After harvesting the fruits and removing the seeds, it is necessary to extract the oil for use as feedstock in biodiesel production. The average Jatropha seed is approximately 30-40 weight % oil. The seeds need to be dried in an oven at 105 C or dried under the sun for three weeks. Oil extraction can be accomplished mechanically or chemically. The traditional mechanical approach involves pressing the oil out of the seeds in a screw press. Seeds are fed into a hopper and subjected to intense frictional and shear forces by a rotating screw. Engine driven presses can extract anywhere from 75 - 80% on a single pass and as high as 89-91% if precooked and subjected to two passes. The chemical approach uses a solvent to chemically leech the oil from ground seed kernels. The ideal solvent will have high oil solubility and a low boiling point. Upon multiple passes of a chemical solvent in a commercial distillation tower it is possible to boil off the solvent and concentrate nearly all of the oil present in the ground kernels in the bottoms product of the tower. This method is only feasible for large scale production schemes due to the cost of maintaining and running a distillation tower.
Energy consumption is inevitable for the existence of human beings. Fuels derived from petroleum products have been the most important source of world’s energy and mostly the transportation sector. It is estimated that towards the end of this century, crude oil and petroleum products will become very scarce and costly. Even though the fuel economy of modern engines are improving day by day, the enormous increase in the number of automobiles have started dictating the demand for fuel. It is believed that gasoline and diesel, which are the most widely used fuels these days, will be facing extinction towards the end of this century. So, it is the need of the hour to find other sources of eco-friendly, renewable fuels which can be used as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. With increased use and depletion of fossil fuels, alternativefuel technology will become much more common in the years to come. Biodiesels, produced from vegetable oils, has been under research as an alternativefuel for the past few years. Biodiesel can either be used as a sole fuel, known as neat biodiesel or can be blended with petroleum diesel in various proportions for use in diesel engines. Recent researches in this field show that biodiesels can be blended with diesel up to 30% by volume without any modifications to the engine. Further increasing the biodiesel content in the fuel blend requires minor modifications like varying the injection pressure, injection timing, compression ratio etc. In a few foreign countries, B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel) fuel blend has been used widely in compression ignition engines as a partial alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel could be produced from a wide variety of vegetable oils such as Rice bran oil, Coconut oil, Soyabean oil, Sunflower oil, etc. but most of the above are edible oils. As far as a developing country like India is concerned, the use of an edible oil for biodiesel production leads to an imbalance between the food and the fuel sector. So the main criterion to be followed in this case is that the alternativefuel (biodiesel) should be produced from a non- edible vegetable oil. Some of the main non-edible vegetable oils are Jatropha, Pongamia, Mahua, Nerium, Eucalyptus, Castor oil etc. The vegetable oil source from which the biodiesel is derived is selected depending upon their availability in that region of the country. It is estimated that if the farm lands available in the country are properly utilized, India could be a leading producer of biodiesel in the world. Therefore, the use of biodiesel as an alternativefuel would contribute to the overall development of agriculture, economy and environmental sector of the nation.
The most harmful effect of our present day civilization is global warming and environmental pollution. With rapid industrialization and urbanization we are also making our planet unsafe for us and for the generations to come. The vehicle population throughout the world is increasingly rapidly. In India the growth rate of automotive industry is one of the largest in the world. It is quite evident that the problem cannot be solved with the conventional fossil fuels however stringent the emission control norms may be. The consumption of diesel fuels in India is 28.30 million tonnes which is 43.2% of the consumption of petroleum products. The requirement was met by importing crude petroleum as well as petroleum products. With the expected growth rate of diesel consumption of more than 14% per annum, shrinking crude oil reserves and limited refining capacity, India will be heavily dependent on imports of crude petroleum and petroleum products. From the standpoint of preserving the global environment and to sustain from the large imports of crude petroleum and petroleum products from Gulf countries, alternate diesel fuel is the need of the hour. As world reserves of fossil fuels and raw materials are limited, it has stimulated active research interest in nonpetroleum, renewable and non polluting fuels. With this scenario the need for an alternate fuel arises to maintain the economy of the country. The world has been confronted with energy crisis due to the decrease of fossil fuel resources and the increase of environmental restrictions. Therefore attention has been focused on developing the renewable or alternate fuels to replace the petroleum based fuels for transport vehicles. There are several alternative sources of fuel like vegetable oils, biogas, biomass, primary alcohols which are all renewable in nature. Among these fuels, vegetable oils appear to have an exceptional importance as they are renewable and widely available, biodegradable and non-toxic, and environment friendly. In a country like India it is observed that biodiesel can be a viable alternative automotive fuel. Biodiesel is a fastest growing alternativefuel and India has better resources for its production the vegetable oils cannot be used directly in diesel engines as alternativefuel because of high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is to convert it into incomplete combustion. It is a fact that biodiesel is a safer, more economical and infinitely more environmentally friendly than the conventional petroleum diesel that the majority of people currently use. Simarouba Biodiesel is a vegetable oil-based fuel that can be used to replace diesel oil.
