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Common skin 
					disorders: A review

Common skin disorders: A review

The profile of research focus on three main categories of skin disorders has been produced using Science Direct Searched Engine (Figure 7) in order understand not only the direction of interests among research but also to appreciate the weight of the problems specific to the skin categories. This trend is based on keywords search namely common skin disorders of dry skin, acne skin and hyperpigmented skin. In Figure 7, the graph correlates the total number of research papers on each of the category over a period from 1999 to 2019. Based on Figure 6, the trend of publications related to Acne and Hyperpigmented has remained almost the same over the period. However, in the case of dry skin, the trend is distinctive and overall, it is by far the most researched about compared to the other two. On a closer look, there has been a pronounce increment in the number of publications after 2011 which is signified by the slope of the trend. Noticeably, in 2019 there is a tremendous increase for dry skin with 884 publications as compared to 716 papers in 2018. Overall, from 1999, there has been a big gap between the number of publications for dry skin as compared to those of acne skin and hyperpigmented skin. This trend can be explained by the profiling of the prevalence chart of Figure 5 where majority of the population suffered from dry skin problem.
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Epidermal barrier formation and recovery in skin disorders

Epidermal barrier formation and recovery in skin disorders

Skin is at the interface between the complex physiology of the body and the external, often hostile, environment, and the semipermeable epidermal barrier prevents both the escape of moisture and the entry of infectious or toxic substances. Newborns with rare congenital barrier defects underscore the skin’s essential role in a terrestrial envi- ronment and demonstrate the compensatory responses evoked ex utero to reestablish a barrier. Common inflam- matory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis exhibit decreased barrier function, and recent studies suggest that the complex response of epidermal cells to barrier disruption may aggravate, maintain, or even initiate such conditions. Either aiding barrier reestablishment or dampening the epidermal stress response may improve the treatment of these disorders. This Review discusses the molecular regulation of the epidermal barrier as well as causes and potential treatments for defects of barrier formation and proposes that medical management of barrier disruption may positively affect the course of common skin disorders.
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ROLE OF DUSHIVISHARI AGAD IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF COSMETIC W.S.R DUSHIVISHA: A REVIEW .......

ROLE OF DUSHIVISHARI AGAD IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF COSMETIC W.S.R DUSHIVISHA: A REVIEW .......

From above discussion we can conclude that as per Ayurveda Dushi visha can be correlated with cumu- lative toxicity. Dushi visha is not acute condition its effect seen gradually on the body if it is accumulated in the body frequently, It definitely produce the toxic effect in the body. Dushi visha shows various types of toxic symptoms and disorders in different systems of body which mainly includes skin, GI tract, Nerv- ous system and many more. For is very useful. As chemical toxicity of cosmetics is nothing but cumu- lative toxicity which can be correlated with dushi visha in Ayurved. So, the treatment for these will be same.
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Common or distinct pathways to psychosis? A systematic review of evidence from prospective studies for developmental risk factors and antecedents of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective psychoses

Common or distinct pathways to psychosis? A systematic review of evidence from prospective studies for developmental risk factors and antecedents of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective psychoses

This review highlights a striking gap in the literature regarding risk factors and antecedents for AP, and also highlights risk factors/antecedents of SSD that would bene- fit from further investigation. Whilst several risks associated with SSD are identified, it remains unclear whether these also characterise AP or are SSD-specific. Further, reliable comparisons from the evidence regarding specificity are hampered by lack of replication. Many of the factors inves- tigated have previously been shown to increase risk for multiple disorders (e.g., [128, 164]), but AP is not often among those reported. This constitutes a significant limita- tion in the current evidence base in light of data from gen- etic studies underlining potential similarities in the aetiology of SSD and AP. Future research requires the investigation of AP and SSD concurrently to establish whether these similarities extend to common aetiological pathways for some individuals with these diagnoses. The low prevalence of both disorders calls for population-based approaches to provide the necessary power to detect effects, as well as to capture the full spectrum of premorbid expo- sures and developmental deviations that may characterise those who later develop either disorder. From an interven- tion perspective, applying a longitudinal framework to these investigations will further enhance scope to determine how early developmental deviations may be detected, or at which point during development they are most sensitive for indicating risk for later SSD or AP.
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Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies

Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies

In this umbrella review we summarized the prevalence rates of common mental disorders, specifically PTSD, depression and anxiety, and the efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions in adult and chil- dren asylum seekers and refugees. We found substantial heterogeneity in prevalence rates, ranging from low to very high proportions. This variability may be explained by a number of factors, both methodological and clini- cal. Methodologically, different designs with different sampling strategy were adopted by the primary stud- ies. A major aspect was that the diagnostic criteria were not consistent across studies: different tools were used, including structured interviews and self-report question- naires, whose validity was sometimes rather question- able. Furthermore, most of the instruments used were based on Western notions of mental health and illness, and this may have led to a misunderstanding of the symp- toms experienced by non-western populations [34, 35]. Clinically, the reviews summarized here compared very different cultural groups from different countries and resettled in different host countries, with different reason for migration, different exposure to post migration stress- ors and very different lengths of stay in the host country. These factors and/or their complex interaction may had a crucial role in shaping individuals’ behavior and mental health [36]. For these reason, the high variability of find- ings among reviews, may reflect true clinical, social, per- sonal and context differences.
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Clinical utility of clocortolone pivalate for the treatment of corticosteroid-responsive skin disorders: a systematic review

Clinical utility of clocortolone pivalate for the treatment of corticosteroid-responsive skin disorders: a systematic review

Introduction of topical glucocorticoids for the treatment of skin diseases has led to marked improvement in outcomes in several conditions. Nowadays, topical glucocorticoids are the most frequently used topical preparations in dermatology. Their efficacy in skin diseases depends on their anti-inflammatory and antimitotic actions and their capacity to decrease the synthesis of connective tissue molecules, 1 in

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Treatment implications of natural compounds targeting lipid metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity and cancer

Treatment implications of natural compounds targeting lipid metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity and cancer

Metabolic disorders can lead to a scarcity or excess of certain metabolites such as glucose, lipids, proteins, purines, and metal ions, which provide the biochemical foundation and directly contribute to the etiology of metabolic diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and cancer are common metabolic disorders closely associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. In this review, we first describe the regulatory machinery of lipid metabolism and its deregulation in metabolic diseases. Next, we enumerate and integrate the mechanism of action of some natural compounds, including terpenoids and flavonoids, to ameliorate the development of metabolic diseases by targeting lipid metabolism. Medicinal natural products have an established history of use in health care and therapy. Natural compounds might provide a good source of potential therapeutic agents for treating or preventing metabolic diseases with lipid metabolic abnormalities.
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A REVIEW ON TAMRA (COPPER) THROUGH AYURVEDIC TEXTS WITH A BRIEF ON ITS ROLE IN SKIN DISORDERS .......

A REVIEW ON TAMRA (COPPER) THROUGH AYURVEDIC TEXTS WITH A BRIEF ON ITS ROLE IN SKIN DISORDERS .......

Rasashastrais the branch of Ayurveda dealing with metals and minerals. The main concept of Rasashastra is generally referred to Dhatuvada(Alchemy) with a view to remove poverty from the world but also for Dehavedha (for the body)which makes the body very strong, free from diseases and stable for longer duration. Through a period of various centuries Dhatu- vadaand Dehavedahas been achieved which is evident from the vast literature available on Rasashastra. The Rasaausadhis are the back bone of the Ayurvedic therapeutics. It is chiefly based on metals and minerals, small doses, tastelessness, quick action, effectiveness. Ra- sayana property makesRasaausadhis more popular and superior over the other medicines and this attract the attention of patients as well as pharmaceutical manufacturers. The number of metals found in the world throughout is innumerable but only few of them have recognized to present medicinal values. And among these Dhatu(metals)includes Tamra(copper). In this study the classical texts of Ayurveda were searched for a detailed description on Tamra and its therapeutic potentials as mentioned in our classical Ayurvedic texts with a brief on its ac- tion in skin disorders through searching and analyzing Ayurvedic as well as the modern per- spective.
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Common psychocutaneous disorders in children

