Fig. 3 shows the variation of Fuel Consumption with Engine loads for various blend proportions in the dieselFuel. From the figure given, we can analyse the variation of Fuel Consumption with varying load. As load increases, fuel consumption increases. PlasticPyrolysisOil is added as a blended fuel in proportion of 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% with dieselFuel. It is clearly seen from the graph that fuel consumption in 20% Blend i.e. P20D80 Fuel, is quite similar to Dieselfuel. Fuel consumption in 10% Blend is a bit higher than Dieselfuel for medium loads and at higher loads, the same is lower than dieselfuel. For lower to medium loads, Fuel Consumption is higher for 20% Blend than in 30% Blend and the same repeats for 10% Blend than 20% Blend. So, Fuel consumption increases with decrease in blend proportions and it seems minimum for 50% Blend proportion i.e. for P50D50 Fuel. This can be due to gradually increasing calorific value with the increase in blend ration of plasticpyrolysisoil. More heat release will be there with more calorific value and thus lesser fuel is consumed with increase in blend percentage of plasticpyrolysisoil.
Abstract: Increasing cost of petroleum, rapid growth of industrialization and the global trend of urbanization along with their increasing pollution by replacing existing fuel. The aim of study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics existing singlecylinder four stroke compression ignition (CI) engine converted into dual fuel mode. In the present studies the effect of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) gas induction on the performance on dual fuelengine instead of singleDieselfuel. CNG used as fuel and Diesel or Biodiesel used as pilot fuel on dual fuel mode, Karavera (Thevetia Peruviana) and Surahonne (Calophyllum inophyllum) Biodiesel are used. Dual fuel mode is one of the better methods to control emissions from CI engines and instantaneously replacing existing dieselfuelengine. Experiments is carried out under engine laboratory condition, analyze the performance and emission characteristics of singlecylinderCIengine on dual fuel mode by using CNG as fuel and Diesel or biodiesels (Karavera and Surahonne) pilot fuels by varying injection timing 23 0 , 26 0 and 19 0 bTDC. Brake Thermal efficiency and Brake specific fuel consumption at dual fuel mode of CNG fuel gives better results than pure dieselfuelengine at all engine loads. The reduction in CO and HC emissions on dual fuel mode for all loads and also peak pressure rise. By 70% CNG fuel substitution rate.
Abstract: - The price was going up day to day and there will be no more conventional fuel in the future and also increasing the environmental pollution by the use of crude oil. Therefore, research has focused on finding new alternative fuel and utilizes them for the automotive application. We were taking Pyrolysisoil from waste tyre and blended with dieselfuel. In the initial stage we were performing this test will conduct on a singlecylinder, four- stroke, constant speed water cooled, dieselengine by using only diesel and results are observed for 1 to 9 load condition. In experiment were being carried out on the same engine with same operation parameter with using the tyre pyrolysisoil blended with diesel in different proportion such as TP10, TP20, TP30 at supercharging pressure 1.5 bar and result will be compared.
One of the causes of global warming such as exhaust emissions from vehicles, especially cars with engine specifications diesel.At principles emission emphasis is on the use of clean fuels.once the use of biodiesel as a fuel for diesel engines is Callophylluminophyllum oil (CI). The performance parameters of the dieselengine, such as specific fuel consumption (BSFC), power brake (BP), brake torque and thermal efficiency of the brake, must be improved to reduce emissions  low emissions and engineperformance that can be achieved by recirculating exhaust gas . Observe the dieselengineperformance and exhaust emissions in a singlecylinderengine fueled high free fatty acid blendsCalophylluminophyllum biodiesel. CIB10 reduce CO and emission levels, although slightly higher NOx emissions were observed compared to dieselfuel. Adding some additives with CI biodiesel blends also reduce NOx emissions  Many researchers have investigated and compared danjatropha palm biodiesel with dieselfuel, while other studies compared the oil and Calophylluminophyllum (CI) biodiesel blended with dieselfuel [4 However, no research has been done that using C. inophyllum in eastern Java. biodiesel blended with dieselfuel. The purpose of this study, to observe the dieselengine combustion emissions using east java Callophylluminophyllum oil and its comparison.