Biodiesel has established itself as a precisely sufficient alternativefuel for diesel engines. Generators are vital equipment of industry and have a wide usage area in agriculture. Furthermore engine mportance due to their indoor applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance and smoke results of Bombax biodiesel utilization in diesel engine. The smoke opacity test was s of biodiesel with Single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled, indirect injection diesel engine, and generator performance tests were performed using 10% blends in a 7.5 KVA (6KW) electrical generator. Consecutive tests on Diesel fuel, B20 and B10 blends of Bombax were conducted, and the results were compared with each other. When compared to Diesel fuel, both utilizations showed improved results on engine Bombax pentandrum and Cassia siamea originated biodiesel can be utilized as a blend component during generator applications in
due to the development of motorization industry. It has been reported that only the transportation sector have 63% share in the step up of total global liquid fuel consumption from the year of 2010– 2040. Also, the significant growth of worldwide motorization industry has resulted in the increase of harmful pollutant emissions to the earth. It is very important to mention that, there are about 22% of global GHG (greenhouse gas) emission comes only from the transportation sector. Not only the International Energy Agency (IEA) predicted the emissions of GHG (carbon dioxide) from transport sector will be increased by 92% between 1990 and 2020 and it is also estimated that 8.6 billion metric tons carbon dioxide (CO2) will be released to the atmosphere from 2020 to 2035 . Vehicular emissions such as particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), carbon dioxides (CO2), carbon monoxides (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are hugely responsible for the air quality deterioration. Thus due to fast depletion of fossil fuels and pollution crisis is demanding an urgent need to carry out research work to find out the viable alternative fuels. As diesel fuel is largely consumed by the transportation sector. Biodiesel fuels have all the characteristics of the conventional fossil fuel and can be used as a substitute to it. Thermodynamic tests based on the engine performance evaluations have established the feasibility of using biodiesel oil (vegetable oils). It has been found that vegetable oils hold special promise in this regard, because they can be produced from the plants grown in rural areas. Vegetable oils from crops such as soyabean, peanut, sunflower, rape, coconut, karanja, neem, cotton, mustard, jatropha, linseed and caster have been evaluated in many parts of the world in comparison with other non-edible oils. Karanja (pungamia) is an oil seed-bearing tree, which is non-edible and does not find any suitable application with only 6% being utilized of 200 million tonnes per annum .
To solve dual problems of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, the renewable fuels with lower environmental impact are necessary. Nowadays, many new fuels have been used and biomass derived fuels are among them. Some of the well known biomass derived fuels are ethanol for gasoline engines and bio-diesel for compression ignition engines. Biodiesel is a renewable and environmental friendly alternativefuel for diesel engine which is produced from variety of vegetable oils and animal fats by the trans-esterification process. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which vegetable oils and animal fats are reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The products of reaction are fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerine, and the fatty acid alkyl ester is known as biodiesel. Bio-diesel is an oxygenated fuel containing 10% to 11% oxygen by weight. Also it is a sulphur-free fuel. These lead biodiesel to more complete combustion and less harmful exhaust emissions. However, biodieselfuel has higher viscosity, density, pour point, flash point and cetane number than diesel fuel. Also the energy content or net calorific value of biodiesel is about 12% lower than that of diesel fuel on a mass basis. Using biodiesel can help in reducing the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and also has significant environmental benefits. Using biodiesel instead of the conventional diesel fuel reduces exhaust emissions such as the overall life circle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulate matter (PM), carbon
Non conventional, alternative and as different energy source of energy, biodiesel attracted many scientists and researchers to consider him as an alternativefuel for automotive sector in last few years by large. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, which contains 10 % to 11% oxygen, no aromatics, higher cetane number and reduce harmful pollutants from engine exhaust. Higher viscosity, higher flashpoint, poor cloud point, poor pour point and poor cold filter plugging point of pure biodiesel limits its direct usage as fuel in the diesel engine. So it is required to prepare the blend of biodiesel /diesel with addition of ethanol as an additive in order to improve hot flow and cold flow properties of the blend. Improved hot flow and cold flow properties will enhance engine performance, combustion and exhaust emissions. In the present study feedstock of cottonseed biodiesel/diesel blend is used as fuel with the addition of 5% of ethanol as an additive. Blend properties were investigated as per IS 1448 standards. Experimental investigations were carried out on single cylinder diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. Experimental investigation shows that addition of ethanol improves kinematic viscosity by 7% .cloud point by 9%, and pour point by 10% but density was increased by 3% and calorific value decreased by 9% .Engine performance , combustion characteristics and reduction in emissions , are improved drastically by addition of an ethanol as an additive in the cottonseed biodiesel/diesel blend . Improved hot flow and cold flow properties , improved combustion , improved performance and reduced emissions proves that cottonseed oil biodiesel/diesel blend with ethanol as an additive stands as an alternativefuel for diesel engine.