Common psychocutaneous disorders in children

Abstract: The prevalence of psychosomatic disorders among dermatological patients is high but frequently unreported because of difficulties in diagnosing and treating this patient group. Psychiatric and psychological factors may play different roles in the pathogenic mechanism of some skin diseases. The mainstay of diagnosis and treatment is the differ- entiation between skin disorders associated with psychiatric illness and those of a purely psychiatric nature. Dermatologists and psychiatrists should be aware of this pathology and work together as a team to resolve difficult cases, especially in children. The present paper highlights the psychocutaneous diseases most frequently seen by dermatologists in pediatric population.
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Conclusion: A high prevalence of skin disorders was

Conclusion: A high prevalence of skin disorders was

In our study, only two cases of bacterial and viral causes were reported. This will not bring to a conclusion that transmissible diseases are rare in Wadi Al Dawaser region, but it could be because of the self-reporting questionnaire used in the study which made it difficult for the common public with scarce knowledge about the bacterial, viral and fungal infections to report them properly. Hence, in the near future, with the aid of dermatologists, a complete screening of these positive cases is planned to be carried out to reveal the perfect scenario in the region.

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Factors associated with health service utilisation for common mental disorders: a systematic review

Factors associated with health service utilisation for common mental disorders: a systematic review

Finally, although it was not the topic of this review, there was some evidence to suggest that the factors asso- ciated with health service utilisation for CMD may vary between the specialist and generalist sectors [64, 77, 87], which has been highlighted in other studies [100, 112]. This warrants further investigation as it has important implications for service planning. Thornicroft and Tan- sella (2013) advocate a stepped care model of mental health services, with the majority of services delivered through primary care in low-resource settings [122]. However, it remains to be investigated which balance leads to the most equitable use of services for CMD, and whether some groups are more likely to seek treatment through primary care in LMIC.
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Depression profiles in skin disorders

Depression profiles in skin disorders

The literature suggests that depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in dermatological diseases, but that it is diagnosed in a purely generic sense. Indeed, all previous studies investigated only the pres- ence or absence of depression, or, at best, evaluated this disorder quantitatively [5,6]. In contrast, the organization of emotions is qualitatively different, in the composition of the clinical framework, between groups of skin disor- ders, and the difference in this organization appears even if subjects do not manifest a specific clinical disease, as in cases of “subthreshold depression” [7].
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Veterinarian nominated common conditions of rabbits and guinea pigs compared with published literature

Veterinarian nominated common conditions of rabbits and guinea pigs compared with published literature

Conditions classified into the dental, skin and gastrointestinal categories were the most commonly nominated for rabbits from the veterinarian questionnaire, which is consistent with findings by previous research examining the veterinary caseload [10]. It also closely mirrors findings of two different owner surveys of pet rabbit health [8,11], however, a report by the People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals [1] estimated that only 68% of rabbits are registered with a veterinary practice, suggesting health in the general rabbit population may not accurately reflect the rabbit conditions presented to the veterinarian. Interestingly, veterinarians perceived there to be more information available for dental conditions than for other common conditions, however, the results of the literature review would suggest that this is not the case. Veterinarians frequently access a wide range of peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed information sources [12], and perhaps because of the scarce indexed evidence in both rabbits and guinea pigs, there is more reliance on information acquired through continuing professional development (CPD), websites and textbooks. While some of the citations were coded as non-specific (e.g., those describing the approach to anorexia) and some of those not coded by body system as they covered a general topic (e.g., critical care) could contain information relevant to dental conditions, only a small number of articles focused on dental disease specifically. It may be that although common, dental issues could be perceived as relatively uncomplicated, or equally complex to manage and, therefore, the interest to grow the research-based evidence on these topics is far less in the veterinary community. This could be the same for skin Figure 4. Body system category selected for 1974 guinea pig conditions nominated during a survey of UK veterinarians, and 508 guinea pig citations identified during a literature search.
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Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review

Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review

The sample sizes of the included studies were generally adequate for analysing psychometric properties. Nine studies contained over 1000 participants. The other studies in the tables (n = 46) had an average sample size of 261 participants. A sample size below 100 was found in 10 studies, which generally gives too little statistical power for psychometric analyses [54]. It should be noted that required sample sizes differ per number of items and type of analysis. Most results could be biased due to selectively missing data. Two studies reported missing data and included numbers. In 33 studies, the amount of missing data was not specifically reported, but could be deduced or estimated. Missing data were not reported by or could not be deduced in 21 studies (see Additional file 3). Overall, COSMIN quality ratings of ‘Excellent’ were rare and ‘Poor’ , ‘Fair’ and ‘Good’ ratings were equally common. Instead of adding the COSMIN ratings to the tables and Additional file 3, we decided to report the characteristics the ratings are based on, because the ratings do not always do justice to a study’s quality. The study characteristics give an objective and interpretable indication of the robustness and generalisability of a study’s findings. Lastly, 47 of the 62 instruments were investigated in only one study (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4), so the robustness of the psychometric properties of these instruments relies heavily on the aspects of the individ- ual studies and cannot be easily generalised to other populations or settings.
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SANDALWOOD OIL CAN BE A MIRACULOUS TACKLE ON SKIN AGING, SKIN APPEARANCE AND WRINKLE SKIN – A REVIEW

SANDALWOOD OIL CAN BE A MIRACULOUS TACKLE ON SKIN AGING, SKIN APPEARANCE AND WRINKLE SKIN – A REVIEW

Sandalwood oil has been utilizing for a variety of purposes throughout history, with its integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. It’s now being increasingly recognized for effects on wrinkle skin. In this review article, a brief analyze has been discussed on various skin disorders especially skin ageing, skin appearance and wrinkle skin & description of sandalwood oil and use of sandalwood oil by topical skin applications. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of sandalwood oil according to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, it is to describe the Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenging activities and cell regulatory properties on wrinkle skin.
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Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus: an epidemiology and physiopathology review

Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus: an epidemiology and physiopathology review

Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complica- tions and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)—e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end products. Although diabetic’s skin disorders are consistent in the literature, there is limited data regarding early-stage skin disorders in DM patients. Disease control, early-stage treatment (e.g. skin hydration, orthotic devices) and awareness can reduce morbidity of DM patients. Thus, better understanding of the burden of skin disorders in DM patients may raise awareness on prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of this study is to perform a literature review to evaluate the main clinical characteristics and com- plications of skin disorders in diabetic’s patients. Additionally, physiopathology early-stage skin disorders and dermo- cosmetic management were also reviewed.
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Disorders of keratinisation: from rare to common genetic diseases of skin and other epithelial tissues

Disorders of keratinisation: from rare to common genetic diseases of skin and other epithelial tissues

Epithelia are the first line of defence between the human body  and its environment.  For example, the skin, the largest organ  in  the  body,  is  covered  by  the  epidermis  –  a  multilayered,  stratified,  cornified  epithelium  that  is  highly  specialised  to  protect the body from a diverse range of external insults that  include  mechanical  trauma,  microbial  invasion,  chemical  damage  and  entry  of  allergens.    Similarly,  the  anterior  corneal  epithelium  protects  the  outermost  surface  of  the  eye;  mucosal  cells  line  the  entries  and  exits  of  the  body;  the gastrointestinal tract is covered by layer of fast-turnover  epithelial cells and the lung is lined by a mixed epithelium  which  also  secretes  defensive  mucous.    In  other  words,  epithelia  very  often  function  as  protective  barrier  tissues.   In  addition,  many  epithelial  cells  are  adapted  to  perform  glandular  functions.   The  liver  and  pancreas,  for  example,  are composed of functionally modified epithelial cells.  These  and other organs are also covered by a protective mesothelium  – the “epidermis” of internal organs.  On a smaller scale, the  sweat and sebaceous glands of the skin also contain glandular  epithelial cells.  The sweat and sebum produced by these tiny  glands of the skin are exported to the epidermal surface via  ducts formed by epithelial cells, so here again, cells directly  in contact with the exterior environment of the organism are  epithelial in origin.  
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Atypical eating disorders: a review

