This paper presents a dynamic module identifier for testing of web application. A prototype of the system architecture along with the communicating signals has been described here. This multiple test controller based architecture is perfectly suitable for testing of web applications. The dynamic nature of the controller constantly monitors the changes within the web applications and tests its implications on the overall services of the web portal. Sometimes the changes in the tiers may require new test cases and test strategies. The dynamic master controller is well adaptive to those changes. It can quickly generate a new type of thin client or sub controller to adapt the change. The versatile nature of web application requires dynamic test suites and strategies. Different sub controllers can manage different types of information and code patterns. The concept is powerful and extendible. The controllers can be distributed among different tiers to reduce the message traffic. Although the master controller performs the major operations related to testing, the module/ unit testing overheads are mostly reduced due to the incorporation of sub controllers in pro functions.
The process of executing the program with the intent of finding an error is called Testing. Software testing defines to detect as many errors as possible with minimum cost. Testing is not restrained only to the detection of error it also assists with the cost of the functional properties of the software . Software testing is to ensure that the software meets all the requirements of the customer to check whether the product meets functional and performance objectives and to ensure safety and regulatory compliance for the production standards are met. It achieves zero-defect quality software but it is not possible in reality. During the software development it consumes the half amount of total cost involved. Integration testing is the type of software testing in which the each individual software modules are combined and tested to integrate. The integration is done after unit testing and before validation testing.
One type of commonly demanded web-based application is WebBased Information System (WBIS), this kind of application stores information in the database and developed for particular organization in order to manage and computerized the work process. However, WBIS often encounter problem when the testing are not adequately done. This is due to the characteristics of WBIS development process and delivering is faster than traditional application development due to the market pressure and short time to market and this factor indirectly affecting the quality of the product (Hieatt and Mee, 2002; Heiser, 1997).
To go some way to explain this gap, it seems possible that there could be a historical lack of emphasis on empirical research in SBSE. The SBSE liter- ature has not always reported empirical studies in abundance, although it is interesting to note that the past five years have seen an small upsurge in some interesting empirically-based research publications. A few notable examples in- clude Hemmati et al.  who conducted an industrial case study into enhanced test case selection approach for model-based testing. Amannejad et al.  con- ducted an industrial case study to investigate what parts of a software system should be tested in an automated fashion and what parts should remain manual, and suggest that focus should be on return on investment (ROI). Wang et al.  also used an industrial case study, but used industrial data to formulate a novel fitness measure for test case prioritisation in a multi-objective approach to product line testing. Simons et al.  employed the services of software de- signers to interact with an Ant Colony Optimization search of software designs using both quantitative metrics for design coupling and the designers’ qualita- tive evaluation of design elegance. Marculescu et al.  conducted an initial industrial evaluation of interactive search-based testing for embedded software using problem-domain experts who had little or no knowledge of SBSE. Recently, Araaujo et al.  propose an architecture based on interactive optimization and machine learning for application to the next release problem, derived from not only implicit, tacit preferences of the decision maker, but also quantitative measures of release dependencies.
gratification theory as well which is called audience- centered approach. UCD processes concentrate on users through the planning, design and development of a soft- ware product. In subject of communication, in order to compose persuasive, user-centered communication, the developers should gather as much information as possi- ble about the people who access and use the map. Audi- ence may consist of variety of people and their needs and expectations. User is the center; they have power to se- lect media and message. They take charge of kind and presented message they want by selecting buttons/menus or position of stations which they want to see the infor- mation or the route of the original to destination. The idea of user-centered design includes the following con- cepts : 1) Always take audience into account. 2) Consider your users based on: their prospects, their characteristics, their goals, and their context. 3) Identify information readers will need and make that information easily accessible and understandable 4) Make your page/ documents believable.
Software testing is a main method for improving the quality and increasing the reliability of software. It is a kind of complex, labour-intensive and time consuming work. Software testing accounts for 50% of the total cost of software development. This cost could be reduced if the process of testing is automated. Automatic test data generator – a system that automatically generates test data for a given program. Test data generation in software testing is the process of program input data, which satisfy a given testing criterion. A meta-heuristic is a higher level procedure or heuristic designed to find, generate or select a lower level procedure or heuristic that may provide a sufficiently good solution to an optimization problem. Big Bang and Big Crunch algorithm is a new meta-heuristic population based algorithm that relies on one of the theories of the universe, namely the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory.
image and stored as 8-bit grayscale images. Discriminant analysis of grayscale histograms was used to determine optimal thresholds for automated segmentation of red, green and blue images . The adaptive threshold was applied using an 80 × 80 pixel window. This window size was chosen because it is about four times the size of a typ- ical nucleus (nuclear diameter ~20 pixels). The three seg- mented images were combined by a logical OR operation. The combined image was eroded and dilated twice using a 3 step erosion filter (3 × 3 cross, 1 × 3 horizontal and 3 × 1 vertical kernels). Erosion was used to shrink the detected nuclear boundaries and dilation was used to fill the nuclear areas. Artifacts were removed based on size and shape. The nuclear regions were then labeled in raster fashion to create a nuclear mask. Regions not labeled are regarded as background.
