Another potentially important explanation is the role of differences in demographics across the two countries. This is currently hard to test using publicly available data. In the figure below, we show the GCSEperformance of pupils eligible and not eligible for free school meals across Wales and England over time (the measure used here reflects the per cent of children achieving 5+ GCSEs or equivalent at A*-C, including English/Welsh and maths). This shows a lower level of performance for both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils in Wales than in England, with the biggest gap for disadvantaged pupils. This lower level of performance remains for disadvantaged pupils in Wales even after the GCSE rule changes in England in 2014. Performance for disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged pupils in Wales continues to grow after this point, but the different rules for GCSEperformance measures makes it hard to interpret these changes relative to England.
It is recognised that the pathologist may have to perform autopsies within mortuaries where he has no formal contract of employment with the providers. Pathologists should be satisfied that the mortuaries in which they work have facilities equivalent to the standards set out in Health Building Note (20) (NHS Estates) and the Health Services Advisory Committee’s documents on safe working and the prevention of infection in the mortuary and post-mortem room. If a pathologist is not satisfied with any aspect of a mortuary, he should make these concerns known to those instructing him, such as the coroner and police force involved.
jurisdiction, Cooke (1994) found the prevalence of psychopathy at a cut-off of 30 among Scottish sentenced men to be only half that of equivalent prisoners in England and Wales. Cooke and Michie (1999) subsequently argued that Scottish prisoners required higher levels of the underlying trait before certain characteristics become apparent compared to North American prisoners and forensic patients, together with the possibility that Scottish psychopaths were more likely to migrate. This last point received only partial support from a comparison between Scottish and English-born prisoners using data obtained in the first stage of our survey. Prisoners born in Scotland scored significantly higher on adult antisocial behavior, had more previous imprisonments, and were significantly more criminally versatile. However, age at first conviction, and scores on Axis II personality disorders found to correlate with total PCL-R and factor scores in this study, demonstrated no significant differences. This suggested that if migration was a factor among Scottish-born individuals in English prisons, it was secondary to their extensive criminal lifestyle rather than their personalities.
104. Magistrates and members of the Crown Prosecution Service appearing in the Youth Court are specially trained to undertake these roles, but defence lawyers are not required to have specialist training before they appear in the Youth Court. This problem is compounded by the lower fees paid to lawyers in the Youth Court than they would receive for the same or less serious case involving an adult in the Crown Court. Both the Bar Council and the Solicitor’s Regulatory Authority recognise the need for defence lawyers to be appropriately skilled for working in the Youth Court. Some chambers and law firms lay on additional training for lawyers working in the Youth Court, and Just for Kids Law provides training to solicitors and barristers. I believe there is a strong case for insisting that all lawyers appearing in the Youth Court are specifically trained. I am also extremely concerned that children, in what are often complex and challenging cases, should be any less well represented in the Youth Court than an adult would be in the Crown Court in a case of equivalent seriousness. I therefore recommend that the Ministry of Justice reviews the fee structure of cases heard in the Youth Court in order to raise their status and improve the quality of legal representation for children, and when this is complete, that the Bar Standards Board and the Solicitors Regulation Authority should introduce mandatory training for all lawyers appearing in the Youth Court.
National Curriculum tests are a measurement of achievement against the precise attainment targets of the National Curriculum rather than any generalised concept of ability in any of the subject areas. Teacher Assessment is the teachers’ judgement of pupils’ performance in the whole subject over the whole academic year. The National Curriculum standards have been designed so that most pupils will progress by approximately one level every two years. This means that by the end of KS2 pupils are expected to achieve Level 4.
Attainment data collected by the contractor is passed onto the Department and the contractor’s checking team in early autumn. The contractor’s checking team collates the data into school level information and the un-amended data is then passed to schools, together with the underlying data for checking prior to publication in the ‘School and College performance tables’. Any amendments as a result of the school checking exercise are validated by the contractor’s checking team before being passed to the Department. The data are then checked by the Department prior to the publication in the annual ‘School and College performance tables’. Any changes notified by schools in the period following publication are validated before the data is finally frozen in the spring. (NB: Those schools that do not confirm that they have checked their examination results and background information are identified within the performance tables by an ‘R’ next to the school name).
