graphs **theory** is useful in many **applications** and these **applications** are widely used in real the field. Almost each field today makes use of **graph** **theory**, such as search **computer** networks. Hence, to absolutely implement these **applications** and to operate them, it is essential to have the clear idea of **graph** **theory**. Often material is not able to cover all the corners of **graph** **theory**. Materials that successfully give every small detail of **graph** **theory** fail to give brief details about

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Abstract: The use of Mathematics is significant in every field of Engineering, like **Computer** **Science** engineering, Networking, Electrical engineering, and many more That improves the effectiveness and applicability of existing methods and algorithms. [3] Graphs are excellent mathematical tools that are used to model the various types of relation between many physical circumstances. Most of the real world problem can be represented by graphs. This paper explains the concepts of **graph** **theory** and its **applications** in different field of engineering, like Network Engineering

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Cloud security has turned to be a main concern about the deployment of cloud computing. This article presented an **overview** about searchable encryption, which is an important challenging problem in cloud security. Firstly presented the security issues and search functionality of searchable encryption. Then discussed deployment model with encryption according to application scenarios. The existing works are mainly concern with security, efficiency and expressiveness. As mentioned above, searchable encryption can be an efficient and secure solution to private database retrieval. Meanwhile, it is not so mature, so it needs to be deeply studied to fully implement to cloud computing. Eventually searchable encryption will provide users to privately search on database stored in cloud storage, and privacy of users and cloud servers will be well protected.

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Flash memory devices called flash drives, with capacities of up to a few hundred GBs, are available for general mass storage **applications**. These units are packaged in small plastic cases approximately three inches long with a remov- able cap on one end to protect the unit’s electrical connector when the drive is off-line. The high capacity of these portable units as well as the fact that they are easily connected to and disconnected from a **computer** make them ideal for off- line data storage. However, the vulnerability of their tiny storage chambers dic- tates that they are not as reliable as optical disks for truly long term **applications**. Another application of flash technology is found in SD (Secure Digital) memory cards (or just SD Card). These provide up to two GBs of storage and are packaged in a plastic rigged wafer about the size a postage stamp (SD cards are also available in smaller mini and micro sizes), SDHC (High Capacity) memory cards can provide up to 32 GBs and the next generation SDXC (Extended Capacity) memory cards may exceed a TB. Given their compact physical size, these cards conveniently slip into slots of small electronic devices. Thus, they are ideal for digital cameras, smartphones, music players, car navigation systems, and a host of other electronic appliances.

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technological products such as **computer**, sensor and timer. CBL experiments have been successfully applied in **science** and technology schools for decades (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1990; Steinberg, 2003). Especially, CBL experiments have been developed and applied in the field of physics. Appropriate sensors, interfaces and software have been used to create an effective data collection system for collection, analysis and display of experimental data (Amrani & Paradis, 2010). Students who experiment on these systems can examine the real-time display of their results and graphics. Thus, interpretation of the data takes place in a very short time. The CBL experiment improves learning by allowing students to perceive the relationship between independent and dependent variable parameters. Discovery with real-time measurements provides feedback and understanding of the subject by presenting the data graphically to the students. It also allows them to predict the relationships between variables and to confirm the nature of these relationships (Trumper & Gelbman, 2000).

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This chapter would not be complete without reviewing legal aspects of com- puter virology. Though this book is intended to improve the user’s technical knowledge concerning viruses and malware, their inner algorithmics, and how to implement them, it is quite out of question for us to promote their use for negative and malevolent uses. Gaining access to a data processing system might appear to be innocent, but illegal access to data or information can cause severe problems and consequently infringe the basic principles of individual freedom and individual privacy. We strongly dispprove of people who are driven by dishonest and harmful intents in this ﬁeld. This book has no other ambition other than to be a didactic tool designed for wise and well intended readers who are willing to explore these technologies for their own sake in order to better understand their stakes. First and fore- most, this technical knowledge must be merely considered as an intellectual challenge and as an intellectual pleasure. In other words, this is not because people are studying chemistry at the university than they are allowed to make explosives. That is not diﬀerent for **computer** virology **science**.

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The **theory** of rings and the **theory** of semigroups have considerable impact on the developments of **theory** of semirings. Recently the semiring **theory** has developments in ordered semirings which are akin to ordered rings and ordered semigroups. During the last three decades, there is considerable impact of semigroup **theory** and semiring **theory**. The **theory** of semirings is attracting the attention of several algebraists due to its **applications** to **Computer** **Science**, The developments of semirings and ordered semirings require semigroup techniques.S.Gosh studied on the class of idempotent Semirings. He proved that an idempotent commutative semiring S is distributive lattice. If and only if it satisfies the absorption equality a + ab = a for all a, b in S. In this paper, we will have two sections. Section one deals with multiplicative and additive identitity of semirings and section two ordered semirings with (S, +) is p.t.o.

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(A) Theoretical **Computer** **Science**: Hypothetical **computer** engineering incorporates regions of discrete arithmetic applicable to computing. It draws intensely on **graph** **theory** and mathematical logic. Included inside theoretical **computer** engineering is the investigation of calculations for scientific mathematical outcomes. Computability thinks about what can be processed on a basic level, and has close binds to logic, while complexity concentrates the time taken by calculations. Automata **theory** and formal **theory** are firmly identified with computability. Petri nets and process algebras are utilized to model **computer** frameworks, and strategies from discrete arithmetic are utilized as a part of examining VLSI electronic circuits. Computational geometry applies calculations to geometrical issues, while **computer** image investigation applies them to portrayals of pictures. Theoretical **computer** **science** also includes the study of various continuous computational topics.