Sub question (i) will be answered via literature review in Chapter 2. This chapter will provide a special attention to explore the test coverage analysis, its models and traceability issues. From the test coverage analysis perspective, this chapter will present a study on the detailed test coverage analysis processes, the techniques and existing tools used. The strengths and drawbacks are drawn based on a comparison framework in order to propose a new model and approach to support test coverage analysis.
Construction of the testing chain is illustrated in figure 2. Figure 2a shows the initial testing chain: a copy of the usage chain, where the probabilities are replaced by frequencies, which are initialized at 0. Figure 2b shows the same testing chain after one test has been incorporated in the chain. This test is SRLRRE. It was successful, which means that all transitions succeeded and no errors need to be introduced. Figure 2c shows how failures are introduced into the chain. We consider a test LRRLE, which contains two failures. The first is a non-terminal failure in the second transition (R). The testing chain shows that an error state is introduced that is reached with R. Because this failure is not terminal, a transition from the error state to state 2, from which the sys- tem continues. The rest of the test is included in the chain, until we reach the final transition (E). This transition causes a terminal failure: the system cannot continue and the test is terminated. The image shows an accepting error state that is reached by E. There are no outgoing transitions from this state.
Modern education in many subject domains is automated nowadays. Generation of questions and test items is one of the areas that have not been well automated. Test generation itself is a creative process and often requires quite a lot of time. The quality of manual tests may vary depending on the requirements involved, the amount of time spent on creating the tests and the skill of the person creating them. In today's world, however, high difficulty levels are often not required for tests. But a large number of tests, with acceptable quality and generated in the shortest possible time is required.
HP LoadRunner is a software testing tool developed by Hewlett_Packard. It is used to test applications, checking the system behavior and performance under load. Artificial load is created by simulating thousands of concurrent users and application is put through real life load and results are recorded. Tester needs to have just basic programming skills, so it is helpful for novice testers. It has the facility to generate reports in different formats.
Aiming at realizing automated SPL with service-oriented methods, an approach to interactive requirement elicitation is proposed in this thesis. It adopts ontology to represent the requirement engineering related knowledge, which directs a slot-filling dialogue system to communicate with clients. With this method, users are capable to customize the application requirements that satisfy their demands by interacting with machines, while the completeness and consistency of the customization is ensured. The ordered requirements will further be converted into OWL-S based service descriptions for system implementation. A case study is presented in this thesis to prove the feasibility of the proposed method, while simulation experiments were conducted to verify its efficiency and reliability.
These tools ensure that application don’t gives errors. These tools are used to test the functionality of the application. User interface of an application might change regularly, because of the incompatibilities between browsers and server or client platforms. Some tools are given below which helps to make it easier to build and execute automated tests for web applications.
In view of above observations and arguments, the fol- lowing features must be owned by a novel platform for bioimage analysis, which are not covered by existing bioimage informatics solutions. First, it has to provide tools for the visual exploration of MVIs. Methods from the fields of exploratory data analysis (EDA), visual data- mining (VDM) or information visualization are ideally suited to cope with such image analysis problems. Here, the basic idea is to present the data in some visual form, allowing the human to directly interact with the data by adjusting and manipulating visual data displays, so that visualization is rather becoming an analysis and explora- tion tool than an end product of automatic analysis . Second, scientists need facilities to exchange infor- mation with other scientists, i.e. sharing scientific data and image related information, e.g. by free graphical and textual annotations, which might be linked directly to image regions and coordinates. Although desktop solu- tions such as CellProfiler or OMERO provide some interactive data displays, they lack collaboration abilities for geographically distributed scientists. In contrast, web-based bioimage analysis solutions like Bisque offer far better collaboration and data sharing capabilities, since recently the web is getting more collaborative and user-shaped (effects that are referred to as Web2.0), but they only include rudimentary web-based data visualiza- tion and interactivity facilities. In contrast to the afore- mentioned solutions, we propose a free, fully web-basedsoftwareapproach, called BioIMAX (BioImage Mining, Analysis and eXploration), developed to augment both an easy initial exploratory access to a large variety of complex multivariate image data and a convenient colla- boration of geographically distributed scientists via the web. This focus on quick collaborative visual exploration and analysis of a large variety of bioimages ranging from spectral data to multi-tag fluorescence images.