found to be improved under high-load operating conditions. However, total unburned hydrocarbon THC and CO emissions for dual-fuel operation increased when methanol was added. In another study by Sayin et al. (2009), it was found that increasing the methanol ratio in the fuelblend caused an increase in the BSFC and decrease in BTE by about 38% and 42%, respectively. This was related to the lower heating value (LHV) of the methanol fuel, which is lower than that of the dieselfuel. It has been reported worldwide that alcohols such as methanol and ethanol have the potential to become an alternative fuel for IC engines (Yuksel & Yuksel, 2004; (Mat Yasin, Mamat, Sharma, & Yusop, 2012). Pure methanol cannot be used directly in unmodified diesel engines because it will require spark or ignition assistance or a fuel additive. However, use of diesel blended with up to 20% of methanol by volume requires only minor engine modifications (Lin & Chao, 2002). It has been reported that using blended fuel will always result in better performance than conventional fuel (Liu et al., 2007). Table 1 summarizes some of the chemical and physical properties of engine fuels that are commonly in use (Lu & Liu, 2006; Liu & Li, 2006; Liao et al., 2005). From Table 1, the exhaust gas components produced from methanol engines are found to be generally low and less toxic than other fuels. Methanol-fueled trucks and buses emit almost no particulate matter (which causes smoke, and can also be carcinogenic), and much less nitrogen oxide (NOx) than using diesel-fueled alone. Methanol extracts much more heat as it vaporizes because it has a higher latent heat of vaporization than diesel. This can lead to a cooling effect on the cylinder charge and lower NOx emissions (Bayraktar, 2008). Also, methanol is less flammable than gasoline. Methanol has a higher laminar flame propagation speed, which may contribute to the combustion process being completed earlier, which in turn leads to improved combustion efficiency. Also, the fuel blends have a longer ignition delay time than dieselfuel. The ignition delay period increases with increasing methanol (Özaktas et al., 2000). Furthermore, methanol is a high-octane fuel that offers excellent acceleration and vehicle power. Though the latent heat of methanol is high, this may increase the engine volumetric efficiency and thus increase engine power. Economically, methanol can be produced, distributed, and sold to consumers at prices that are competitive with gasoline and diesel (Warring, 1993; Yusaf, 2009; Ghobadian et al., 2009; Ghobadian, Najafi, & Nayebi, 2013; Yao et al., 2008).
Abstract—In order to reduce the dependency on fossil oil energy resources, the using of several energy resources in compression-ignition engine has been the target of attention of researchers. The major renewable alternative combustible species are methanol, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, and hydrogen. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production during the fermentation process present one of the new alternative fuels for compression-ignition engine. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of fusel oil –diesel blending on performance and emission in singlecylinder compression ignition engines. The test achieved under 25 % engine load at five-engine speed 1200 to 2400 rpm with intervals of 300 rpm. The experimental results revealed that the engine indicted power and torque slightly decrease for F 2 0 compared with pure
The need of various transportation systems is increasing every day in such a fast developing world, and in the result of this, several vehicles and engine are increasing while conventional fuel like diesel and petrol are vanishing gradually with time. So it is need of the hour, we must have the alternative to above conventional fuels. The purpose of this experimental investigation is to study the effect of the blend kerosene oilblend together with conventional fuel on singlecylinderdieselengine which is attached with eddy current dynamometer. An experimental analysis was made to check the dieselengineperformance using various blends of kerosene with mineral diesel. Different blends of kerosene oil together with diesel in the ratio of 5%, 10% and 15% by volume and investigated under the different load conditions in a CIengine. The outcomes under various parameters were believed to be almost near to that of dieselfuel only. Different engine parameters such as brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake mean effective pressure, fuel consumption rate, exhaust gas temperature etc. have been determined and these were compared with dieselfuel.
 Forson FK (2004) An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the performance of jatropha oil and its fuel blends with diesel in a direct-injection single-cylinderdieselengine and the results obtained suggest the following conclusions: (a) Pure jatropha, pure diesel and blends of jatropha and dieseloil exhibited similar performance and broadly similar emission levels under comparable operating conditions. (b) Introduction of jatropha oil into dieselfuel appears to be effective in reducing the exhaust gas temperatures since the jatropha oil could be considered to be emulsified as water was introduced into the milled jatropha seed during the extraction process. (c) The jatropha oil can be used as an ignition-accelerator additive for poor diesel fuels when 2.6% by volume of the jatropha is introduced into pure dieselfuel. (d) The jatropha oil has substantial prospects as a long-term substitute for diesel fuels. The 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuelblend competed favourably with dieselfuel and offers a reasonable, if not even a better, substitute for pure dieselfuel.  Marchetti JM et al (2007) For the alkyl catalyzed reaction, it was found that this is a very good process of production with relatively high conversion. Transesterification kinetics for acid catalyzed reaction of soybean oils. The conversion is about 60%, not very high compared to those of some other authors. This could be so because of differences in the time at which they have done their experiments, temperature, alcohol and raw oil used. However, there is a possible production process. In the case where supercritical alcohol was used, it was demonstrated that one gets a higher reaction rate for esterification than for transesterification. Another advantage of this process is that the free fatty acid will be changed completely into esters. The use of lipase is a great viable method for production of ester from different sources of oil or grease. Research on this topic is still in progress due to the enzyme flexibility and adaptability to new process.