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Many theoretical learning-teaching approaches make a distinction between learning phases/processes/cycles for which teaching methodology aids are formulated; overviews of such are provided by Kron (2008) as well as Straka and Macke (2006). Roth (1970), whose educational psychology of learning approach comprises six learning phases (motivation, difficulty, solution, action and execution, retention and practice as well as provision, transfer and integration of what has been learned) recommends for his first learning phase, motivation, “…linking (it) to the interests of the individual learning, awakening new interests, moving children to act”. In his **theory** of discovery learning Bruner (1966, p. 48; 1972) emphasizes three learning processes (acquisition of new information, transformation, evaluation) in the act of learning for which Eigler, Judith, Künzel, and Schönwäldler (1973, p. 89) formulate process-oriented (e.g. analysis of the problem, production of hypotheses, testing hypotheses) and product-oriented teaching aids (e.g. directing attention, giving clues and partial solutions) (on this also refer to Straka & Macke, p. 117). The “Cognitive Apprenticeship” approach from Collins, Brown and Newman (1989), which has situated learning at its core, reveals six teaching techniques: modeling, coaching, scaffolding and fading, articulation, reflection, and exploration. Problem-oriented learning in learning cycles plays an important role in Mandl’s theoretical learning position (Reinmann-Rothmeier & Mandl, 2001). The learning nine cycles are: foresight and reflection, confrontation with the introductory problem, idea production, multiple perspectives, research and improvement, self-testing and self-evaluation, public depiction, continuing intensification, reflection and review.

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This paper was one of Jayme’s first contributions to make Brazil better known abroad. Since then, Jayme has pro- duced a significant number of papers, some of which, like the paper mentioned above, are milestones in the history of Brazilian **science**. Jayme’s activity has also helped to fos- ter the integration of the scientific community in our coun- try. He also has an important role in the integration of the Latin American scientific communities, through collabora- tion with many researchers from different countries. And that includes colleagues from Argentina, of course.

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One of branches of **graph** **theory** which has many **applications** in chemistry is spectral **theory** based on the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix [6,10]. Let G be a simple **graph** on n vertices and . . … . be the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. The energy E(G) of the **graph** G is deﬁned as the sum of the absolute values of its eigenvalues, i.e. =

Abstract: Throughout this paper, we assume that G = (V,E) is a ﬁnite, simple connected **graph** with at least two vertices. Acharya and Sampathkumar [2] introduced the concept of graphoidal covers and graphoidal covering number of a **graph**. Arumugam and Suresh Suseela [4] introduced the concept of acyclic graphoidal cover and acyclic graphoidal covering number of a **graph**. An elaborate review of results in graphoidal covers with several interesting **applications** and a collection of unsolved problems is given in [3]. Any **graph** theoretic concept which depends only on adjacency of vertices can be extended in the context of graphoidally covered **graph** and ψ = E(G) yields the original concept as a special case. A graphoidal cover of a **graph** G is a collection of paths(not necessarily open) in G satisfying the following conditions.

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The next set of measures also take into consideration the structure of the **graph** G-A. In particular, they reflect how badly the **graph** G-A has been disconnected. Since we must ultimately face the reconnection problem - repairing a broken network - these measures could prove to be very useful.

[6] Vishwagupta, Gajendra Singh ,Ravindra Gupta,“ Advance cryptography algorithm for improving data security”, International Journal of Advanced Research in **Computer** **Science** and Software Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2012 ISSN: 2277 128X.

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The microcontroller, acting as a small embedded, **computer**, control the activity of the entire system by executing the program stored in its code memory. The Tri-axial accelerometer senses the tilt in X, Y and Z directions and produces analog voltages proportional to the tilt. These analog voltages are converted to digital by ADC for enabling the microcontroller to obtain tilt vales in X, Y or Z directions. The LCD display is of 2 lines×16 characters. It is used to display various prompt messages for user interaction. TTL/RS232 level converter is for converting the voltage levels of RS232 standard voltages to TTL and vice versa. The relay connects the only available RS232 serial port with multiple serial devices viz RFID reader, GPS receiver and GSM modem according to the requirement. RFID reader is used to read the RFID tag/card of the owner. GPS receiver is used to collect the location information in terms of latitude and longitude. GSM modem is used to send alert SMS to preferred phone number that contains information of the asset and its current location.

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In this paper we discuss about tenacity and its proper- ties in stability calculation. We indicate relationships between tenacity and connectivity, tenacity and bind- ing number, tenacity and toughness. We also give good lower and upper bounds for tenacity. Since we are pri- marily interested in the case where disruption of the **graph** is caused by the removal of a vertex or vertices (and the resulting loss of all edges incident with the re- moved vertices), we shall restrict our discussion to vertex stability measures. In the interest of completeness, how- ever, we have included several related measures of edge stability.

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A wireless sensor network is a group of specialized transducers with a communications infrastructure for monitoring and recording conditions at diverse locations. Commonly monitored parameters are temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and speed, illumination intensity, vibration intensity, sound intensity, power-line voltage, chemical concentrations, pollutant levels and vital body functions. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military **applications** such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer **applications**, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, and so on.

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Keywords — Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), constant modulus algorithm (CMA).Complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF)[r]

The information **theory** and coding **theory** are used in **computer** communication and telecommunication **applications**. Error correction and detection are the techniques used in the above mentioned **applications** that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are subjected to channel noise which introduces the errors during transmission of messages from the source to receiver [1][6]. The channel coding **theory** states that the reliable transmission is achievable by performing proper coding. “Channel Coding” is the technique, which is used to sustain the originality of the information bits, to avoid the retransmission of information bits as well as to detect and correct any error which has been occurred during transmission.

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