The energy is the most of the human existence. Consumption fossil fuels has grown substantially and consumption the energy sources that is seen as having a major environmental impacts. Diminution world oil reserves and increasing environmental concern have induced found alternative and renewable energy resources called biodiesel. Biodieselfuel from the vegetable oil, regarded as of the best candidate for the substitute diesel fuel in diesel engines because of the characteristics closer. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. This paper introduces some type of alternativefuel whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These types are crude palm oil (CPO), straight vegetable oil (SVO), waste cooking oil (WCO) and Jatrophacurcas(JPO). From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably different on density, viscosity, acid value, water content and flash point as compared with standard diesel. In conclusion, a long period of storage will reduce the quality of biodiesel does not matter what kind of conditions and environments that are exposed to. However, the rate of degradation of biodiesel can be slow if the right circumstances and environment provided.
neem oil, which is mono-ester produced used transesterification process. Biodiesel is reliable, renewable, biodegradable and regarded as a clean alternativefuel to reduce exhaust emissions. Vegetable oil cannot be directly used in the VCR engine for its high viscosity, high density, high flash point and lower calorific value. So it needs to be converted into biodiesel to make it consistent with fuel properties of diesel. Vegetable oils have become more attractive for the production of biodiesel in the recent past owing to its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of glycerides of neem oil using methanol with alkaline catalyst NAOH/KOH. The performance investigation is carried out in VCR engine with biodiesel by mixing with blends NB10, NB30, NB50. The parameters evaluated were performance and emission characteristics at compression ratio 15. NB10 and NB30 possess better brake thermal efficiencies. By adding methanol (5%) to NB50 as additive to improve the brake thermal efficiency while the specific fuel consumption more is obtained.
Abstract: This paper deals with the transesterification of Ricinus Communis (RC) oil with methanol to produce biodiesel in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Moreover, this study analysis the fuel properties of RC biodiesel and diesel fuel blend to use castor oil methyl ester as a possible alternativefuel for diesel engines. Various properties of the RC biodiesel and their blends such as density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, saponification number, Cetane number, heating value, flash point and acid value were determined. The experimental results were compared well with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) and European biodiesel standards (EN 14214). The experimental design as well as statistical analysis were done and analyzed using design expert 22.214.171.124 version soft ware. The predicted optimum conditions for castor oil biodiesel production were a reaction temperature of 59.89 0 c, methanol to oil ratio of 8.10:1 and a catalyst of 1.22 wt% of oil. The methyl ester content under these optimum conditions was 94.5% w/w of oil, and all of the measured properties of the biodiesel met the international standards of EN14214 and ASTM D 6751 with the exception of density and viscosity. Therefore, the viscosity and density of the ester was high and further reduced by blending with diesel fuel up to B45 to satisfy within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 limits for biodiesel.
Abstract: The world is confronting the serious issue of consumption of convectional fuels. The availability fuel store will make sustainable power sources assets progressing more attractive. The most possible approach to satisfy this developing need is by utilizing alternativefuel fills. The production of biodiesel from Pongamia oils the properties of raw and their performance in diesel engine. Pongamia oil as biodiesel was tried for their exhibition in IC engine. The biodiesel used in this experiment have different blends like B10%, B20% and B30% and the impact of this biodiesel on diesel engine, performance and emission is investigated.
Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced from renewable resources. The use of biodiesel is rapidly increasing around the world, making it incumbent to fully understand its impacts on the diesel engine combustion process and pollutant formation. Biodiesel is known as the mono-alkyl-esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stocks, such as, vegetable oils or animal fats, for use in compression ignition engines. In the present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl-ester of Karanja oil as fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. Different blends of Karanja Oil (B5, B10, B15, B20) were compared for their performance characteristics with pure Diesel(B100).The performance was assessed for the parameters viz. Indicated Power, Fuel Consumption, Break Thermal Efficiency, Air fuel Ratio, BSFC(Break Specific Fuel Consumption), Exhaust gas Temperature against different loads.