The experimental set-up and schematic diagram of the present work with various components is shown in Figures 1. The experimental work carried out for the objectives, requires an engine test set up adequately instrumented for necessary performance and emission characteristics and optimization of injection pressure of cotton seed oil methyl ester and pure dieselfuelblend (20% Bio diesel and 80% Diesel) were used to test a TV1, Kirloskar, singlecylinder, 4-Stroke, water cooled dieselengine having a rated output of 10 HP at 1500 rpm and a compression ratio of 17.5:1. The engine was coupled with an eddy current dynamometer to apply different engine loads.
Dhruv V. Patel , stated that according to statistical review of world energy published by British Petroleum the increase of oil reserves in world from 2012 to 2013 is 0.60% whereas oil consumption increases from 2012 to 2013 is 1.40%. Due to the increasing take care of fossil fuels and environmental issues, biodiesel are more used in recent years. In this experimental study has been carried out for Jatropha biodiesel blended with diesel used in singlecylinderdieselengine. Consumption of dieselfuel is reduced when jatropha biodiesel is blended with dieselengine with high proportion. In this study, the input parameter are taken as blends, load and compression ratio for optimize the dieselengine parameter. The results of the taguchi experiment identifies that 0% blendratio, compression ratio 18 and engine load 10kg are optimum parameter setting for lowest bsfc. Blending means to form the biodiesel by using the diesel and vegetable oil. We used 50% blend and pure biodiesel. A method called ‘Taguchi’ was used in the experiment for simultaneous optimization of engine such as compression ratio, blend composition and load condition. The taguchi method is the simplest method of optimization. Engine load is greatly affected and compression ratio are least affected on engineperformance.
This paper investigates the possibility of replacing diesel with an alternative fuel. The Alternative fuels used in this paper are waste plasticpyrolysisoil blended with diesel. The blends are tested for properties like viscosity, flash point, fire point and calorific value, density and then compared with the properties of diesel to ensure that the alternative fuel is similar to the diesel. Then only we can use this alternative fuel for our performance and emission test that conducted on the singlecylinder four stroke diesel engines. The results of this investigation proves that the above made blends may be used an alternative fuel for diesel in engines and automobiles as the shows similar physical properties as that of diesel.
G.R.Kannan et al, had investigated the effect of metallic based fuel additive(ferric chloride) on dieselengineperformance with waste cooking palm oil biodiesel as a fuel. A singlecylinder DI dieselengine is used for their investigation and found that the engine brake thermal efficiency was increased by 6.3% with ferric chloride fuel blends compare with waste cooking palm oil biodiesel and also the brake specific energy consumption declines by 8.6% compare to waste cooking palm oil biodiesel. The ferric chloride a metallic based fuel additives was added at dosage of 20 ppm with waste cooking palm oil biodiesel and also found that the engine CO emissions are reduced by 1.9% not only that the HC and NOx emissions are reduced compare with waste cooking palm oil biodiesel. The smoke emissions are reduced by 6.9% compare to waste cooking palm oil biodiesel.
The prospects of bio-diesel production from vegetable oils in India. They have also given the yield and production cost of various methyl esters, in general produced from non-edible oils.The fuel properties of karanja methyl ester and tests were carried out to study the performance and emissions of a dieselengine. They conducted experiments to examine the characteristics like torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions with varying proportions of karanja methyl ester-diesel blends. They observed reduction in exhaust gas emissions, increase in torque, brake thermal efficiency, and reduced brake specific fuel consumption when engine was run with karanja esterified oil and finally concluded that such oil suitable fuel for diesel engines.Karanja oil and its blends have considerable effect on CIengine emissions and performance . The variation of injection pressure reduced the emissions and maximized the performance at both full and part loads of a CIengine . It was reported that blends of PPME with diesel up to 40% by volume (B40) yielded better engineperformance and reduced the emissions . The power output of the engine with blends of cotton oil soap stock biodiesel and dieselfuel decreased by 6.2% and 5.8% respectively. Also, a BSFC value with blended fuels was observed to be increased by 10.5% . It was reported that advanced injection timings with Canola oil methyl esters (COME) for its complete combustion. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy consumption for COME are higher than diesel . It was reported that at an optimum compression ratio, the engineperformance was observed to be better when compared with other compression ratios. Also, at higher compression ratios longer ignition delay, maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass burnt fraction were
This study is to determine the effect of the Ethanol as cetane number improves on combustion characteristics and pollutants o f dieselengine fuelled by preheated biodiesel-dieselblend. A bench test is to be carried out on a four cylinder direct injection dieselengine aiming to study the variation of thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature and pollutant at different engine operating conditions.There are three blends chosen to be tested in the engine. It includes preheated B10 (900 ml diesel+100 ml Biodiesel), preheated B20 (800 ml diesel+200 ml biodiesel) and preheated B20E10 (700 ml diesel+200 ml biodiesel+100 ml ethanol). Hydrocarbon, CO2, NOx, emission characteristics are also studied in this paper with different blends of fuel.