Atypical eating disorders: a review

An extensive review of the current literature on AEDs was carried out by the authors on MedLine and EBSCO databases using the following keywords: “atypical eating disorders”, “eating disorders not otherwise specified”, “EDNOS”, “diagnosis”, “treatment”, and “prevalence”. All articles published between 1980 and 2010 were considered. In addition, some of main websites on the subject were reviewed. Articles’ bibliographies and book chapters on the topic were examined for relevant information and references. According to cited literature, the terms “AED” and “EDNOS” will be used as synonyms in this article, albeit they belong to different nosological classifications.
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Impact of demographic factors on recognition of persons with depression and anxiety in primary care in Slovenia

Impact of demographic factors on recognition of persons with depression and anxiety in primary care in Slovenia

questionnaires on a representative sample of family med- icine practice attendees. Consecutive family medicine practice attendees aged 18 to 75 years were recruited and followed up after six, 12 and 24 months. The study design has been previously described [19]. The aim of the PRE- DICT-D study was to develop a reliable and valid multi- factor scale to determine the risk for the onset and main- tenance of depression in primary care attendees. The par- ticipating family medicine practices were selected from urban and rural settings in each country and served a pop- ulation with diverse socio-economic and ethnic character- istics. In Slovenia the study was conducted across 74 family medicine practices nationwide. Each practice recruited 10–20 participants. Each participant signed writ- ten informed consent for the participation in the study at baseline. Baseline interviews were carried out between September 2003 and March 2004 by 36 trained interview- ers who were mostly medical students. Mood was exam- ined using the Depression Section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)[20,21], which provided psychiatric diagnoses based on symptoms expe- rienced in the last six months according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria and ICD-10 criteria. Anxiety disorders were examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) [22], a brief questionnaire designed to assess DSM-IV Other Anx- iety Syndrome (OAS) and Panic Syndrome (PS). Informa- tion on socio-demographic characteristics including gender, age and educational level of the participants was also collected using a standardised questionnaire for this purpose [19]. All questionnaires were in Slovene lan- guage. Exclusion criteria were inability to understand Slovene language, severe organic mental illness and termi- nal illness. Slovene language version of CIDI was psycho- metrically validated before the study but the validation process was not published. Slovenian version of PHQ was not psychometrically validated before the study.
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Outcome of Alarm Symptoms and Colonoscopy in Functional Bowel Disorders and Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome.

Outcome of Alarm Symptoms and Colonoscopy in Functional Bowel Disorders and Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome.

the treatment of FAPS for both direct pain management effects and antidepressant effects. However, evidence from controlled clinical trials for the effectiveness of antidepressants in FAPS or superiority of any 1 agent or antidepressant class in this disorder is not available. In other chronic pain conditions, trials with TCAs generally have been more successful than those using selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. Newer agents with combined serotonin and nor epinephrine reuptake activity (SNRIs, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine) have recognized pain- reducing effects in some somatic pain conditions and may prove useful in FAPS. Both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and SNRIs may be useful in the patient with comorbid depression or anxiety. Most analgesics (e.g., aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) offer little benefit, possibly because their actions primarily are peripheral in location. Narcotic analgesics should be avoided because of the likelihood of addiction and possibility of narcotic bowel syndromes, such as chronic neuropathic pain, as alternatives to TCAs with fewer side effects. The most studied have been gabapentin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine. They have not been examined specifically in abdominal pain disorders or FAPS, although there is a rationale and evidence of efficacy in chronic pain management remains limited despite rather widespread use. These agents are relatively safe and non-habituating, also may interrupt the cycle between pain and depression 50 and might prove beneficial as adjunctive agents in
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