English Baccalaureate (EBacc) – This was introduced into the performance tables in 2010 with the aim of recognising pupils’ achievements across a core of selected academic subjects. The EBacc covers achievement in GCSE (or regulated iGCSE) English, mathematics, sciences, a language (including Latin, classical Greek or ancient Hebrew) and a humanities subject (history or geography). Further information and the exact qualifications included in the measures are available here: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/performance/secondary_11/documents.html The 2010 performance tables also, for the first time, included the percentage of pupils achieving good GCSE grades (A* to C) in English and maths which covers the same qualifications that qualify for the English and maths components of the 5 or more GCSEs at A* to C or equivalent including English and mathematics GCSEs measure. Unlike the English subject area for the EBacc, this measure includes achievements in GCSE English studies.
There are differences in the number of disadvantaged pupils (pupils eligible for FSM or looked after children) published in the summary table and the number of disadvantaged pupils published in the Performance Tables. As part of an ongoing programme of reviewing matching processes, updates were applied to the pupil matching references of pupils in the National Pupil Database (NPD) in the summer of 2011. These updates have established previously undermatched links between the current and prior attainment records of individual pupils and have been incorporated into the 2010/11 KS4 data. As a consequence of these updates, some of the 2011 KS4 cohort do not have a link to their 2011 Spring Census record in the NPD, and may be linked to a different Spring Census record with different characteristics; as a result there are 440 fewer KS4 pupils in maintained schools eligible for Free School Meals according to the FSM indicator in the 2011 Spring Census, which has been used in these SFR tables, compared to the FSM indicator used in the Performance Tables.
This was introduced into the Performance Tables in 2010 with the aim of recognising pupils’ achievements across a core of selected academic subjects. The EBacc covers achievement in GCSE (or regulated iGCSE) English, mathematics, sciences, a language (including Latin, classical Greek or ancient Hebrew) and a humanities subject (history or geography). Further information and the exact qualifications included in the measures are available here: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/performance/secondary_12/documents.html.
For the early years foundation stage by pupil characteristics statistical first release there are slight differences between the numbers reported in this publication when compared to SFR39/2014 published on 16th October 2014. Headline attainment percentages are not affected. Differences are due to the exclusion in the national pupil database (NPD) of LA 702 (service children), shielded pupils, and NPD processing rules to identify duplicate pupil records. Occasionally, a pupil will appear more than once in data, resulting, for example, from a change of school, or dual registration. Rules for deriving the main record and a combined ‘best’ attainment record for these pupils have been agreed. Where a pupil has more than one result in a subject, the highest level will be taken and all other results discounted. Occasionally a pupil will appear more than once on the census. Rules for deriving the main census record have been agreed to eliminate duplicates based on factors such as enrolment and school type. For other key stage publications we use the same methodology to produce the data within our SFRs and the performance tables. We also use a dataset produced at the same time for the performance tables and the revised SFR. As a result, the national and LA figures included in both the revised SFR and the performance tables will match. For further information on key stages 1 and 2 please refer to the Quality and Methodology Information: Attainment in Primary Schools in England document.
As a further check of the accuracy of the underlying data, the key stage 4 data is also collated into school level information and shown to schools, together with the underlying pupil data during the performance tables checking exercise. Schools are required to check the data and notify the department of any pupils that are included in their school in error, or of any missing pupils. Schools can also notify us of any other errors in the data such as errors in matching prior attainment results. Any changes requested are validated to ensure that they comply with the rules before being accepted. They are also able to apply for pupils to be removed from their figures, if they have recently arrived from overseas and their first language is not English. We allow the removal of these pupils from the school and LA figures as they can have an impact on some schools figures (since some schools have significant numbers of such pupils). However, we continue to include these pupils in the national figures so that they reflect the attainment of all pupils. Schools can also apply for pupils to be removed if a pupil has been admitted following a permanent exclusion from another school, if the pupil is not at the end of key stage 4, if the pupil has permanently left England, the pupil has left the school before exams or the pupil is deceased.
English Baccalaureate (EBacc) – This was introduced into the performance tables in 2010 with the aim of recognising pupils’ achievements across a core of selected academic subjects. The EBacc covers achievement in GCSE (or regulated iGCSE) English, mathematics, sciences, a language (including Latin, classical Greek or ancient Hebrew) and a humanities subject (history or geography). Further information and the exact qualifications included in the measures are available here: www.education.gov.uk/schools/performance/secondary_13/documents.html The 2010 performance tables also, for the first time, included the percentage of pupils achieving good GCSE grades (A* to C) in English and maths which covers the same qualifications that qualify for the English and maths components of the 5 or more GCSEs at A* to C or equivalent including English and mathematics GCSEs measure. Unlike the English subject area for the EBacc, this measure includes achievements in GCSE English studies.