The Kirloskar make single cylinder, four-stroke, DI diesel engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer is used for the experimental work. Experiments were conducted with varying loads of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% for diesel, biodiesel mixture and blends with diesel (Diesel, PJBD, D90PJBD10, D80PJBD20 and D70PJBD30) at constant rated speed 1500 rpm of the engine as shown in figure 1. Fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperatures were measured by usual procedure. The parameters like fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption are evaluated at all load conditions. The emissions characteristics are measured at steady state condition of the engine with the help of AVL make smoke meter. The exhaust gas analyzer was used to measure the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon emission (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The smoke
The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a increasing demand of an petroleum products. Hence it is necessary to search the alternative biofuels such as environment friendly. There are various types of raw materials are used for production of biodiesel such as Jatropha, Karanja, Moha, Undi, Castor, Jojoba, Cottonseed etc. An non-edible oil seeds and various vegetable oils including Palm oil, Soya bean oil, Sunflower oil, Rapeseed oil and waste vegetable oils. It can be used in diesel engine with no modifications. It is simple to use biodegradable, nontoxic and having low emissions. In India, edible vegetable oils are in short supply and India needs to import 45% of total requirements (600,000 tons) per year, to bridge the gap. Used cooking oil is practically not available, as it is used till the end due to shortage. In many developed countries vegetable oilsare in excess of their local requirements of edible oils. They have to dispose of these oils and converting these to Biodiesel as fuel is best option for them for disposal.
Biodiesel is monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acids produced from the transesterification reaction of vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of catalyst & can be used as fuel. Biodiesel is made from animal fats or vegetable oils, renewable resources that come from plants such as, soybean, sunflowers, corn, olive, peanut, palm, coconut, safflower, canola, sesame, cottonseed, etc. Once these fats or oils are filtered from their hydrocarbons and then combined with alcohol like methanol, biodiesel is brought to life from this chemical reaction. These raw materials can either be mixed with pure diesel to make various proportions, or used alone[2-4]
generation feed sources such as algae and camelina. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification, whereby glycerin is separated from vegetable oil or vegetable oil. This process leaves two products - methyl ester (chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable by-product that is often sold for use in soaps and other products). The demand for renewable energy due to limited known petroleum reserves is increasingly high. As calculated with the current actual rate of consumption, the discovered global oil reserves are expected to last at least 44 years . Almost all countries
methyl esters, a conventional alkali-catalyzed process can be used to transesterify the triglycerides in the feedstock. While acids can be used to catalyze the transesterification reaction, the reaction is very slow at the 50° to 60°C reaction temperature the two-step approach of acid-catalyzed esterification followed by base-catalyzed transesterification gives a complete reaction at moderate temperatures. A problem with this approach is that the water produced by the esterification reaction should be removed before the base- catalyzed process begins so that soap formation is not excessive. This can be done by settling or centrifuging the methanol-water-acid layer that separates after the esterification has reached equilibrium. The additional equipment required for the acid-catalyzed pretreatment raises the processing cost, but this approach allows the use of feed stocks containing up to 100% FFA. Finally after drying the found methyl ester is converted to the required biodiesel. Hence, it is seen that 900ml biodiesel is produced from 1 liter of Jatropha oil.
There is an increasing interest in every country, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels in India. In the present work, an attempt has been made to use biodiesel as a substitute for kerosene in wick stove. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Methyl Ester (MOME) was prepared by transesterfication using potassium hydroxide as catalyst and important fuel properties were determined based on ASTM procedure. From the analysis, it was observed that the properties of MEMO are close to kerosene. To evaluate the MOME as a substitute for kerosene, it was used as a fuel in wick stove. From the experimental results, it was observed that the MOME result in performance close to kerosene and lower soot emission.
The topic lost its popularity due to the difficulties in direct usage of herbal oils as fuels and wide spread usage of petroleum products. However scientific studies on eliminating glycerin in the herbal oils in order to use them as fuels had kept going and the first patent was secured at 31 August 1937 by G.Chavanne from Bruxelles in Belgium for the fuel that we know as “Biodiesel” today. The petroleum crises at 1970s and 1990s speeded up search for alternative fuels and “Biodiesel” was taken into consideration again. There have been many incentive studies going on for biofuels and biodiesel in EU since 2003. Member countries were asked to state their national production and usage targets in their progress reports. They are utilizing “polluting one pays” criteria in their energy and tax politics. USA, which sees “safety of energy supply as a national safety element”, targeting to compensate 25% of its energy consumption from renewable energy resources in 2025 with its “25x25” motto and developing projects for these aims, established its own system in the biodiesel subject too. Primarily they prepared ASTM-6751 standard applicable to soybean oil, which can be regarded as their national herbal oil. During 5% biodiesel mixed B5 form of the fuel was sold in the fuel stations extensively, they ensured 100% utilization by providing tax privilege .
The chemical reaction that occurs through this process breaks down the oil into a layer of biodiesel which rises to the top of the reactor, and a layer of glycerine which falls to the bottom. The glycerine is drained is drained off and used for other purposes, composed or otherwise disposed off. The biodiesel is then washed, dried and filtered to remove any extra impurities and it’s ready to be used as a fuel in diesel engines without any modifications to the engine. Biodiesel decreases the gas emissions that cause the green house effect. Biodiesel also diminishes and proliferation of deceases caused by the pollution of the environment. The majority of biodiesel is produced in the United States from soybean oil due to feed stock’s abundance.