σ 2 requires a global sensitivity analysis too. As possible priors informed lifetime distributions (inverse gamma, log-normal and Weibull) are considered, because they are restricted to R + . For completeness also a diﬀuse normal and a uniform prior are used. Although the shapes and the degrees of information of the used priors diﬀer signiﬁcantly, the inﬂuence on the posterior distri- bution of σ 2 is negligible. Therefore the inverse gamma distribution will be used, because it is the conjugate prior for normal distributed data. In Bayesianmodeling conjugate means that the posterior distribution is from the same family as the prior distribution.
This study was designed to gather data on teachers’ perceptions of instructional coaching. It relied on the perceptions of teachers for instructional coaching not only for them as individual teachers but also for their school as a whole. The results of the study showed teachers perceive instructional coaches collaborating with teachers to address school-wide instructional concerns and practices as occurring most frequently to impact their classroom practices. Instructional coaches modeling instructional practices in teachers’ classrooms occurs the least frequently. Each of the four instructional coaching best practices had a mean below the “usually” response rating but above the “sometimes” response rating. This finding suggests cohesiveness among the study’s participants on their perceptions of instructional coaching, regardless of the school or school district in which the teacher works. This finding further suggests instructional coaches are either ineffective with their implementation of instructional coaching best practices or that they are not utilizing instructional coaching best practices. The reasons for these deficiencies cannot be concluded from this study. The findings of this study could lead to the
Agrarians and Aristocrats (1981) offers a broad intellectual interpretation of the Jackson- era that characterizes the partisan divide as representative of a rift between two opposing “worldviews,” which Ashworth defines as an intellectual bundle “comprised of beliefs, fears, hopes, and a series of assumptions about government, society and the economy.” 7 The ideologies and policies of the opposing parties emanated from two conflicting perceptions of human society. The Democrats, he suggests, fundamentally conceived of the nation as a conglomeration of equal citizens, one whose proper function depended most fundamentally on vigilance against the natural tendencies of power units (“special interests,” perhaps?) to upset the healthy balance of equals. National republicans/Whigs, on the contrary, conceived of the nation as an organism, a body politic in the most literal sense, whose proper operation depended not on equality but rather on a diversity of roles served by inequality, insofar as nature doled out different capacities for different roles. The function of government was to harmonize the body, to, ideally, perfectly match one’s role to one’s capacity. Ashworth’s book makes a convincing case, for he is quite
While many advances were made in lighting technology over time, the continued production of solid-state lighting materials containing rare earths is in jeopardy. It is projected that rare-earth oxide demand will surpass the supply of rare-earth oxide materials. Furthermore, China controls approximately 97% of the global market. The export of these materials will also decrease due to China’s own growing demand. This supply and demand situation for rare-earth materials may eventually cause lighting research to focus more and more on the development of rare-earth free lighting materials and/or organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) 6 . A 2011 report by Philips Lighting Company, showed the critical need for rare-earths oxides to sustain the global demand for lighting materials. The main rare earth ions needed for phosphor materials are
Participants were recruited to participate in a project including longitudinal studies of the development of FXS at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The aim of the larger project was concerned with investigating the cognitive, behavioral, and psychological trajectories of children with FXS. Data for the current sample were pulled from two studies associated with previously mentioned project in order to address the longitudinal research questions of the study. The first study included boys with FXS who were seen every twelve months for an assessment (n=20). The second study included boys with FXS and typically developing boys seen every eighteen months for assessment (FXS n= 13; TD n= 17). Participants’ data were pulled from the relevant assessment ages, between ages 3 to 4 for the initial assessment (“preschool age”) and then again between ages 5 to 6 for the subsequent assessment (“school entry”). Subjects were used from both samples to increase the power of the potential findings in the analyses.
Advocates of the disability community are not alone in their concern about the potential negative effects of NIPT on the reproductive trends of the population. Many worry there could be unintended consequences. One such concern is that the risk-free and simple process of NIPT will lead to the routinization of the test. In other words, NIPT may become a standard test that most women uptake simply because other women uptake and thus it seems “normal”. While this might increase efficiency and improve uptake, routinization could potentially undermine the decision-making process (Deans & Newson, 2011). Others feel alarmed by the reproductive power NIPT offers and wonder if in the future, a fetus might have to meet certain standards of desirable traits to qualify for birth. One ethicist suggested that potentially “every pregnancy becomes a ‘tentative pregnancy’ pending the results of prenatal screening” (Benn & Chapman, 2010, p. 131).
Ordered arrays of transition metal oxide nanoparticles with controlled size, spacing, and arrangement have recently received much attention due to their potential applications in high-density nanoelectronic technologies such as flash memory devices, magnetic data storage devices and catalyst sites for organized molecular wires. 1-3 These technologies utilize well-ordered metal particles at the nano-level. Current “top-down” lithographic practices, employed by the microelectronic industry, face the escalating production cost as a function of decreasing feature size. As a result of the limitations in current lithography, various “bottom-up” techniques are being developed to create well- defined nanostructures on the 5-50 nm level. 4 Block copolymer (BCP) nanolithography is of particular interest due to the ability of BCPs to spontaneously self-assembly into a variety of well-defined nanodomains including spheres, cylinders, lamellae, and bicontinuous gyroids in the bulk state. 5-11 The morphology of diblock copolymers is dictated by three parameters including the degree of polymerization (N), the volume fraction of each block (ƒ), and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). 12-14
countries and maximize the effectiveness of donor aid. The Paris Declaration is based on the recognition that partner country should take ownership of development strategies. A country partner has ownership when it takes the lead in determining the goals and priorities of its own development and set the agenda for how they are to be achieved. Strengthening the country's ownership represents a shift of power in the way aid relationship worked in the past, while underlining the need for mutual accountability (OECD, 2009). With strong ownership, the prospects for progress against other Paris Declaration principles improve. If partners “own” priorities, plans and programs, they are more likely to exercise effective leadership in getting donors to align to national