The variation of the air fuelratio with load for diesel and some Pongamia blends are shown in Graph. Air fuelratio is the ratio of mass of air to the mass of fuel. In CIengine as air- fuelratio decreases with load, increases the power output of the engine. The maximum power output of CIengine is determined by the smoke level at rated load. Hence smoke level limits the air-fuelratio and power output of the engine. The air-fuel mixing process is affected by the atomization of biodiesel due to higher viscosity, maximum temperature and the completeness of combustion.
Many researches of vegetable oil fuels have investigated that the vegetable oils can be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The viscosity of crude vegetable oils is rather high than dieselfuel. High viscosity has negative effect on atomisation quality, and so engineperformance and exhaust emissions are affected badly and become failure on engine parts. To decrease of viscosity of cottonseed oil methyl ester was produced and tested as alternative fuel in a singlecylinder, four strokes, air-cooled dieselengine. Engine tests carried out at full load- different speed range, the engine torque and power of cottonseed oil methyl ester with dieselfuelblend was lower than that of dieselfuel in range of 2-3 % and specific fuel consumption was higher than that of dieselfuel of approximately 3 %. CO 2 , CO and NO x emissions of cottonseed methyl ester were lower than that of dieselfuel.
Waste plastics are one of the most promising resources for fuel production because of its high heat of combustion and due to the increasing availability in local communities. Unlike paper and wood, plastics do not absorb much moisture and the water content of plastics is far lower than the water content of biomass such as crops and kitchen wastes. The conversion methods of waste plastics into fuel depend on the types of plastics to be targeted and the properties of other wastes that might be used in the process. Additionally the effective conversion requires appropriate technologies to be selected according to local economic, environmental, social and technical characteristics.
The variation of BTE and BSFC with all engine loads for D-W-O ternary blends are shown in Fig. 4. Addition of 1-octanol with ULSD/WPO blends shows a drop-in efficiency, since more energy is spent to breakdown the heavy hydrocarbon chains. BTE decreases with increase in viscosity and density of the ternary blends. Higher density predominates fuel atomization and mixing with air resulting poor combustion with reduced BTE. BTE of the blend D50-W40-O10 is found to be even better than ULSD. But D50-W40-H10 and D50-W30-H20 blends delivered that better performance than WPO, ULSD and other test fuels. From Fig. 4, there seen a general decrease in BSFC as the BMEP escalates and lowest for D50-W40-O10 blend at all loads this may due to shorter ignition delay period when compared to other blends. There seen an increase in viscosity with increase of 1-octanol fraction in the blend which results significant increase in BSFC. BSFC increases with increase in 1-octanol in the blend since a greater number of blends are required to produce the same amount of power by the engine due to less energy content of 1-octanol when compared to diesel. It is evident from the Fig. 4 that BSFC of WPO and D50-W30-O20/ D50-W20-O30 blends are almost equal to each other.
Bridjesh  experimental results showed reduction in brake thermal efficiency, nitric oxide and increase in brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, hydro carbon with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends than neat diesel. .Lopez  investigated the effect of the use of olive–pomace oil biodiesel/dieselfuel blends in a compression ignition engine. olive–pomace oil methyl ester blended with dieselfuel, was evaluated as fuel in a direct injection dieselengine Perkins AD 3-152 and compared to the use of fossil dieselfuel. It was found that the tested fuels offer similar performance parameters. When straight biodiesel was used instead of dieselfuel, maximum engine power decreased to 5.6%, while fuel consumption increased up to 7%. Nilamkumar. S. Patel  has done experiments on dieselengine by using waste plasticoil as fuel, and the tests are conducted at different blends and the results concludes that waste plasticoil blends with diesel can be directly used in the engine without any modification, to reduce the viscosity of waste plasticoil ethanol is added and introduced into the dieselengine for better results
of alternative, renewable and environmental friendly fuels. In this context vegetable oils are proposed to be promising alternatives to diesel, as they are produced in rural areas. Transesterification of vegetable oils is carried out using methanol and sodium hydroxide. The properties of biodiesel are determined and nearly match to that of diesel. The Simarouba Oil Methyl Ester (SOME) has been tested in a singlecylinder four stroke dieselengine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The blend S40 at 80% loading shows higher performance and less emission for all blends at 220 bar injection pressure. BSFC for S40 nearly matches to that of diesel. BTE is low for S40 blend by 0.52% compared to S0. CO and smoke emission are less for blend S40. Compared to S0, NOx and HC are lower by 6.49% and 42.50% for blend S40.