In the past, school performance measures have been calculated using the best result that a pupil achieved in a subject, regardless of the number of times they may have been entered for it. In September 2013, to address the significant increase in early entries, the department announced 2 that only the first result a pupil achieved would count in performance measures from 2013/14. This new rule came into effect immediately with regard to English Baccalaureate subjects and will be expanded to apply to all subjects in 2014/15. This new rule only affects a school’s performance measure calculations; pupils will still be accredited with every grade achieved, regardless of the number of entries.
Our effort to understand crime rate change is hampered by governmental thinking about crime, and the vested interest governments have in favourable (popular) outcomes. At least as practised in the United Kingdom, thinking about burglary often assumes a ‘top-down’ approach, placing most of the drivers of crime rate change in the hands of government; while reducing private citizens to passive, isolated individuals, and civil society and its institutions to a wasteland devoid of intention, morality and purpose (Hope and Karstedt, 2003). Not surprisingly, the increasing use of crime statistics as a source for governmental performance measurement (Matrix and Hope, 2006) tends to reinforce government’s own self-image that it has (or ought to have) the dominant influence over society’s crime (Garland, 2001) 2 . Because of this, governments find it difficult to come up with narratives to explain the changes in crime rates observed in their own national statistics: reluctant to take responsibility when crime goes up, at a loss to explain why it goes down. Part of their difficulty rests in failing to acknowledge sufficiently the active role played by private citizens and civil institutions within society (Hope and Karstedt, 2003). This paper, which tries to account for the trend in burglary in England and Wales since the start of the 1980s, attempts to correct the balance somewhat, weighing the governmental perspective against a more ‘market-oriented’ or ‘civil society’ perspective.
language, humans, all infant or child, and publications between 1990 and 2012. Titles and abstracts of 286 papers were reviewed, and the full text retrieved on 96 papers relevant to the epidemiology of infant and child mortality in the United Kingdom. Data were accessed from relevant publications and datasets on the Office for National Statistics (ONS) website (www.ons.gov.uk), including series DR (Mortality Statistics: deaths registered in England and Wales); Vital Statistics: Population and Health Reference Tables; Births by area of usual residence of mother; Mid-year population estimates; and Childhood, infant and perinatal mortality in England and Wales. Further data were obtained from Department for Education releases: Preventable Child Deaths in England: Years Ending 31 March 2011, and Biennial Reviews of Serious Case Reviews, 2005-7, 2007-9, and the Department for Transport releases, Reported road casualties Great Britain. 1-5
An audit involves obtaining evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements sufficient to give reasonable assurance that the financial statements are free from material misstatement, whether caused by fraud or error. This includes an assessment of: whether the accounting policies are appropriate to the circumstances of Returning Officers’ Expenses (England and Wales) Accounts and have been consistently applied and adequately disclosed; the reasonableness of significant accounting estimates made by the Accounting Officer; and the overall presentation of the financial statements. In addition I read all the financial and non-financial information in the Statement of Accounts to identify material inconsistencies with the audited financial statements and to identify any information that is apparently materially incorrect based on, or materially inconsistent with, the knowledge acquired by me in the course of performing the audit. If I become aware of any apparent material misstatements or inconsistencies I consider the implications for my certificate and report.
The STEP Code for Will Preparation in England & Wales is a set of ethical principles that operate for the benefit of clients and demonstrate openly the commitment of STEP members to transparency and client service. It recognises that, in providing will preparation services, STEP members should operate within an ethical environment. The Code is a framework within which each STEP member who undertakes this area of work can determine how best to meet the needs of each individual client – while at the same time operating within appropriate standards. It does not set out a detailed and prescriptive procedure for will preparation.
This essay will present the current training and accreditation regimes operating in England and Wales in order to explore the lessons which might be considered by those responsible for the same tasks in the USA. It will focus on those aspects that are seen as crucial for the preparation of effective, ethical lawyers and explore the methods which have proven to be most effective.
The first bullet point on the assessment grid assesses the learner's ability to control instrumental/vocal technique or technical equipment such as turn tables. The technical features on the lists are not linked to a standard of performance and teachers must consider how well relevant techniques are used within the performance, as appropriate to the style of the music. The list is not exhaustive and neither are learners expected to use every