JUnit can execute the test methods in any order. A closer look at the testAddTwoItems() method will illustrate how JUnit works. Firstly, a new shopping cart is created, then a new item is created and added to the cart. Similarly, a second item is created and added to the cart. Next the containsItemId method is called and the result stored in a variable. An “assertTrue” statement is made to ensure that the return value was true. The same method call and assert statement is performed for the second item. Finally another assert statement, this time “assertEquals”, checks that the number of items in the cart is exactly 2.
ABSTRACT: The web has evolved into a global environment for delivering all kinds of applications, ranging from small-scale and short-lived services to large-scale, enterprise workflow systems distributed over many servers . Web-based applications need to be reliable and perform well. To build such applications, Web developers need a sound methodology, a disciplined and repeatable process, better development tools, and a set of good guidelines. The paper identifies and analyzes various aspects of conventional and Web-based development. Different Web-based development methodologies based on traditional web development approach, object-oriented approach and hybrid model incorporating conventional software development approaches have been discussed. It has also been identified that the hybrid model is a better approach than individual Waterfall model or Spiral model for fulfilling the expectations of advanced Web Application development life cycle.
Size estimation is just the primary step in developing a model that precisely estimates Web development costs in agile paradigm and schedule. The key issues revolve around the formation of the mathematical equations for effort. Though the traditional cube-root relationship be- tween effort and duration in most estimation models does not seem to accurately predict Web development sched- ules for agile environment due to people centric approach. The proposed effort model AgileMOW is a mix of expert judgment and data from different academic projects us- ing regression analysis. Its mathematical formulation rests upon parameters from both the Cocomo II and Soft Cost-OO software cost-estimating models along with ma- nifesto attributes of agile methodologies. We have taken the value range of exponents from webMO model pro- posed by Donald J. Reifer. Equation 2 shows the Agile- MOW model for estimating equations for effort (in per-
is given in Table I. The number of variables instrumented for each module accounted for no less than 90% of the total number of variables in that module. All code locations where an instrumented variable could be read were instrumented for fault injection. Those variables and locations not instru- mented were associated with execution paths that would not be executed under normal circumstances, e.g., test routines. Fault injection was used to determine the spatial and temporal impact associated with each software module . The Propagation Analysis Environment was used for fault injection and logging . A golden run was created for each test case, where a golden run is a reproducible fault-free run of the system for a given test case, capturing information about the state of the system during execution. Bit flip faults were injected at each bit-position for all instrumented vari- ables. Each injected run entailed a single bit-flip in a variable at one of these positions, i.e. no multiple injections. For FG each single bit-flip experiment was performed at 3 injection times uniformly distributed across the 2200 simulation loop iterations that followed system initialisation, i.e. 600, 1200 and 1800 control loop iterations after initialisation. For 7Z and M3, each single bit-flip experiment was performed at 25 distinct injection times uniformly distributed across the 25 time units of each test case. The state of all modules used in the execution of all test cases was monitored during each fault injection experiment. The data logged during fault injection experiments was then compared with the corresponding golden run, with any deviations being deemed erroneous and thus contributing to variable importance. D. Failure Specification
As mentioned earlier in the problem background, automatic composition of web services involves generating a plan using AI planning. This plan acts as the composite service specification and the software agent needs to automatically discover and select suitable web services to be included in the planner. Most often than not, the candidate services are selected based on the functional capability of the services. However, the candidate services also needs to be tested to determine whether the candidate service is also suitable in terms of its interaction behaviour. Most existing testing approaches that have been mentioned earlier tested the flow of service composite process using OWL-S process model [23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 36, 38- 40]. Although OWL-S process model can be used to describe the interaction protocol between a web service and its client, the testing approaches generated test sequences for the different paths according to the OWL-S process model control construct. The functional testing approach [30-34] is only suitable for testing the behaviour of a single operation of a service. Although there exists testing approaches that tests the operation sequence of a service, the approaches are IOPE-based [24, 27, 35, 37]. An advantage of IOPE-basedtest approaches is that it is not restricted to only one particular semantic service description. However IOPE-basedtest approaches lack the framework support on web service discovery, selection, composition and mediation that is offered by WSMO through Web Service Execution Environment (WSMX). Similar to OWL-S process model, WSMO choreography can also be used to describe the interaction protocol. Although WSMO were used in existing testapproach, it was used for testing the functional capability of a single operation of a web service [31-33]. It was not used to test the interaction behaviour of the web service.